ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
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УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 1 КУРСА

 

 

Киров

2017

УДК

 

 

Рекомендовано к изданию методическим советом

института гуманитарных и социальных наук ВятГУ

 

Допущено редакционно-издательской комиссией методического совета ВятГУ в качестве учебного пособия для студентов направления 44.03.05 «Педагогическое образование (с двумя профилями подготовки)»

 

 

Рецензенты:

кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры

иностранных языков и методики обучения иностранным языкам ВятГУ

С. Л. Бояринцева

 

кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры

иностранных языков и методики обучения иностранным языкам ВятГУ

О. Е. Загриева

 

Сычева, О. В.

Учебно-методическое пособие по грамматике английского языка для студентов 1 курса / О. В. Сычева. – Киров: ВятГУ, 2017. – … с.

 

УДК

Авторская редакция

Тех. редактор

 

© ВятГУ, 2017

 

OK PLACEMENT TEST

Choose the best answer. Mark your answers (a, b, c, d) with a cross (x) on the answer sheet.

1. … your name?

a) Why’s b) What’s c)How’s d) Who’s

2. … old are you?

a) Who           b)What           c)How             d) When

3. a) I’m 17 years old.

b) I’ve 17 years old.

c) I are 17 years old.

d) I’ve 17 years.

4. This is … interesting book.

a) the  b) a        c)an       d) –

5. a) They’re beautiful girls.

b) They’re girls beautiful.

c) They’re beautifuls girls.

d) They’re girls beautifuls.

6. John and I …English.

a) we are     b) are     c) we      d) are

7. a)I’ve cold

b) I has cold.

c) I are cold.

d) I’m cold.

8. … Italian?

a) You are    b) Is you c) You             d) Are you

9. There … ten students in the class.

a) is              b) are     c) be      d) am

10. Is this your pen?

a) No, not. b) No, isn’t. c) No, it isn’t  d) No, this isn’t.

11. She’s a student. … brother’s a teacher.

a) His b) Her             c) She              d) She’s

12. We’re Swedish. … names are Tomas and Karl.

a) Our b) We              c) Us      d) His

13. Give it to …

a) he  b) I        c) she     d) her

14. Show … the photographs.

a) their b) they            c) them  d) theirs

15. What’s … name of this book?

a) a     b) the     c) an      d) –

16. …a bicycle?

a) You have          b) Has you c) Have you got d)You’ve got

       Peter … a tennis racket.

a) hasn’t got          b) haven’t c) not has d) haven’t got

17. Has Anna got a boyfriend? …

a) No, she hasn’t   b) No, she hasn’t got c)No, she haven’t d) No, she not

18. a) He no can speak Spanish.

b) He can’t speaks Spanish.

c) He can’t to speak Spanish.

d) He can’t speak Spanish.

19. …on the right in Britain.

a) You mustn’t to drive     

b) You not must drive

c) You mustn’t driving

d) You mustn’t drive

20. Whose desk is this? …

a) It’s of Robert    b) It’s Robert  c) It’s Robert’s d) it’s to Robert

21. a) You he likes.

b) He likes you.

c) He you likes.

d)You likes he.

22. I speak French and English. David only … English.

a) speak b) does speak           c) do speak     d) speaks

23. Does Michelle like John?

a) No, she not. b)No, she doesn’t. c)No, she don’t. d)No, she doesn’t like.

24. a) He don’t smoke.

b) He not smoke.

c) He doesn’t smokes.

d)He doesn’t smoke.

25. a) What means this word?

b) What does mean this word?

c) What does this word mean?

d)What is this word mean?

26. Walk!

a) Not run    b) Run not c) Don’t run.            d) No run.

27. Listen! I … to you.

a) am talking b) talk             c) do talk d) am talk

28. We can’t go out now. …

a) It rains. B) It’s raining.     C) It rain. D) It raining.

29. a) Come at nine o’clock in Monday.

b) Come on nine o’clock on Monday.

c) Come at nine o’clock on Monday.

d) Come at nine o’clock at Monday.

30. Do you go … school by bus?

a) at b)in c) on d)to

31. a) What you are doing?

b) What’s you doing?

c) What are you doing?

32. She usually … to bed at about 11.30.

a) go            b) is going c) does go d) goes

 

33. … people over there are German.

a) These b) This            c) That            d) Those

34. Come and look at …. photograph.

a) these b) that             c) this              d) those

35. How many chairs are there?

a) There are five.

b) There is five.

c) It is five.

d) They are five.

36. … five people in my family.

a) There are b) They are c) It is             d) There is

37. I haven’t got … money.

a) no            b) some c) -         d) any

38. There is … sugar in this coffee.

a) a lot of b) much c) many d) a lot

39. How much money have you got?

a) Much b) Not much   c) A lot of d) Not many

40. There are … people here already.

a) a few b) a little c) much d) a lot

41. … late this morning?

a) Were you b) Was you c) You were    d) You was

42. Was she at school yesterday?

a) No, she weren’t b) No, she wasn’t c) No, she not d) No, wasn’t

43. Were there many people at the party?

a) Yes, there were b) Yes, they were c) Yes, it was  d) Yes, there was

44. How long …?

a) waited  he          b) did he waited c) he waited    d) did he wait

45. Did Tim and Mark win the match?

a) No, they not. b) No, they did. c) No, they didn’t d) No, they don’t     

46. Sarah … out last night.

a) didn’t went b) didn’t goes           c) didn’t go d) no went

 Why … to your party?

a) they not come b) they didn’t come c) not they came d)didn’t they come

47. … to a disco last night?

a) Went you b) Did you go c) Did you went d)You go

48. I came to England … English.

a) for learning b) for to learn c) to learn d) to learning

49. a) I never go to bed before ten.

b) I go never to bed before ten.

c) Never I go to bed before ten.

50. She’s … than me.

a) more old            b) older  c) more older            d) most old

51. He’s … at tennis than at football.

a) more good b) better c) best             d) more better

 

52. England is … than Spain.

a) expensiver b) more expensiver c) more expensive d) the more expensive

53. It was … day of summer.

a) the hottest b) the most hot c) the most hottest   d) hottest

54. You’re not … me.

a) as tall than b) as taller as            c) tall as d) as tall as

55. I … television this evening.

a) am going to watch b) watching c) watch d) go to watch

56. a) What time is the train going to leave?

         b) What time the train is going to leave?

c) What time is going to leave the train?

d) What time going to leave is the train?

57. I enjoy … early.

a) to get up  b) getting up             c) to getting up d) get up

58. a) You will come with me tomorrow?

b) Do you come with me tomorrow?

c) Come you with me tomorrow ?

d) Will you come with me tomorrow?

59. Oh no! … my key.

a) I lost b) I’ve lost c) I’m lost d) I’ve lose

60. a) Where they have gone?

b) Where have they gone?

c) Where have they went?

d) Where have they go?

