Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Phonetic exercise: infectious [in’fek∫əs], bacteria [bæk’tiəriə], various [‘vεəriəs], strains [streinz], chronic [‘kr nik], deficiency [di’fi∫ənsi], through [’θru:]

 

Make a report on AIDS according to the plan below:

Definition: a disease of the human immune system.

Causess: the human immunodeficiency virus.

Transmission: through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk; through vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids. Epidemiology: AIDS is now a pandemic. In 2010, it was estimated that 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children. Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa.

Treatment and prevention: currently no known cure or vaccine.

 

MICROORGANISMS

Bacteria

Phonetic exercise: microorganisms [maikrəu’o:gənizmz], bacteriology [bæk,tiəri’oləd3i], microbiology [,maikrəubai’oləd3i], pathogenic [,pæθəu’d3enik], beneficial [,beni’fi∫iəl], spheres [‘sfiəz], spirals [‘spaiərəlz], tetanus [‘tetənəs], typhoid [‘taifoid], fever [‘fi:və], diphtheria [dif’θiəriə], ulcer [‘Λlsə], anthrax [‘ænθræks], leprosy [‘leprəsi], plague [pleig], tuberculosis [tju:,bə:kjə’ləusis],  antibiotics [,ænti’baiotiks]

Make a report on bacteria according to the plan below:

Definition: a large group of single-celled microorganisms.

The study of bacteria: bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

Discovery: Bacteria were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens microscope of his own design.

The length: a few micrometers. Concentration: 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water.

Groups of bacteria: pathogenic and beneficial.

Shapes of bacteria: spheres, rods and spirals.

Pathogenic bacteria: diseases: tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, foodborne illness, peptic ulcer disease, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, bubonic plague (бубонная чума), respiratory infections, bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year.

Treatment of bacterial infections: antibiotics.

Beneficial bacteria: production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.

VIRUSES

Phonetic exercise: viruses [‘vaiərəsiz], viral [‘vaiərəl], influenza [,influ’enzə], flue [flu:], rubella [ru’belə], measles [‘mi:zlz], mumps [mΛmps]

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Definition: a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Number of kinds of viruses: about 5,000 viruses have been described in detail. The study of viruses: virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology.

Size: much smaller than bacteria. Diameter of a virus: between 10 and 300 nanometres.

Common viral diseases: influenza (flu), common cold, rubella, measles, mumps, bronchitis, viral pneumonia, viral hepatitis, viral memingitis, tick-borne encephalitis, chicken pox, etc.

PARASITES

Phonetic exercise: parasite [‘pærəsaits], malaria [mə’leəriə], scabies [‘skeibi:z]

Make a report on parasites according to the plan below:

Ectoparasites: live on the surface of the host. Epiparasite: a parasite that feeds on another parasite. Parasitoids: organisms whose development occurs inside or on the surface of another organism, resulting in the death of the host.

Parasitic diseases: echinococcosis, Lyme disease, malaria, pediculosis, scabies.

FUNGI

Phonetic exercise: yeasts [‘ji:sts], molds [məuldz], pathogenic [,pæθəu’d3enik], fungus [‘fΛŋgəs], fungi [‘fΛŋgai]

Make a report on viruses according to the plan below:

Definitions of fungi or funguses: a large group of organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. Pathogenic fungi: fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms. Parasitic diseases: fungal pneumonia, meningitis, histoplasmosis. Beneficial use of fungi: industrial production of antibiotics, vitamins, and anti-cancer and cholesterol-lowering drugs.

 

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Influenza

Phonetic exercise: infectious [in‘fek∫əs], infections [in‘fek∫ənz], virus [‘vaiərəs], viral [‘vaiərəl], cough [ko:f], throat [θrəut], severe [si’viə], discomfort [dis’kΛmfət], asthma [‘æsmə, ‘æsθmə, ‘æzmə]

 

Make a report on influenza according to the plan below:

Definition: an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that affects birds and mammals.

Signs and symptoms: chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort, nasal congestion, body aches, especially joints and throat, irritated, watering eyes, reddened eyes, skin (especially face), mouth, throat and nose, nausea and vomiting, particularly in children.

Risk groups: children, the elderly, asthmatics, diabetics or in people who have asthma, diabetes, people with heart disease, immuno-compromised people.

Transmission: through the air by coughs or sneezes.

Mobidity and mortality rates: between 250,000 and 500,000 people every year, up to millions in some pandemic years. According to the World Health Organization: "Every winter, tens of millions of people get the flu. Most are only ill and out of work for a week, yet the elderly are at a higher risk of death from the illness…” Influenza reaches peak prevalence in winter. Approximately 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations are directly associated with influenza every year in the United States.

Treatment: Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective.

Prevention: Vaccinations against influenza are usually made available to people in developed countries.

