MEDICAL HUMOR: MEDICAL SLANG

Betty - a patient with diabetes. "Did you give that betty on Ward 4 his insulin?"

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Phonetic exercise: respiratory [ri’spirətəri; ri’spairərətəri; ‘respirətəri], allow [ə’lau], through [‘θru:], fluid [‘flu:id], exchange [iks’t∫eind3], pharynx [‘færiŋks], throat [θrəut], immediately [i’mi:diətli], cavity [‘kævəti], superior [su:’piəriə; sju:’piəriə], esophagus [i:’s fəgəs], larynx [‘læriŋks], trachea [trə‘ki:ə; trei‘ki:ə], lungs [lΛŋz], bronchus [‘br ŋkəs], bronchi [‘br ŋkai], passages [‘pæsid3iz], airways [‘εəwiz], respiration [,respə’rei∫n], inspiration [,inspə’rei∫n], expiration [,expi’rei∫n], capacity [kə‘pæsiti], tracheitis [,trə‘ki’aitis], bronchitis                 [,br ŋk’aitis], pneumonia [nju:’məuniə], chronic [‘kr nik], obstructive [ə’b’strΛktiv], pulmonary [‘pΛlmənəri; ‘pulmənəri], disease [di’zi:z], lung cancer [lΛŋ ‘kænsə]

Make a report on the respiratory system according to the plan below:

Definition: the system that allows gas exchange through all parts of the body.

Function: to allow gas exchange.

Structure: the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract.

The upper respiratory tract:

the nasal cavity: a large fluid filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.

The pharynx: the part of the neck and throat situated immediately behind the mouth and nasal cavity, superior to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea.

The larynx: an organ in the neck involved in protection of the trachea and sound production.

The lower respiratory tract:

the trachea, or windpipe: a tube that is connected to the pharynx or larynx;

the bronchi: passages of airway that conduct air into the lungs;

the lungs: the main organs of respiration: the left lung: 2 lobes; the right lung: 3 lobes; 300-500 million alveoli; the respiration rate: 10-20 breaths per minute; the vital capacity: 4-6 liters.

The most common diseases: tracheitis, acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia, fungal pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, TB, lung cancer, etc.

 

PNEUMONIA

Phonetic exercise: disorder [dis’so:də; diz’o::də], pneumonia [nju:’məuniə], characterized [‘kæktəraizd], viral [‘vaiərəl], bacterial [bæk’tiəriəl], bacteria [bæk’tiəriə], lungs [lΛŋz], parenchyma [pə‘reŋkimə], alveoli [‘ælvi lai], alveolar   [‘ælvi lə], fungi [‘fΛŋgai],  parasitic [,pærəs’sitik], parasites [‘pærəsaits], exudation [,eksju:’dei∫n], severe [si’viə],  mucous [‘mju:kəs], mucus [‘mju:kəs], chronic           [‘kr nik], acute [ə’kju:t], antigen [‘æntid3ən], cough [k :f], rales [ra:lz], dyspnea [disp’ni:ə], antibiotics [,æntibai’ tiks], cessation [səs’ei∫n]  

Make a report on pneumonia according to the plan below:

Definition: an inflammatory condition of the lung, often characterized as inflammation of the parenchyma of the lung (that is, the alveoli) and abnormal alveolar filling with fluid (consolidation and exudation).

Causes: viruses and bacteria.

Less common causes of infectious pneumonia: fungi and parasites.

Evaluation: History: a personal medical history, a medication history, a family history, a smoking history, a history of contacts with infected individuals, a social history, an occupational history, etc.

Physical examination: observation, percussion, palpation, and auscultation.

Instrumental evaluation: chest X-ray, occasionally a chest CT (computed tomography), sputum cultures, blood tests: a complete blood count, specific blood serology tests for other bacteria (Mycoplasma, Legionella and Chlamydophila), a urine tests, respiratory secretion tests, liver function tests, etc.

Combining findings: fever > 37.8 °C (100.0 °F), pulse > 100 beats/min, rales/crackles, decreased breath sounds, absence of asthma.

Treatment: treatment for community acquired pneumonia: oral antibiotics, rest, fluids, and home care; hospitalization for severe pneumonia.

Treatment for bacterial pneumonia: amoxicillin, erythromycin, or azithromycin, etc.

Treatment for viral pneumonia: no specific treatments.

Prevention: smoking cessation; vaccination, etc.

 

Дата: 2018-09-13, просмотров: 45.