61. a) I’ve never be to America.

b) I never been to America.

c) I’ve never been to America.

d) I never was to America.

62. a) They didn’t arrive yet.

b) They haven’t arrive yet.

c) They hasn’t arrived yet.

d) They haven’t arrived yet.

63. He … school last June.

a) left  b) has left c) did leave d) has leave

64. I … in England since 20th May.

a) was b) am              c) been            d) have been

65. We … to the cinema yesterday.

a) were b) went c) have gone    d) have been

66. … English since I was twelve.

a) I’m learning b) I’ve been learning c) I learn d) I’ve learned

67. I spoke to a girl … was from Barcelona.

a) which b) … c) who             d) whose

 

68. We went to a disco … was open till 4 a.m.

a) who b) where c) …      d) which

69. I was in England … two weeks.

a) during b) for     c) in       d) on

70. When I looked out of the window, …

a) it was raining    b) it were raining c) it rained d) it’s raining

71. What … at ten o’clock when I phoned?

a) did you do b) you were doing    c) were you doing    d) did you

72. … a bath when I opened the door.

a) He had     b) He has had           c) He’s having          d) He was having

73. I … home when the party was over.

a) was driving b) drive  c) drove d) have driven

74. He left without … goodbye.

a) to say       b) say              c) saying d) said

75. I don’t mind …

a) waiting     b) I wait c) to wait d) that I wait

76. Did you … yesterday afternoon?

a) go shop             b) went shopping c) go to shop   d) go shopping

77. He speaks English …

a) good but slow   b) well but slow c) good but slowly d) well but slowly

78. a) I come if you pay for me.

b) I’ll come if you pay for me.

c) I’ll come if you paid for me.

d) I come if you’ll pay for me.

79. I like this record.

a) So do I.    b) So am I. c) So I like. d) So I do. 

80. I don’t want to go.

a)Neither he does. b) Neither does he want. c) Neither does he.d) So does he.

81. You don’t like me, … ?

a) do you b) are you c) don’t you    d) aren’t you?

82. He eats a lot, …?

a) don’t he   b) he does    c) he doesn’t  d) doesn’t he

83. They went to London, …?

a) don’t they b) weren’t they c) aren’t they            d) didn’t they

84. You…speak perfect English to get the job.

a) don’t have to    b) mustn’t       c) don’t have            d) not have to

85. English…all over the world.

a) are spoken b) is spoken             c) is spoke      d) is speaking

88. a) Where was these made?

b) Where was this make?

c) Where were these made?

d) Where these were made?

89. This fact …by many people.

a) are not known   b) not is known c) is not known d) is not knowing

90. My bike…

a) have been stolen b) has stolen  c) has been stole d) has been stolen

91. The match…on Saturday.

a) is going to play b) is going to be played c) is playing d) is going to be playing

92. a) If he asked you out, would you go?

b)If he asks you out, would you go?

c) If he asked you out, will you go?

d) If he asked you out, do you go?

93. a) You’d pass the exam, if you will work harder.

b) You passed the exam, if you worked harder.

          c)You’ll pass the exam, if you would work harder.

          d) You’d pass the exam, if you worked harder.

94. Do you think they’ll win? Yes, I …

a) hope b) hope that    c) hope so d) hope it

95. Will she pass the exam?

a) No, I don’t think so.

b) No, I don’t think it.

c) No, I don’t think.

d) No, I not think so.

96. …. this letter for me.

a) I want that you post

b) I want you to post

c) I want you post

d) I want you posting

97. They didn’t ask … to their party.

a) that I come b) me come c) me for to come d) me to come

98. Didn’t I tell …?

a) you shut the door

b) you to shut the door

c) you the door to shut

d) that you shut the door

99. There’s … wrong with this pen.

a) anything            b) somebody            c) something             d) anybody

100. I didn’t speak to … .

a) anybody            b) anything     c) nobody       d) somebody

 

 

THE SUBJECT

It can denote a living being, a lifeless thing or an idea.

The subject can be expressed by:

1. a noun in the common case

e.g. The table is in the room.

2. a pronoun

- personal. He can’t do it.

- demonstrative. This is a pen.

- indefinite. Someone was singing an Italian tune.

- negative. Nobody can help him.

- interrogative. What depends on them?

3. a numeral

e.g. Ten were present.

4. an adjective and a substantivized adjective

e.g. Red is an expressive colour. The wounded were in bed.

5. an infinitive

e.g. To live is to work.

6. a gerund

e.g. Watching TV is his hobby.

 

THE PREDICATE

There are three kinds of the predicate: simple verbal, compound verbal and compound nominal.

 

Predicate
Simple Verbal
Compound
Nominal
Verbal
Aspect
Modal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

                                

    

 

 

The simple verbal predicate is expressed by a finite form of the verb in a simple or compound verb form and it denotes an action.

e.g. He gets up at 7 o’clock in the morning. They have been working for half an hour already.

 

The compound verbal predicate can consist of:

1. A modal verb and an infinitive – a compound verbal modal predicate

e.g. I can speak English well.

2. A verb expressing the beginning, repetition, duration or cessation of the action and an infinitive or a gerund - a compound verbal aspect predicate

e.g. He began doing his homework at 5 o’clock.

 

The compound nominal predicate consists of a link-verb and a predicative. It denotes a state or a quality of a person or thing expressed, or the class the person or thing belong to.

e.g. He is a doctor. The day was sunny. I am only seventeen. He turned pale.

 

There are two types of link-verbs:

1. of being and remaining: to be, to remain, to keep, to look

2. of becoming: to become, to turn, to grow, to get

 

The predicative can be expressed by:

1. a noun. My brother is a student. This housed is her aunt’s.

2. an adjective. The taste was bitter.

3. a pronoun. These books are hers. What is he?

4. a word expressing a category of state. She was afraid of cats.

5. an infinitive. To go there was to kill time.

6. a gerund. My job was typing documents.

7. Participle II. Dave looked hurt.

 

THE OBJECT

It completes or limits the meaning of a verb or an adjective.

There are different kinds of objects in English:

1. direct. It is used after transitive verbs.

e.g. I see her every day. He entered the room.

2. indirect. It denotes a living being to whom the action of the verb is directed. It is used with the intransitive verbs and is hardly used without a direct object. The indirect object comes before the direct object in a sentence.

e.g. She gave me books. I showed him a picture.

3. prepositional. It is used most with intransitive verbs, adjectives, words denoting a category of state and is joined to them with the preposition.

e.g. I’m angry with you. Thank you for your kindness.

 

THE ATTRIBUTE

It qualifies a noun, a pronoun or any other part of speech that has a nominal character.

The attribute may be expressed by:

1. an adjective

e.g. This big girl is very lazy.

2. a participle

e.g. It is only a passing shower.

3. a pronoun

e.g. His eyes were blue.

4. a numeral

e.g. The second answer was better.

