Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык

 

I

1. The market is in equilibrium when the price regulates the quantity supplied

by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers.

2. Economic environment is determined by the economic policies of the government,

fiscal and monetary policies being the major factors.

3. It is useful to consider a simplified model, and by making modifications to

the model we can approach the more realistic situation.

4. Government regulates demand and supply, imposing ceiling prices and

floor prices and adding its own demand to the demand of the private sector.

5. They know that being so expensive will be seen by customers as a mark

of quality.

II

1. Не insisted on taking part in the conference.

2. He insisted on your taking part in the conference.

3. He insisted on being taken to the concert.

4. I object to your discussing this problem now.

5. We hear of his being appointed secretary.

6. She insisted on a telegram being sent to his mother.

7. I never thought of going there without you.

8. They never complained of the conditions of their work being too hard.

9. We spoke about including her in the list.

10. We spoke about her having been included in the list.

11. Nothing can prevent him from taking this step.

12. I have no objection to your smoking downstairs, but please refrain from doing so on this floor.

13. I cannot accuse him of being lazy, but still he is rather poor at his English.

14. She took a taxi for fear of missing her train.

15. He is in the habit of getting up very early and waking all his family.

 

ГЕРУНДИАЛЬНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ

 

Наибольшую трудность для перевода может представить герундий с группой зависящих от него слов, образующих герундиальный оборот. Существует два типа герундиальных оборотов.

 

1) предлог + герундий:

I insist on writing the letter immediately.

Я настаиваю на том, чтобы написать письмо сразу.

 

Субъект действия герундия не указан и может совпадать с подлежащим.

 

This reference-book differs from the previous in including a greater number of names. – Этот справочник отличается от предыдущего тем, что (он) включает большее количество имен.

 

2)предлог + притяжательное местоимение или существительное в притяжательном или общем падеже.

 

I insist on his writing the letter immediately. – Я настаиваю на том, чтобы он написал письмо сразу.

Субъект действия герундия не совпадает с подлежащим предложения и выражен притяжательным местоимением.

 

Герундий в таких оборотах переводится глаголом в личной форме в функции сказуемого придаточного предложения, вводимого союзами что, чтобы с предшествующим местоимением то в соответствующем падеже (тем, что; в том, что и т. п.), а субъект действия герундия — подлежащим этого придаточного предложения.

Если субъект действия герундия выражен существительным в притяжательном падеже, он обычно обозначает лицо:

 

I hear about your brother ' s going abroad. – Я слышал, что ваш брат едет за границу.

 

Если субъект действия герундия выражен существительным в общем падеже, то герундий имеет форму страдательного залога, так как субъект действия обозначает не лицо и подвергается действию, выраженному герундием:

 

I insist on the letter being sent immediately. – Я настаиваю на том, чтобы письмо было отослано немедленно.

 

Герундиальные обороты выполняют в предложении те же функции, что и герундий.

 

Упражнения

Переведите предложения .

I

1. A good speaker, besides choosing appropriate terms from a wide vocabulary, and besides being able to utter his thoughts with fluency, uses correct sounds and employs proper intonation.

2. In addition to being both creative writer and critic he is also a scholar.

3. According to the ancient story, Tantalus was punished for a crime by being made to suffer from thirst and hunger, while water and fruit were seemingly within his reach.

4. The most important cause of a language splitting into dialects is not purely physical, but want of communication for whatever reason.

5. Without language there is no understanding among people, and without understanding there is no chance of their being able to work together.

6. Conditions of the time (end of the 18th century) led to the need for quicker communication between the towns, and this naturally led also to the literature being spread more quickly than would have been possible before.

7. The molecules of a polar substance because of their being reactive combine with one another.

8. Thomson investigated the possibility of these cathode rays being charged particles.

9. In addition to depending upon the acceleration, force also depends upon the mass of the object.

10. Besides being important for industry oxygen is also important for medicine.

 

ПОВТОРЕНИЕ . ГЕРУНДИЙ

 

Переведите предложения .

 

1. Scientific discoveries affected intellectual life by overthrowing many of the old ideas respecting the world and nature.

2. The investigation aims at establishing historical results regarding settlement and economic and social life.

3. I am told that he has never wanted to learn Chinese as a language, that he does not speak it and has little interest in hearing it spoken.

4. Those who find no intellectual pleasure in reading foreign languages, or perhaps even in trying to read them, must admit that some ability to do so is of practical value.

5. He started by night to escape being seen by anyone.

6. The American School (of linguistics) is like the Prague School in not having a fully elaborated approach to the description of grammatical phenomena.

7. The island is unique in having a sandy shore and is surrounded by an amphitheatre of low hills.

8. Of late years some geologists have declared themselves in favour of admitting the existence of the glacial stages, basing their theory on weighty arguments.

9. As Somerset Maugham is difficult to classify either by the literary forms he uses or by the kind of reader he engages, it may be worth while trying another approach.

10. Alfred then took steps to prevent the Danes from ever becoming dangerous again.

11. After graduating in 1926 at the age of twenty-three, he succeeded in obtaining sufficient financial aid to permit him to lead a very modest expedition to the three Rift lakes.

12. By pumping ionized gas at high speed through magnetic field we can generate current in the gas.

13. No one developed a practical way of converting wind into power until the invention of the windmill. 

14. Solar batteries have proved to be very useful in supplying current for rural telephone systems.

15. When fitted into satellite, solar batteries provide the power for sending radio signals back to the earth.

16. Concrete is made by mixing together small stones, sand, cement and water in rotating drums.

17. Big cars will be too expensive to operate for every day use. So instead of buying a big car and using it only a few weeks a year people may prefer to rent or lease one for special occasions.

18. Computers employing new technologies are capable of executing between 100 million and 200 million instructions per second.

19. Modern scientists study possibilities of using seawater.

20. The problem of making seawater usable is simply this: How can we imitate the purifying process of nature?

21. The complex scheme of utilizing underground space involves tunnels for cars under the central part of the city, duplicating the surface transportation network.

22. Computers have completely automated the work of fixing the ship’s exact position.

23. Better traffic management in congested urban areas can increase average speed and reduce fuel consumption by replacing stop – start travel.

 

СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ,

УСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ

 

УСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ

 

Условные предложения (conditional sentences) могут выражать реальное (real) и нереальное (unreal) условие. В данной таблице представлены соотношения форм сказуемого в главном и придаточном предложениях.

 

Обычно выделяют три вида условных предложений, отличающихся степенью вероятности действия. Иногда (особенно в иностранных учебниках) выделяют нулевой тип условных предложений (zero conditional).

 

Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 280.