HEPATITIS

Phonetic exercise:

liver [‘livə], hepatitis [,hepə‘taitis], inflammation [,inflə’mei∫n], characterized [‘kæktəraizd], aversion [ə’və:∫n], ascites [ə’saiti:z], glandular [‘glændjulə], hepatocytes [‘hepətəsaits], cirrhosis [si’rousis], infectious [in‘fek∫əs], tissue [’tisju:, ’ti∫ju:], virus [‘vaiərəs], viral [‘vaiərəl], fecal [‘fi:kl], oral [‘ :rl], route [ru:t], serum [‘siərəm], asymptomatic [ə,simptə’mætik], chronic [‘kr nik], scar [‘ska:], cirrhosis [si’rousis], excess [ik’ses], excessive [ik’sesiv], alcohol [‘ælkə‘h l], alcoholic    [,ælkə‘h lik], malaise [mə‘leiz, mæ‘leiz], nausea [‘n :siə], abdomen [‘æbdəmen], abdominal [æb’d minl], diarrhea [‚daiə‘riə, ‚daiə‘ri:ə], headache [‘hedeik], jaundice [‘d3 :ndis], discomfort [dis‘kΛfət], polymerase [‘p liməreis], diet [daiət], interferon [‚intə‘fiər n]

Make a report on hepatitis according to the plan below:

Definition: an inflammation of the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.

Classification: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, etc.

Hepatitis A: formerly known as infectious hepatitis: an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is most commonly transmitted by the fecal-oral route via contaminated food or drinking water.

Hepatitis B: an infectious illness caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of humans, originally known as "serum hepatitis".

Hepatitis C: an infectious disease affecting the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but once established, chronic infection can progress to scarring of the liver (fibrosis) and advanced scarring (cirrhosis) which is generally apparent after many years.

Alcoholic hepatitis: hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) due to excessive intake of alcohol. Drug induced hepatitis.

Symptoms, signs, clinical manifestations, clinical features: symptoms of acute hepatitis: nonspecific flu-like symptoms: malaise, muscle and joint aches, fever, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and headache; more specific symptoms; profound loss of appetite, aversion to smoking among smokers, dark urine, yellowing of the eyes and skin (i.e., jaundice) and abdominal discomfort, tender hepatomegaly (swelling of the liver), lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes), etc. Symptoms of chronic hepatitis: malaise, tiredness and weakness, jaundice, enlargement of the liver, weight loss, easy bruising and bleeding tendencies, peripheral edema (swelling of the legs) and accumulation of ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity), etc.

Evaluation: History: a personal medical history, a medication history, a family history, an alcohol consumption history, an infectious disease history, a social history, an occupational history, history of IV drug abuse, a history of inhaled substance usage such as cocaine, a history of piercings or tattoos, etc.

Physical examination: observation, percussion, and palpation.

Instrumental evaluation: for hepatitis A: detection of HAV-specific IgM antibodies in the blood, liver enzyme alanine transferase (ALT); for hepatitis B: serum or blood tests, antibody tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests; for hepatitis C: serological blood tests, HCV antibody tests, RNA testing, genotype testing, etc. Treatment for hepatitis A: no specific treatment for hepatitis A: rest, avoidance of fatty foods, avoidance of alcohol, a well-balanced diet, and staying hydrated; for hepatitis B: antiviral drugs, interferon, for hepatitis C: interferon based therapy.

Tick-borne encephalitis

Phonetic exercise : tick-borne [‘tik,b :n], encephalitis [en,sefə‘laitis], viral [‘vaiərəl], inflammation [,inflə’mei∫n], characterized [‘kæktəraizd], occur [ə‘kə:], serum [‘siərəm], asymptomatic [ə,simptə’mætik], chronic [‘kr nik], excessive [ik’sesiv], malaise [mə‘leiz, mæ‘leiz], nausea [‘n :siə], abdomen [‘æbdəmen], abdominal [æb’d minl], headache [‘hedeik], discomfort [dis‘kΛfət], polymerase [‘p liməreis], supportive [se‘p :tiv], care [kεə]

Make a report on tick-borne encephalitis according to the plan below:

Definition: a viral infectious disease involving the central nervous system. The disease most often manifests as meningitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis. Although TBE is most commonly recognized as a neurological disorder, mild fever can also occur. Long-lasting or permanent neuropsychiatric consequences are observed in 10-20% of infected patients.

Etiology: Three virus sub-types: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far-Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus. Mortality: 1% to 2%, with deaths occurring 5 to 7 days after the onset of neurologic signs. Transmission: It is transmitted by the bite of several species of infected ticks, or (rarely) through the non-pasteurized milk of infected cows.

Diagnosis: The TBE virus may be present in a seronegative strain or subtype.

Treatment and prevention: hospitalization and supportive care based on syndrome severity; anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids may be considered under specific circumstances for symptomatic relief; tracheal intubation and respiratory support, etc. Prevention: vaccination.

 

TUBERCULOSIS

Phonetic exercise: tuberculosis [tju:,bə:kjə’ləusis],  infectious [in’fek∫əs], bacteria [bæk’tiəriə], various [‘vεəriəs], strains [streinz], chronic [‘kr nik]

Make a report on tuberculosis according to the plan below:

Definition: a common and often deadly infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria.

Epidemiology: a third of the world's population are thought to be infected with M. tuberculosis, and new infections occur at a rate of about one per second. In 2010 there were an estimated 13.7 million chronic active cases, 9.3 million new cases, and 1.8 million deaths, mostly in developing countries.

Causes: Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Affected organs: the lungs and other parts of the body.

Transmission: through the air, when people who have the disease cough, sneeze, or spit.

Symptoms, signs, clinical manifestations, clinical features: a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Diagnosis: radiology (commonly chest X-rays), a tuberculin skin test, blood tests, as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of bodily fluids.

Treatment: long courses of multiple antibiotics.

Prevention: screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.

Дата: 2018-09-13, просмотров: 29.