5. a noun in the possessive case

e.g. My brother’s flat is large.

 

Exercise 7. Point out the attribute and say what it is expressed by:

NOTE. An attribute may stand before and after the noun. Remember that an attribute to a pronoun always follows it.

1. Ansell gave an angry sigh.

2. I hear Mary’s voice in the next room.

3. I looked at her smiling face.

4. He is a walking grammar book.

5. Toby is a good clever boy.

6. The cover of this book is blue.

7. The streets of Moscow are wide.

8. I like all Moscow theatres.

9. Tell me something interesting.

10. I don’t see anything difficult in it.

11. Give me a better pencil, please.

12. This woman has two children.

 

When there are two or more adjectives in a sentence, they usually go in the following order:

 

Determiner a/an/that/his/Mary’s
Opinion/Quality/Subjective Common fantastic
Size large
Age modern
Shape round
Colour dark blue
Nationality/Origin English
Material oak
Compound Element/Purpose dining
Noun table

 

THE ADVERBIAL MODIFIER

There are different kinds of adverbial modifiers: of time, manner, place and direction, frequency, degree, cause, result, condition, comparison, purpose.

The adverbial modifiers of place, time and manner are often expressed by adverbs and nouns with prepositions.

e.g. Come to see me tomorrow. An old lady was sitting in an armchair.

 

ORDER OF ADVERBS

1. Adverbs usually go after verbs but before adjectives, other adverbs and participles.

e.g. He speaks softly. She is amazingly beautiful. He drove very fast. Computers are extensively used nowadays.

2. Adverbs of manner go before the main verb, after the auxiliary verb or at the end of the sentence.

e.g. She easily passed the exam. We are eagerly waiting for his letter. He acted foolishly.

3. Adverbs of degree (absolutely, completely, totally, extremely, very, quite, rather, etc.) go before an adjective, an adverb or a main verb, but after an auxiliary verb.

e.g. This is totally unacceptable. They arrived rather early. We absolutely love her sense of humour. I don't quite understand what you mean.

4. “Very much “ is an adverbial of degree. It has the following positions in the sentence:

a) after the direct object: I like this idea very much. I like coffee very much in the morning.

b) after the verb “to be” (before the 2nd participle): He was very much surprised to hear that.

c) before the subordinate clause: I hope very much that you will be able to do it.

5. Adverbs of frequency go after auxiliary verbs and the verb to be, but before main verbs.

e.g. He is always ready to help. Sam often complains about his salary.

6. Adverbs of place and time usually go at the end of the sentence.

e.g. There is a cafe nearby. I'll meet you tomorrow.

Some one-syllable adverbs of time such as soon, now and then, go before the main verb, but after the auxiliary verb or the verb to be.

e.g. She then told him what had happened. He will soon inform us about his decision.

7. We can put an adverb at the beginning of a sentence if we want to emphasize it.

e.g. Slowly, he closed the door behind him. (manner) In the living room, there is an antique grandfather clock. (place) Yesterday, I met the President. (time)

8. When there are two or more adverbs in the same sentence, they usually come in the following order: manner - place - time.

e.g. The baby slept quietly in his cot all night long.

If there is a verb of movement, such as go, come, leave in the sentence, then the adverbs come in the following order: place - manner - time.

e.g. He came to work by bus this morning.

 

REVISION

I. Point out the main and the secondary parts of the sentence and name them:

1. She began reading him an interesting book with pictures.

2. I must write him a letter immediately.

3. She is teaching her English Grammar.

4. He will come with his friend.

5. He is a wonderful man with a nice face.

 

II. Arrange the attributes in the right order:

1. a clock (little, round)

2. a street (winding, long)

3. a woman (old, French, grey-haired)

4. a man ( brilliant, young)

5. eyes (well-opened, clear, grey, round)

6. pencils (yellow, ten, thick)    

7. a book (thick, that, English, text)

8. a box ( small, gold, lovely)

9. a shawl (silk, Japanese, beautiful)

10. a school (medical, famous, German)

11. a carpet (large, new, woollen, square)

12. dogs (clever, nice, little, white)

 

III. Put the adverbial modifiers and attributes in their proper places:

1. She went (by bus, in the evening, to the pictures).

2. Nick started (after dinner, in a hurry, to the park).

3. She has (long, beautiful, dark) hair.

4. The mother was reading (in a low voice, her son, an interesting book).

5. Mrs. Nelson brought some (chocolate, tasty) sweets for her daughter.

6. Must you get up (always, on Sunday, so early)?

7. I like black coffee (in the morning, very much).

8. The teacher went (slowly, home, after the lessons).

9. Becky bought a (velvet, nice, green) suit (some days ago, in London).

10. He spends (summer, at the Black Sea coast, usually).

11. We are very busy on Sunday (always).

12. They were surprised to meet (me, very much, here).

 

IV. Make up sentences:

1. You, after, will, this, immediately, he, book, classes, lend.

2. Wear, those, doubt, modern, very, trousers, I, would, Spanish, woollen, he, much, that.

3. Holidays, they, at this place, stay, on, the teacher, often, with.

4. Beautiful, go, lush, do, always, they, park, through, green, the?

5. Went, very, I, disappointed, by, to Vladivostok, to know, was, much, that, he, train.

 

HAVE / HAVE GOT

       Notional 1. As a notional verb to have is used in the meaning “иметь, обладать” and equals have got (more colloquial) e.g. We have a new car. = We’ve got a new car. 2. It can be used for a number of actions (can be used in continuous forms). e.g. - have breakfast / lunch / dinner / a meal / a drink / a cigarette etc. - have a swim / a walk / a rest / a holiday / a party / a good time etc. - have a bath / a shower / a wash - have a look (at something) - have a baby (=give birth to a baby) - have a chat (with someone) !!! “Have got” is not possible in these expressions. e.g. I have a bath every morning. (=I take a bath.) I’ve got a bath. (=There is a bath in my house.) 3. In the past we do not use “got”. e.g. When a child, she had long fair hair. (not “she had got”)   Auxiliary - is used to form Perfect and Perfect Continuous tenses  

                                                                                                                                                   

NEGATIVES AND QUESTIONS

 

HAVE (Use do/does/did) HAVE GOT
1. I don’t have any money. 1. I haven’t got any money.
2. She doesn’t have a new car (this car, her car, any car, 2 cars, a few cars). / She has no car. Incorrect – I haven’t a car. 2. She hasn’t got a car (this car, her car, any car, 2 cars, a few cars).
3. Do they have any money (a car)? – Yes, they do. / No, they don’t. IncorrectHave you any money? 3. Have they got any money (a car)? – Yes, they have. / No, they haven’t.

