Make a report on the skin according to the plan below:

Definition: the outer covering of the body.

Functions: protection; sensation; heat regulation; control of evaporation; aesthetics, communication; storage, synthesis; excretion; absorption; water resistance.

Structure: three primary layers: the epidermis, the dermis, the hypodermis.

The main components: sweat glands, blood vessels, melanocytes, and nerve endings.

The average square inch (6.5 sqare cm): 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels, 60,000 melanocytes, 1,000 nerve endings.

Size: the largest organ of the integumentary system; the surface area: 1.5-2.0 square meters; the thickness: 2–3 mm.

The most common diseases: different types of dermatitis, psoriasis, skin cancer, etc.


Phonetic execise: psoriasis [(p)sə‘raiəsis], epidermis [,epi’d :mis], dermis       [’d :mis], hypodermis [,haipə’d :mis], dermatitis [,d :mə‘tatis], eczema [‘eksimə], relapsing [ri’læpsiŋ], contagious [kən’teid3əs], prevalence [‘prevələns], occurrence [ə’kΛrəns; ə’k :rəns], genetic [d3ə’netik, d3i’netik], environmental [in,vaiərən’mentl], chronic [kr nik], autoimmune [, :təui’mju:n], pustular [‘pΛstjulə], seborrheic        [seb :’ri:ik], hypotheses [,hai’p θəsis], hereditary [hi’reditəri, hə’reditəri], biopsy [‘bai psi], target [‘t git], moisturizers [‘m ist∫əraizəz], plaques [pla:ks, plæks], analogue [‘ænəl g, ‘ænəl :g, ‘ænəl g], ultraviolet [,Λltrə‘vaiələt, ,Λltrə‘vaiəlit], alternative [ :l’tə:nətiv], vegetarian [,ved3i’təeriən], ichthyotherapy [,ikθi ’θerəpi]

Make a report on psoriasis according to the plan below:

Definition: a chronic, autoimmune disease that appears on the skin.

Epidemiology: Psoriasis affects both sexes equally and can occur at any age, although it most commonly appears for the first time between the ages of 15 and 25 years. The prevalence of psoriasis in Western populations is estimated to be around 2-3%.

Classification: nonpustular and pustular types.

Nonpustular psoriasis: most common form of psoriasis. It affects 80 to 90% of people with psoriasis.

Pustular psoriasis: appears as raised bumps that are filled with non-infectious pus (pustules).

Additional types of psoriasis: drug-induced psoriasis, inverse psoriasis, napkin psoriasis, seborrheic-like psoriasis, guttate psoriasis, nail psoriasis, etc.

Symptoms, signs, clinical manifestations, clinical features: plaques.

Causes: The cause of psoriasis is not fully understood. Two main hypotheses: excessive growth and reproduction of skin cells; an immune-mediated disorder in which the excessive reproduction of skin cells is secondary to factors produced by the immune system.

Genetic factors: Psoriasis has a large hereditary component, and many genes are associated with it, but it is not clear how those genes work together.

Immunological factors: In psoriasis, immune cells move from the dermis to the epidermis, where they stimulate skin cells (keratinocytes) to proliferate.

Diagnosis: examination of the appearance of the skin; skin biopsy, or scraping, may be needed to rule out other disorders and to confirm the diagnosis.

Management: medications: new, highly effective targeted therapies, several monoclonal antibodies (MABs) target cytokines; cognitive behaviour therapy: psychological symptom management; topical treatment: bath solutions and moisturizers, mineral oil, petroleum jelly; medicated creams and ointments applied directly to psoriatic plaques; activated vitamin D and its analogues; phototherapy: ultraviolet light treatment; photochemotherapy; systemic treatment: medications that are taken internally by pill or injection: cyclosporine and retinoids; alternative therapy: changes in diet and lifestyle: fasting periods, low energy diets and vegetarian diets, diets rich in fatty acids from fish oil, lifestyle habits related to alcohol, smoking, weight, sleep, stress and exercise; climatotherapy: The Dead Sea is one of the most popular locations for this type of treatment; ichthyotherapy: doctor fish are encouraged to feed on the psoriatic skin of people with psoriasis. The fish, which live in outdoor pools, only consume the affected areas of the skin.


