Symptoms, signs, clinical manifestations, clinical features:   

Myopia presents with blurry distance vision but good near vision.

Causes: a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Diagnosis: an eye examination by an ophthalmologist. Frequently an autorefractor or retinoscope is used to give an initial objective assessment of the refractive status of each eye, then a phoropter is used to subjectively refine the patient's eyeglass prescription. A phoropter is an instrument commonly used by eye care professionals during an eye examination, containing different lenses used for refraction of the eye during sight testing to measure an individual's refractive error and determine his or her eyeglass prescription.

Prevention: There is no universally accepted method of preventing myopia. Commonly attempted preventative methods: wearing reading glasses, convex lenses, eye drops and participating in more outdoor activities.

Management: eyeglasses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery; eye exercises and relaxation techniques such as the Bates method.

Myopia control: atropine of varying strength in stabilizing, and in some case, reducing myopia.

C ataract

Phonetic exercise: cataract [‘kætærəkt], crystalline [‘kristəlain], lens [lenz], congenital [kən’d3enətl], opacity [əu’pæsiti], [əb’strΛktiv], senile [‘si:nail], immature [,imə‘tjuə], anterior [æn’tiəriə], posterior [p s’tiəriə], capsular [‘kæpsjulə], acuity [ə’kju:iti], contours [‘k ntuəz], ultraviolet [,Λltrə‘vaiəlet], light [lait], exposure [iks’pəu3ə], trauma [‘tr :mə], extraction [iks’træk∫n], majority [mə’d3 rəti],  intact [in’tækt], detachment [di’tæt∫mənt], eyes [aiz], refractive [ri’fræktiv], defect [di’fekt], image [‘imid3], prevalence [‘prevələns], occurrence [ə’kΛrəns; ə’k :rəns], genetic [d3ə’netik, d3i’netik], environmental [in,vaiərən’mentl]

Make a report on c ataract according to the plan below:

Definition: a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light.

Epidemiology: Age-related cataract is responsible for 48% of world blindness, which represents about 18 million people, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Symptoms, signs, clinical manifestations, clinical features: loss of visual acuity, lost contrast sensitivity, less vivid contours, shadows, an absent red reflex.

Causes: long-term exposure to ultraviolet light, exposure to radiation, secondary effects of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and advanced age, atopic or allergic conditions, iodine deficiency, drugs such as corticosteroids, genetic factors, a positive family history of cataracts, eye injury or physical trauma, excessive exposure to radiation, exposure to microwave radiation.

Commercial airline pilots are three times more likely to develop cataracts than people with non-flying jobs.

Treatment: cataract surgery, capsulotomy; two types of eye surgery: extra-capsular (extracapsular cataract extraction, or ECCE) and intra-capsular (intracapsular cataract extraction, or ICCE).

Cataract operations are usually performed using a local anaesthetic and the patient is allowed to go home the same day.

Complications after cataract surgery: including endophthalmitis, posterior capsular opacification and retinal detachment.


Phonetic exercise: glaucoma [gl :’kəumə], blindness [‘blaindnis], cataract [‘kætærəkt], crystalline [‘kristəlain], lens [lenz], congenital [kən’d3enətl], opacity [əu’pæsiti], obstructive [əb’strΛktiv], defect [di’fekt], image [‘imid3], prevalence [‘prevələns], occurrence [ə’kΛrəns; ə’k :rəns], genetic [d3ə’netik, d3i’netik], environmental [in,vaiərən’mentl], progressive [prəu’gresiv], irreversible [,irri’və:səbl], attacks [ə’tæks], intraocular [,intrə’ kjulə], pressure [‘pre∫ə], angle [‘æŋgl], closure [‘kləu3ə], emergency [im’ə:d3ənsi], coherence [k ’hiərəns], tomography            [tə‘m grəfi], refraction [ri’fræk∫n], refractive [ri’fræktiv], inheritance [in’heritəns], laser [‘lezə], conventional [kən’ven∫ənl], ablation [æb’lei∫n], ciliary [‘siliəri], epithelium [,epi’θi:ljəm], drainage [‘dreinid3], implants [‘impl nts, ‘implænts]

Make a report on glaocoma according to the plan below:

Definition: a disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision.

Classification: open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma.

Open-angle glaucoma accounts for 90% of glaucoma cases in the United States.

Closed-angle glaucoma accounts for <10% of glaucoma cases in the United States

Symptoms, signs, clinical manifestations, clinical features: Open-angle glaucoma: painless and does not have acute attacks; the only signs: gradually progressive visual field loss, and optic nerve changes. Closed-angle glaucoma: sudden ocular pain, seeing halos around lights, red eye, very high intraocular pressure (>30 mmHg), nausea and vomiting, sudden decreased vision, and a fixed, mid-dilated pupil. Acute angle closure is an ocular emergency.

Diagnosis: a standard eye examination performed by ophthalmologists; measurements of the intraocular pressure via tonometry, angle examination or gonioscopy, and examination of the optic nerve to look for any visible damage to it; a formal visual field test; optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), and/or scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Examination for glaucoma also could be assessed with more attention given to sex, race, history of drug use, refraction, inheritance and family history, etc.

Management: medications: eye drops: various topical and systemic medications:

topical beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, less-selective sympathomimetics, miotic agents, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

Surgery: Both laser and conventional surgeries are performed to treat glaucoma. Canaloplasty is a nonpenetrating procedure utilizing microcatheter technology.

Laser trabeculoplasty may be used to treat open angle glaucoma; during laser iridotomy, laser energy is used to make a small full-thickness opening in the iris. Diode laser cycloablation lowers IOP by reducing aqueous secretion by destroying secretory ciliary epithelium;

The most common conventional surgery performed for glaucoma is the trabeculectomy. Here, a partial thickness flap is made in the scleral wall of the eye, and a window opening made under the flap to remove a portion of the trabecular meshwork.

Glaucoma drainage implants: several different glaucoma drainage implants: the original Molteno implant (1966), the Baerveldt tube shunt, or the valved implants, such as the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant or the ExPress Mini Shunt and the later generation pressure ridge Molteno implants.




Patient to the eye doctor: "Whenever I drink coffee, I have this sharp, excruciating pain."

"Try to remember to remove the spoon from the cup before drinking."


While my friend was working as a receptionist for an eye surgeon, a very angry woman stormed up to her desk. "Someone stole my wig while I was having surgery yesterday," she complained.

The doctor came out and tried to calm her down. "I assure you that no one on my staff would have done such a thing," he said. "Why do you think it was taken here?"

"After the operation, I noticed the wig I was wearing was cheap-looking and ugly."

"I think" explained the surgeon gently, "that means your cataract operation was a success."


“Now that my wife has had laseк eye surgery she is insisting we move to some place with a better view.”


Wife to her husband’s ophthalmosurgeon, “ Despite his laser eye surgery, he still doesn’t see the mess he leaves in the living room every day.”


Why is an eye doctor like a teacher? - They both test the pupils.


Phonetic exercise: Integumentary [in,tegjumentəri], epidermis [,epi’d :mis], dermis [’d :mis], hypodermis [,haipə’d :mis], components [kəm’pəunənts], sweat [swet], melanocytes [‘melənəsaits], dermatitis [,d :mə‘tatis], psoriasis [(p)sə‘raiəsis], eczema [ek’simə]


Дата: 2018-09-13, просмотров: 114.