SOME – ANY; A LOT OF – MANY, MUCH; FEW – FEW; A FEW – A FEW; LITTLE – LITTLE; A LITTLE – A LITTLE

 

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Right or Wrong:

1. I have no pal.

2. Ada doesn’t have tasty cakes.

3. Ben and Bess haven’t bikes.

4. Ellen has no a lot of stamps.

5. You have no a fat cat.

6. Sam hasn’t got some fine cats.

7. She has no bad habits.

8. Dan and Ann haven’t got a crazy lamb.

9. My cat hasn’t a tail.

10. My brother has got no fantastic bike.

 

Exercise 2. Give short answers according to the pattern:

a) Have you got any magazines? - Yes, ... .

-   Yes, I’ve got some.

b) Has Jane got any change for the bus? - No, ... .

-   No, she hasn’t got any.

 

1. Have you got any letters for me? - Yes, ….

2. Have you got any roses in the garden? - No, ....

3. Has he got any ink in his pen? - Yes, ... .

4. Has she got any books in the bag? - No,....

5  Have they got any children? - No,... .

6. Have you got any sugar in your tea? - Yes.....

7. Has John got any friend here? - No,....

8. Has she got any money in her pocket? - Yes,....

 

Exercise 3. Extend statements according to the pattern:

I haven’t got any cakes. (biscuits)

I haven’t got any cakes, but I’ve got some biscuits.

 

1. They haven’t got any bananas. (oranges)

2. We haven’t got any tea. (coffee)

3. The children haven’t got any balls. (dolls)

4. Mrs. Wilson hasn’t got any drawings here. (photos)

5. Mary hasn’t got any newspapers. (magazines)

6. They haven’t got any sandwiches here. (cakes)

7. The cook hasn’t got any cheese. (sausage)

8. We haven’t got any rivers here. (lakes)

9. I haven’t got any milk. (cream)

10. Mother hasn’t got any brown bread. (white bread)

 

Exercise 4. Make the sentences negative and ask general questions:

1. She has some English books.

2. He has a lot of mistakes in his test.

3. I have a lot of notebooks in my bag.

4. The boy has three red pencils.

5. Kitty has two cousins.

6. Dr. Sandford has a son.

7. I have relatives in Moscow.

8. They have two rooms.

9. I have some newspapers on the desk.

10. We have a lot of friends.

 

Exercise 5. Work in pairs / chain. Respond to the following statements read by a friend of yours, as in the model. Use the words given in brackets:

MODEL:

-   We’ve got a good record-player. (they)

-   So have they.

 

-   This doctor has many patients. (that doctor)

-   So does that doctor.

 

1. I have little milk in my glass. (Nina)

2. The girl has beautiful long hair. (her sister)

3. The Smiths have a lot of books in different languages. (the Browns)

4. They’ve got a dog and a cat. (we)

5. This artist has few pictures. (that artist)

6. Moscow has a few good theatres. (London)

 

REVISION EXERCISES

 

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Define the type of the verb “to be”:

1. The book is on the table.

2. She is glad to see her friend.

3. They were doing homework at 7 p.m. yesterday.

4. The children are in the garden.

5. I am well today.

6. Are you busy?

7. Is he watching TV?

8. I am a student.

9. They were tired yesterday.

10. What are you doing?

11. It is cold today.

12. We are in the classroom.

 

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb “to be”:

1. I … an English student.

2. His name … George Brown.

3. Mr. and Mrs. Brown … his father and mother.

4. My brother’s name … Benny, and my sisters’ names … Betty and Rose.

5. We … members of one family.

6. … Helen married?

7. … they married?

8. Mr. Smith … Betty’s uncle.

9. How old … you? – I … twenty.

10. What … you all? – We … all students.

11. … your girl-friends students?

12. … Betty’s school-mates kind and jolly?

13. His companions … well-bred.

14. … Benny eager to have a dog?

15. She … a naughty child.

16. I … eager to have a pen-friend.

17. I … two years younger than my sister.

18. He … as young as his friend.

19. My niece … eighteen months old.

20. They … doctors.

 

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb “to be”:

1. … the pencils in the box? – Yes, they ….

2. Put the chair near the wall. Where … it?

3. … the chair near the table or near the desk? – It … near the desk.

4. The chair and the table … in the room.

5. Put the pieces of paper under the book. Where … they?

6. Where … the matches? – They … in the box.

7. … the books on the floor? – No, they … not.

8. … the window open or shut? – It … open.

9. Where … the picture?

10. The word … written on the blackboard.

11. … the desks in the classroom? – Yes, they ….

12. The window … open.

13. I … in the classroom.

14. We … students.

15. You … a teacher.

16. The baby … in bed.

17. The books … on the table.

18. I … a student.

19. The door … shut.

20. The children … in the garden.

21. … we students?

22. … the door shut?

23. The chair … near the table.

 

Exercise 4. Translate from Russian into English:

1. Мы – студенты.

2. Наши книги на столе.

3. Твои ручки в сумке? – Нет.

4. Мама дома? – Да.

5. Они в классе.

6. Учителя в классе нет.

7. Они – не учителя, они – врачи.

8. Ты замужем? – Да.

9. Ему 20 лет.

10. Ты дома? – Нет, я на работе.

11. Я рада тебя видеть.

12. Мы – хорошие друзья.

 

THE NOUN

Classification of Nouns

PROPER

COMMON

Personal Names

Geographic Names

Names of places

Countable

Uncountable

Abstract

Concrete

Concrete

(Material)

Abstract

Individual Collective/ Multitude
               

 

THE NUMBER OF THE NOUN

 

English nouns have two numbers - the singular and the plural. The plural form is formed by adding “-s “ or “-es “ inflexion.

· a book - books, a boy - boys, a class - classes

The “s” inflexion is pronounced as:

[ s ] - after voiceless consonants : caps, books, hats

[ z ] - after voiced consonants and vowels: beds, bees, toys

[ iz ] - after sibilants (- s, -ss, -x, -ch, -dg, -sh, -tch ): boxes, benches, sledges, bushes, noses, classes

 

Spelling Rules

 

1. Nouns ending in ~s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch, -tch add -es to the singular:

e. g. a bus - buses, a box - boxes, a glass - glasses

 

2. Nouns ending in “y” with a preceding consonant change “y” into “i + es”:

e. g. a lady - ladies, a penny - pennies, a fly - flies

 

But if the final “y” is preceded by a vowel the plural is formed by adding -s:

e. g. a day - days, a play - plays, a key - keys, a boy -- boys

 

Proper names ending in “y” simply add -s.

e. g. Mary - Marys, Lily - Lilys

 

3. Nouns ending in “o” with a preceding consonant add -es:

e.g. a hero - heroes, a potato - potatoes

 

BUT: a piano - pianos, a solo - solos, a photo - photos, a cello - cellos, zero - zeros, a credo - credos, a rhino - rhinos and many words of foreign origin and abbreviated words

 

If “o” is preceded by a vowel add -s.

e. g. a cuckoo - cuckoos, a tattoo - tattoos, a radio - radios, a studio - studios, a zoo - zoos

 

4. 13 nouns ending in “f” and “fe” form plural by changing “f “ into “v” and adding –es [vz].

e. g. a leaf - leaves, a wolf - wolves, a knife - knives, a life - lives, a half - halves, an elf - elves, a shelf - shelves, a sheaf - sheaves, a wife - wives, a thief - thieves, a calf - calves, self - selves, a loaf - loaves.