Atopic dermatitis

Phonetic execise: integumentary [in,tegjumentəri], epidermis [,epi’d :mis], dermis [’d :mis], hypodermis [,haipə’d :mis], components [kəm’pəunənts], sweat [swet], melanocytes [‘melənəsaits], dermatitis [,d :mə‘tatis], psoriasis [(p)sə‘raiəsis], eczema [‘eksimə], relapsing [ri’læpsiŋ], contagious [kən’teid3əs], pruritic [pruə‘ritik], oozing [‘u:ziŋ], prevalence [‘prevələns], occurrence [ə’kΛrəns; ə’k :rəns], genetic [d3ə’netik, d3i’netik], environmental [in,vaiərən’mentl], allergy [‘æləd3i], allergic [ə‘lə:d3ik], allergens [‘æləd3enz], atopic [ə’t pik], dander [‘dændə], moisturizers      [‘m ist∫əraizəz], aqueous [‘eikwiəs], triple [‘tripl]

Make a report on atopic dermatitis according to the plan below:

Definition: a type of eczema; an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious and pruritic skin disorder.

Symptoms, signs, clinical manifestations, clinical features: red, inflamed, and itchy rash, red to brownish-gray colored patches that are usually very itchy; itching that may become more intense during the night; small and raised bumps which may be crusting or oozing if scratched, which will also worsen the itch. The skin tends to be more sensitive and may thicken, crack or scale.

Epidemiolgy: The disease now affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults in industrialized countries, and its prevalence in the United States alone has nearly tripled in the past thirty to forty years.

Risk factors (risk situations, risk groups: allergy; food allergy. genetic factors, Many common food allergens can trigger an allergic reaction: such as milk, nuts, cheese, tomatoes, wheat, yeast, soy, and corn. Many of these allergens are common ingredients in grocery store products (especially corn syrup, which is a sugar substitute).

Common food allergens: peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, fish, milk, and egg.

Prevention: no cure for atopic eczema, treatment should mainly involve discovering the triggers of allergic reactions and learning to avoid them. Breastfeeding is the best way to avoid these problems, but if that is unavailable, then hydrolyzed formulas are preferred to cow's milk. The use of organic dairy products by children and breastfeeding or pregnant mothers reduces the risk of atopic dermatitis in young children

Environment and lifestyle: avoidance of smoking, avoidance of inhalation of dust in general. The dander from the fur of dogs and cats may also trigger an inflammatory response.

Evaluation: an allergy skin-patch or "scratch" test, given by an allergist, can often pinpoint the triggers of allergic reactions.

Treatment: avoiding or minimizing contact with known allergens; moisturizers, lotion containing sodium hyaluronate to improve skin dryness, aqueous cream, non-soap cleanser, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, UV radiation, etc.

Alternative treatments: Oil from oenothera, commonly known as Evening Primrose, can in some cases, alleviate the symptoms of eczema.



Phonetic exercise: immune [i’mju:n], pathogens [‘pæθəud3ənz], thymus [‘θaiməs], phagocytes [‘fægəusaits], neutrophils [‘njutrəfilz], lymphocytes [‘limfəusaits], acquired [ə’kwaiəd], immune [i’mju:n] deficiency [di’fi∫ənsi], syndrome [‘sindrəum], psoriasis [(p)sə‘raiəsis], rheumatoid arthritis [‘rumət id a:’θraitis], diabetes [,daiə’bi:ti:z].


Make a report on the immune system according to the plan below:

Definition: a system of biological structures and processes within an organism.

Functions: first(ly), to detect a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasites; second(ly), to protect against diseases by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. 

Structure: The thymus: lymphocyte precursors become thymocytes, which in turn mature into T-cells.

The spleen: a filter for the blood. It catches foreign material in the blood and activates different types of immune system cells.

The lymph nodes: organs that filter foreign material from the lymph fluid.

The two basic types of leukocytes:  phagocytes: cells that chew up  invading organisms; neutrophils: cells that primarily fight bacteria; lymphocytes: cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them ; B-lymphocytes: to seek out invaders; T-lymphocytes: to destroy invaders.

The most common diseases: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, etc.

Дата: 2018-09-13, просмотров: 51.