SIMPLE SENTENCE. WORD ORDER

The Simple Sentence is a unit of speech whose grammatical structure conforms to the laws of the language and which serves as the chief means of conveying a thought.

According to the purpose of the utterance Simple Sentences may be classified into:

1. declarative. I go to school every day.

2. interrogative:

- general. Do you like art?

- special. Where do you live?

- alternative. Do you live in town or in the country?

- disjunctive. You speak English, don’t you?

3. imperative. Go to the blackboard.

4. exclamatory. What a wonderful day!

 

Exercise 1. Make up your own sentences (one of each type), read them aloud and let your partner state the type.

 

The Main Parts of the Sentence

As a rule, every English sentence consists of the subject and the predicate. They are called principal parts of a sentence. In declarative sentences the word order is strict:

 

(ATTRIBUTE) SUBJECT - PREDICATE – (ATTRIBUTE) OBJECT(S) - ADVERBIAL MODIFIER

 

THE SUBJECT

It can denote a living being, a lifeless thing or an idea.

The subject can be expressed by:

1. a noun in the common case

e.g. The table is in the room.

2. a pronoun

- personal. He can’t do it.

- demonstrative. This is a pen.

- indefinite. Someone was singing an Italian tune.

- negative. Nobody can help him.

- interrogative. What depends on them?

3. a numeral

e.g. Ten were present.

4. an adjective and a substantivized adjective

e.g. Red is an expressive colour. The wounded were in bed.

5. an infinitive

e.g. To live is to work.

6. a gerund

e.g. Watching TV is his hobby.

 

Exercise 2. Point out the subject in the following sentences and state what it is expressed by. Translate into Russian.

1. You couldn’t define it more precisely!

2. It never rains, but it pours!

3. Two plus two makes four.

4. There was a tall lamp-post beside the packing house.

5. What is the meaning of all this?

6. People don’t easily recognize their faults.

7. Dark blue is not your colour for a costume.

8. Who will be the second in command?

9. Which of them is the President?

10. To be or not to be, that is the question,

11. Smoking is not allowed.

12. One can’t be too sure.

13. How much do they offer?

14. The third may be not taken into account.

15. Will half of the sum be enough?

16. The brave won’t lay down their arms.

17. Never is a long time.

 

THE PREDICATE

There are three kinds of the predicate: simple verbal, compound verbal and compound nominal.

 

Predicate
Simple Verbal
Compound
Nominal
Verbal
Aspect
Modal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

                                

    

 

 

The simple verbal predicate is expressed by a finite form of the verb in a simple or compound verb form and it denotes an action.

e.g. He gets up at 7 o’clock in the morning. They have been working for half an hour already.

 

The compound verbal predicate can consist of:

1. A modal verb and an infinitive – a compound verbal modal predicate

e.g. I can speak English well.

2. A verb expressing the beginning, repetition, duration or cessation of the action and an infinitive or a gerund - a compound verbal aspect predicate

e.g. He began doing his homework at 5 o’clock.

 

The compound nominal predicate consists of a link-verb and a predicative. It denotes a state or a quality of a person or thing expressed, or the class the person or thing belong to.

e.g. He is a doctor. The day was sunny. I am only seventeen. He turned pale.

 

There are two types of link-verbs:

1. of being and remaining: to be, to remain, to keep, to look

2. of becoming: to become, to turn, to grow, to get

 

The predicative can be expressed by:

1. a noun. My brother is a student. This housed is her aunt’s.

2. an adjective. The taste was bitter.

3. a pronoun. These books are hers. What is he?

4. a word expressing a category of state. She was afraid of cats.

5. an infinitive. To go there was to kill time.

6. a gerund. My job was typing documents.

7. Participle II. Dave looked hurt.

 

Дата: 2019-02-25, просмотров: 214.