 

But other nouns ending in “f and “fe” and all nouns ending in “ff” form plural by adding only -s.

e. g. a proof - proofs, a roof - roofs, a reef - reefs, a belief - beliefs, a chief - chiefs, a brief - briefs, a gulf - gulfs, a fife - fifes, a safe - safes, a handkerchief- handkerchiefs, a cliff - cliffs.

 

Some nouns may have both forms in the plural:

e.g. a scarf - scarfs or scarves, a wharf - wharfs or wharves, a dwarf - dwarfs or dwarves, a hoof - hoofs or hooves, a turf - turfs or turves, an oaf - oafs or oaves

 

5. Nouns ending in “th” [Ɵ] after a long vowel or a diphthong change [Ɵ] into [ð] in the pronunciation and add -s in spelling.

 

After short vowels and consonants including “r” the sound [Ɵ] doesn’t change:

e. g. a path - paths [ðz], an oath - oaths [ðz], a mouth - mouths [ðz], a month - months [Ɵs]

 

6. Some nouns form the plural by adding -en:

e. g. an ox - oxen, a child - children, a brother - brethren (members of the same society)

 

7. A few nouns form their plural by a change of the root vowel:

e. g. a man - men, a woman - women, a tooth - teeth, a foot - feet, a goose - geese, a mouse - mice, a louse - lice

 

8. A few nouns have the same form for the singular and the plural;

e. g. a sheep - sheep, a swine - swine, a deer - deer, a fish - fish, a trout - trout, a cod - cod, a pike - pike, a salmon - salmon, a bass - bass, a bream - bream, a sturgeon - sturgeon, a dace - dace, a craft - craft.

 

9. The following nouns ending in -s in the singular remain unchanged in the plural:

e.g. a means - means, a barracks - barracks, a headquarters - headquarters, a series - series, a species - species.

 

10. In compound nouns the head noun adds -s.

It may be the final component that is made plural:

e. g. a schoolgirl - schoolgirls, a fisherman - fishermen, a tooth brush - tooth brushes,

 

or the first component:

e. g. a looker-on - lookers-on, a mother-in-law - mothers-in-law, a passer-by - passers- by, an editor-in-chief - editors-in-chief.

 

If there is no noun-stem in the compound, -s is added to the last element:

e.g. a forget-me-not – forget-me-nots, a merry-go-round – merry-go-rounds.

 

When the first component is man or woman the plural is expressed twice:

e.g. a woman-clerk – women-clerks, a man servant – men servants.

 

11. Some nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek keep their foreign plural forms.

basis - bases crisis - crises analysis - analyses is-es
stratum - strata datum -- data sanatorium - sanatoria um - a
formula - formulae antenna - antennae BUT: arena- arenas, diploma - diplomas a - ae
focus - foci nucleus - nuclei radius - radii us - i
phenomenon - phenomena criterion - criteria on-a
index - indices appendix - appendices  ex - ices
dogma - dogmata schema - schemata a - ata

        

12. Some nouns are used only in the plural form:

a) spectacles, trousers, scissors, binoculars, scales, tongs, pants, compasses (циркуль). They agree with the predicate in the plural.

b) billiards, dominoes, draughts, cards, darts. The predicate is in the singular.

c) physics, optics, phonetics, politics, measles, mumps. The predicate is in the singular.

 

13. There are a few nouns in English that have only the plural form. But they happen to be homonyms of nouns which are used in both forms, the singular and the plural:

 

clothes (одежда) a cloth - cloths (ткани)
customs (таможня) a custom - customs (=habits)
glasses (очки) a glass - glasses (стаканы)
goods (товар) good (добро, благо)
steps (стремянка) a step – steps (шаг, ступень)
studies (учение, изучение) a study – studies (кабинет)

 

14. The following nouns are used only in the singular:

advice, progress, knowledge, information, and money.

e. g. His knowledge of English is good.

This information is very important.

 

15. Special cases:

a) Unlike in Russian the word “watch” has both the singular and the plural:

e. g. My watch is on the table. Nick has two watches.

b) “News” is always used in the singular:

e. g. No news is good news.

’’Wages” - заработная плата - is always plural:

e. g. What are your wages?

’’Applause” - аплодисменты - is singular.

c) People (люди, народ)

e.g. Our people are nice.

Peoples - народы, нации.

d) The noun “penny” has two plural forms: pennies (when referring to individual coins) and pence (when the amount only is meant).

e.g. She dropped three pennies in the slot machine. The fare cost him eight pence.       

e) Nouns denoting a period of time, distance, measure are used with the predicate in the singular.

e.g. Three years is a very long time.

 

EXERCISES

 

STOP AND CHECK

 

THE POSSESSIVE CASE

It is formed by adding ‘s (the apostrophe s) to the noun in the singular and only ‘ (the apostrophe) to plural forms ending in -s.

 

e.g. Sg: a girl’s book Pl: a girls’ school

 

Note 1. Nouns forming their plural by changing the root vowel take ‘s in the plural.

 

e.g. Sg: a man’s hat  Pl: men’s hats

 

Note 2. Only ‘ (the apostrophe) is added to proper names ending in -s.

 

e. g. Archimedes’ Law, Sophocles’ plays, Hercules’ labours.

 

Some other proper names ending in -s may also take the suffix ‘s.

 

e. g. Soames’ (Soames’s) collection, Burns’ (Burns’s) poems, Dickens’ (Dickens’s) novels, Jones’ (Jones’s) car, etc.

The normal pronunciation with both variants appears to be [ iz], but the normal spelling - with the apostrophe only.

Note 3. With compound nouns ‘s is always added to the final component

 e. g. my farther-in-law's house; the passer-by’s remark

The pronunciation of the Possessive Case ending follows the same rules as the pronunciation of the plural ending:

[z] after vowels and voiced consonants: boy’s, man’s, king’s

[s] after voiceless consonants: Smith’s, count’s, bishop’s

[iz] after sibilants: prince’s, judge’s, witch’s

 

The number of nouns that may be used in the Possessive Case is limited. Here belong:

 

1. personal names: John’s bed, Mary’s job

2. personal nouns: my friend’s visit, the boy’s new shirt, the man’s question

3. collective nouns: the team’s victory, the government's policy

4. higher animals: the dog’s barking, the lion’s cage

5. nouns denoting time, distance, measure: a day’s work, a few days’ trip, a two years’ absence, a mile's distance, a shilling’s worth

6. geographic names of continents, countries, cities, towns: Europe’s future, the United States’ policy, London's water supply

7. locative nouns: the island’s outline, the city’s white houses, the school’s history

8. a few other nouns denoting inanimate things and abstract notions: the sun’s rays, the play’s title, the ship’s crew, Nature’s sleep

9.  a considerable number of set phrases in which all sorts of nouns are found in the Possessive Case: in one’s mind’s eye, a pin’s head, at one’s finger’s end, for goodness’ sake, at one’s wit’s end, out of harm’s way, a needle’s point

 

The suffix ‘s may be added not only to a single noun but to a whole group of words. It is called the group genitive.

e. g. Jane and Mary’s room, Smith and Brown’s office, the Prime Minister of England’s residence, somebody else’s umbrella, the man we saw yesterday’s son

The use of the group genitive is possible here because the words in the group form a close sense unit.

 

BUT: John’s and Nick’s children are good. Lena’s and Lily’s rooms are clean.

 

The Genitive Case may have local meaning (the absolute genitive)

 

e. g. I bought it at the grocer’s. (a shop)

She liked living at her daughter’s. (a house)

They were married at St. Paul’s. (a church)

Types of shops: the florist’s, the butcher's, the greengrocer’s, the travel agent’s, McDonald’s, the ironmonger’s, the jeweller’s, the vet’s, the chemist’s, the tobacconist’s, the watchmaker's, the optician’s, the doctor’s, the dentist’s, the confectioner’s, the (dry) cleaner's, the stationer’s, the hairdresser's (the barber’s)

With nouns denoting lifeless things the possession is expressed by of-phrase.

e. g. the cover of the book, a leg of the table

 

Task: make up a story using as many cases of the possessive case as possible.

 

EXERCISES

 

EXTRA EXERCISES

Exercise 7. Use ‘s or s’ only where possible with these nouns.

e.g. a delay of an hour – an hour’s delay

1. a journey of two days

2. the shade of the tree

3. the inside of the box

4. the price of success

5. work of seven years

6. the surface of the earth

7. an absence of a year

8. the bottom of the box

9. the decision of the committee

10. the Minister of Sport

11. the fault of no one

12. the leg of the table

13. the key of the car

14. the responsibility of someone else

15. the mother of the twins     

16. the name of your street

17. the children of Mary and John

18. the dog of my mother-in-law

19. the hats of the passers-by

20. the paintings of Levitan and Shishkin

21. die orders of commanders-in-chief

22. the success of the company

23. the secretary of the president

24. the door of the garage

25. the car of the man I met 2 days ago

26. the rays of the sun

27. the policy of the government

 

Exercise 8. Paraphrase these sentences using ‘s, s’ or just an apostrophe (').

e.g. This bicycle is for a child. – This is a child’s bicycle.

1. This pen belongs to the teacher.

2. He describes the career of the actress.

3. That’s a job for a stewardess.

4. These toys belong to the children.

5. This is a club for women.

6. It’s a school for girls.

7. This is the lounge for residents.

8. This umbrella belongs to James.

9. That hat belongs to Doris.

10. That’s a voice of a man.

11. I can’t see the bottom of the box.

12. That’s the decision of the committee.

13. It’s the fault of no one.

14. This is a copy of the poetry of Keats.

15. That’s the leg of the table.

16. Where’s the key of the car?

17. That’s the bell of the village church that you can hear.

 

REVISION EXERCISES

I. Use the possessive case.

1. this child / a toy

2. Mr. Carter / a safe

3. James / the wife

4. Dan and Della / a baby

5. the notebook / the cover

6. his girl-friend / a cat

II. Write in the Plural.

1. This girl’s hair is long.

2. That baby’s face is funny.

3. The woman’s family is large.

4. The sportsman’s wife is young.

5. This chief’s tie is red.

6. My sister-in-law’s dress is nice.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

 

We find the following personal pronouns in English:

        

  Singular Plural
1st person I we
2nd person you you
  3rd person he she it they  

        

I and we are said to be the pronouns of the 1st person, i.e. a person (or persons) who speaks (speak).

You is said to be the pronoun of the 2nd person, i.e. a person (persons) spoken to. He, she, it and they are said to be the pronouns of the 3rd person, i.e. a person (persons) or a thing (things) spoken about.

We distinguish singular and plural personal pronouns. Singular personal pronouns refer to one person or thing and plural personal pronouns refer to more than one person or thing. The pronouns I, we, you, he and she are mainly used for persons. I, we and you are indifferent to gender, while he is masculine and she feminine.

The pronoun it is used for animals, concrete things and abstract notions, i.e. it refers to neuter nouns.

The pronoun they is used for persons, animals and things and is indifferent to gender.

The personal pronouns are used as nouns in the sentence.

The personal pronouns have the category of case. There are two cases for personal pronouns – the nominative case and the objective case.

 

The Nominative Case Thе Objective Case
I me
you you
he him
she her
it it
we us
you you
they them

 

The forms of the nominative case function in the sentence as subjects.

e. g. I expect they will laugh at me.

Don’t you know what he's up to?

 

The forms of the objective case function in the sentence as objects.

e. g. I met him in the street. (direct object)

He gave me some advice (indirect object)

Please, don't tell anyone about us. (prepositional object)

 

When personal pronouns are used as predicatives or after than, as and but, the nominative case is considered to be very formal; the use of the objective case is preferred in spoken English.

e. g. Who is it? – It’s me.

Do you need anything? - Yes, a secretary that I’ll dictate my piece to. - I’ll be her. You’re better off than them (they).

She is as tall as him (he).

No one can do it but him (he).

 

But only a nominative case personal pronoun can be used in the following sentence pattern where the pronoun is followed by a clause.

e. g. It was I who did it.

EXERCISES

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

        

  Singular Plural
1st person my our
2nd person your your
  3rd person his her its their

 

Possessive pronouns serve to modify nouns in the sentence, i.e. they function as adjectives.

e. g. The doctor usually came to his office at three o'clock.

Do you think you are losing your popularity?

From my place I could watch the people eating their lunch.

 

It should be noted that in English the possessive pronouns are often used instead of articles with nouns denoting relations, parts of the body, articles of clothing and various other personal belongings.

e. g. Bob nodded at his wife as if he wanted to say “You see?”

He bit his lips, but said nothing.

He took off his jacket and loosened his tie.

Amy put her cigarette back into her bag.

 

But there are certain idiomatic phrases where the definite article is used instead of a possessive pronoun.

e. g. I have a cold in the head.

He was shot through the heart.

He got red in the face.

He took me by the hand.

The ball struck him in the back.

He patted his wife on the shoulder.

 

The possessive pronouns may function as nouns as well. That they are used in their so-called absolute forms: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours and theirs.

 e. g. She put her arm through mine.

They are not my gloves; I thought they were yours.

Theirs is a very large family.

 

It is noteworthy that its is hardly ever used as an absolute form.

 

Sometimes we find absolute forms of possessive pronouns preceded by the preposition of . This combination is called a double genitive.

e. g. He is a friend of mine.

It happened through no fault of his.

We had a slight accident and, luckily, that neighbour of yours came along or we would still be there.

 

EXERCISES

Exercise 5.

1. Answer the following questions:
a) What possessive pronoun is hardly ever used in the absolute form?

b) What’s the difference between its and it’s?

 

2. Work in pairs. Fill in its or it’s. Explain your choice.

Model: My new bike is great. It’s got lots of gears on it. (It’s=it has, it is not a possessive pronoun)

1. The house next door has got a fence around … garden.

2. Let’s go home. … getting late.

3. I remember the house, but I don’t remember … number.

4. I love this shop. … got lots of lovely things in it.

5. Autumn has come. I like … beauty.

6. … the most beautiful house I’ve ever seen.

7. The dog has got a white patch over … eye.


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

 

There are four demonstrative pronouns in English: this, that, such and same. They all may be used as noun pronouns and as adjective pronouns.

 

e.g. This hat is new and that hat is old.
“Look at this,” he said and showed me his tie.
Such people are very rare!

 

The pronouns this and that have the category of number. Their corresponding plural forms are: these and those.

 



THIS – THESE

THAT - THOSE

 

THIS/THESE are used:

- for people or things which are near us.

e.g. This is my favourite painting.

- for present or future situations.

e.g. My cousin is staying with me this week.

- to refer to an idea we are about to mention.

e.g. Listen to this. It's really funny.

- to introduce oneself on the phone or to introduce people.

e.g. Hello? This is Helen. ’ Mum, this is Kate. '

- when the speaker is in or near the place he/she is referring to.

 e.g. This room hasn’t got enough light.

THAT/THOSE are used:

- for people or things which are not near us.

e.g. That man over there is waving at you.

- for past situations.

e.g. That was a great party. We enjoyed ourselves.

- to refer back to something mentioned before.

e.g. She lost her job. ’ That's awful. ’

- when speaking on the phone to ask who the other person is.

e.g. Who’s that speaking?

 

EXERCISES

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with some, any, one or no.

1. Is there ... chalk on the table? - Yes, there is. There is ... chalk on the table.

2. Is there ... ink on the table? - No, there isn’t. There is ... ink on the table.

3. Is there ... paper on the desk? - Yes, there is ....

4. Is there ... salt on the table? - No, there isn’t. There is ... salt on the table.

5. Have you got ... relations? — No, I haven't ....

6. Has she got ... nephews or nieces? — She has ....

7. She has ... sister, she has only ... brother.

8. They have got ... cousins in Minsk.

9. Have you got ... brothers? — No, I haven't ....

10. I have ... good friends.

11. Have you got ... interesting books? — Yes, I have.

12. Have you got ... friends in St. Petersburg?

13. He has ... English books in the bookcase.

14. Have you got ... pencils in your bag? — Yes, I have ....

15. Has she got ... girls in the family? — No, she hasn’t ….

16. Have we got ... chalk on the blackboard?

17. She has ... mistakes in her test.

18. I bought … cheese but I didn’t buy … bread.

19. I’m going to the post office, I need … stamps.

20. There aren’t … shops in this part of town.

21. George and Alice haven’t got … children.

22. Have you got … brothers or sisters? – Yes, I’ve got ….

23. There are … beautiful flowers in the garden.

24. Do you know … good hotels in London?

25. ‘Would you like … tea?’ ‘Yes, please.’

26. When we were on holiday, we visited … very interesting places.

27. Don’t buy … rice. We don’t need ….     

28. I went out to buy … milk but they didn’t have … in the shop.

29. I’m thirsty. Can I have … water, please?

30. Ann didn’t take any photographs but I took ….

31. Where’s your luggage? – I don’t have ….

32. Do you need … money? - No, thank you I have ….

33. Can you lend me … money? - I’m sorry but I don’t have ….

34. The tomatoes in the shop didn’t look very good, so I didn’t buy ….

35. There were … nice oranges in the shop, so I bought ….

Exercise 2. Bill has lost his keys. Read the dialogue and choose the correct item.

A: There is nothing/something more annoying than losing something/anything.

B: What have you lost?

A: My keys. They must be anywhere/somewhere in the house, but I’ve got no/any idea where. I can’t find them nowhere/anywhere.

B: Are you sure you haven’t left them somewhere/ nowhere by mistake?

A: Of course not. They can’t be somewhere/anywhere else but here. No one/Someone must have hidden them.

B: Why would no one/anyone hide your keys? There is any/no reason for anyone /no one to do nothing/something so silly.

A: Well, I need some/any help to find them. I have to go anywhere/somewhere important this afternoon.

B: Calm down. It’s some/no use getting angry about anything/something like this. Look! There are no/ some keys on that chair.

A: They're mine! Oh. I feel so silly!

 

Exercise 3. Insert some or any making the appropriate compounds (somebody, anything, somehow etc.) if necessary.

1. There is ... milk in that jug.

2. I’m afraid there isn’t ... coffee left.

3. Is there ...… here who speaks Italian?

4. I’d like to buy ... new clothes but I haven’t got ... money.

5. Are there ... letters for me?

6. I can’t see my glasses ...….

7. She put her handbag down …… and now she can’t find it,

8. …… can tell you how to get there (i. e. everyone knows the way).

9. Is there ...... moving about downstairs? I heard ... falling.

10. ...... tells me you’ve got... bad news for me.

11. She said … to me but I didn't understand it.

12. What’s wrong? - There’s … in my eye.’

13. Do you know … about politics?

14. I went to the shop but I didn't buy ….     

15. … has broken the window. I don’t know who. 

16. There isn’t … in the bag. It’s empty.

17. I'm looking for my keys. Has … seen them?

18. Would you like … to drink?

19. I didn’t eat … because I wasn’t hungry.

20. This is a secret. Please don’t tell ….

Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps with some, any, no or one of their compounds.

1. A: Is there ...anything... good on television tonight?

B: I don’t know. Look in the newspaper.

2. A: Would you like …… to eat?

B: No. I don’t want …… thank you.

3. A: There is …… here to see you.

B: Who is it?

4. A: I went to Jane’s house, but there was …… at home.

B: Perhaps she has gone …… nice for the weekend.

5. A: I have …… time to do all this work.

B: Is there …… I can do to help?

6. A: Was the party good last night?

B: Not really. There were hardly …… people there.

7. A: I have to go shopping, but I don’t have …… money.

B: I’ll lend you …… if you like.

8. A: Have you seen Michael ……?

B: No, I haven’t seen him.

9. A: The town was very busy today. There was …… to park.

B: They should build …… new parking facilities.

10. A: What would you do if you were lost?

B: I would ask …… for directions.

11. A: Is there …… you would like to go this weekend?

B: I’d like to go …… nice and quiet.

12. A: Is …… wrong with Paul?

B: No, there’s …… wrong with him. He's just tired.

Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps with everyone/everybody, everything or everywhere.

1. The meeting was a success. ...Everything… went well.

2. …… learns a foreign language at this school.

3. The film is a box-office hit. …… is talking about it.

4. We are going on holiday next week. …… is arranged.

5. On Friday afternoon …… leaves the office early.

6. Mark is a very popular boy. …… likes him.

7. After the snow had fallen, …… was white.

8. I’m glad we came to the beach. …… had a wonderful time.

9. We wanted to go to a restaurant, but …… was full.

10. I dropped my bag and …… fell out.

11. We can’t make the announcement until …… arrives.

Exercise 6. Fill in somebody (someone), anybody (anyone), nobody (no one), everybody (everyone), something, anything, nothing, everything.

1. Is there ... on the desk?

2. The door is open. There must be ... at home.

3. There is ... wrong with my fountain-pen. It won't write.

4. A blind man cannot see ... .

5. Is there ... in the room? — Yes, there is ... in it.

6. It is too dark here, I cannot see ....

7. If there is ... in the room you may turn off the light.

8. Can ... recite the poem?

9. We must do ... to help her.

10. Can I do ... for you?

11. There must be ... interesting in the book you read.

12. It is too dark, I can’t see ... on the blackboard. May I turn on the light?

13. We can work in Room № 20. There is ... there.

14. Let's go there at once. I want to see ... with my own eyes.

15. May I come to see you tonight? I've got ... to tell you.

16. Bob is one of our best students, ... knows him.

17. Must we learn ... by heart? — No, you needn't. You must only prepare the poem for test reading.

18. There is ... interesting in this magazine.

19. Is ... away from the lesson?

QUANTIFIERS

(A LOT OF – MUCH – MANY – A FEW / FEW – A LITTLE / LITTLE)

1. A lot of/lots of are used with both plural countable and uncountable nouns. They are normally used in affirmative sentences. Of is omitted when a lot/lots are not followed by a noun.

e.g. There were a lot of/lots of people at the concert. There is a lot of/lots of yoghurt in the fridge. Have you got many books? – Yes, I've got a lot.

2. Much and many are normally used in interrogative and negative sentences. Much is used with uncountable nouns and many with plural countable nouns.

e.g. Is there much sugar in the cupboard?

There isn't much sugar in this cake.

Have you got many CDs? I haven't got many CDs.

3. How much and how many are used in questions and negations.

How much + uncountable noun > amount

How many + countable noun > number

e.g. How much money have you got? - Not much.

How many stamps do you need? - Six.

4. Too many is used with plural countable nouns. It has a negative meaning and shows that there is more of something than is wanted or needed.

e.g. You eat too many sweets. Your teeth will rot.

5. Too much is used with uncountable nouns. It has the same negative meaning as too many.

e.g. I've got too much work to do. I can't go out.

6. We use most/some/any/many/much/(a) few/(a) little /several/one, two, etc. + of when a noun follows, preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.

e.g. Most of the people at the party were from work, but: Most people like parties.

7. A few/few are used with plural countable nouns (flowers, letters, etc.).

A few means not many, but enough.

e.g. There are a few hotels in this town. You'll probably find a room to spend the night.

Few means hardly any, almost none and can be used with very for emphasis.

e.g. There are (very) few cupboards in the kitchen. There’s not enough room to store my plates and glasses.

8. A little/little are used with uncountable nouns (milk, time, etc.).

A little means not much, but enough.

e.g. There is a little petrol in the tank. It will get us to the next town.

Little means hardly any, almost none and can be used with very for emphasis.

e.g. There's (very) little coffee left. We need to buy some more.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Fill in many, much, how many, how much or a lot (of).

1. A: Shall we go out tonight?
B: I can’t. I don’t have ...much... money, I’m afraid.

2. A: Can you help me, please?

B: I’m sorry. I haven’t got …… time at the moment.

3. A: …… potatoes are in that bag?
B: Seven, I think. Why?

4. A: What did you do on your holiday?
B: Well, I read …… and I relaxed on the beach.

5. A: There isn’t …… milk left.
B: Well, I’ll buy some later this afternoon.

6. A: …… homework have you got?
B: Quite ……. I’d better start now.

7. A: Did you enjoy your dinner?
B: Yes. I ate …… and I’m very full.

8. A: Mark is a wonderful athlete.
B: Yes. He has won …… competitions.

9. A: Are there …… flowers in the garden?
B: Yes, and they are beautiful too.

10. A: Are you very busy?

B: No. I haven’t got …… to do today.

11. A: She has got …… clothes.

B: I know. She wears something different every day.

12. A: …… times have you seen this film?

B: Three times, but I always cry at the end

13. A: …… food should we take on the picnic?
B: Oh, enough for all four of us.

14. A: Have you travelled to …… places?
B: Yes, I go to a different country every year.

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with too much or too many.

1. A: Would you like to spend the weekend with us?

B: I can’t. I have ...too many... things to do.

2. A: Shall we go to London tomorrow?

B: No. It takes ……time to get there.

3. A: I had a terrible nightmare last night.

B: That’s because you watch …… horror films.

4. A: …… red meat is bad for your health.

B: I know. I rarely eat red meat.

5. A: There are …… people on this train.

B: I know. It’s very crowded.

6. A: I have spent …… money this month.

B: You should have been more sensible.

7. A: This sauce tastes awful.

B: I think I’ve put …… salt in it.

8. A: I made …… food for the party.

B: I know. There is a lot left over.

9. A: There are …… books in this bag.

B: I know. It’s very heavy, isn’t it?

10. A: You are making …… noise. I can’t concentrate.

B: I’m sorry. I'll try to be quiet.

Exercise 3. Add of where necessary.

1. A lot ...of... people have mobile phones these days.

2. Many …… her books are very old.

3. Most …… children enjoy watching cartoons.

4. I’ve met several …… his colleagues.

5. A few …… birds were singing in the tree.

6. Have you ever seen any …… Bruce Willis’ films?

7. Some …… my friends live abroad.

8. One …… her books has won an award.

9. I have hardly any …… free time at the moment.

10. A few …… the guests arrived early.

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with few, a few, little, a little.

1. My sister likes ... sugar in her tea, but I like a lot in mine.

2. There was still ... time before the lesson began.

3. He has ... knowledge of the subject. You’d better ask somebody else.

4. We got ... pleasure from the trip, the weather was bad all the time.

5. Are there many vacant rooms in the hotel? - No, there are only....

6. There is ... sunshine in this rainy place.

7. She said she wanted to buy ... rice and bread and ... oranges.

8. Do many people know about this new shop? - No, only....

9. I know … about painting, so I can’t help you.

10. My brother speaks … English, he can translate this for you.

11. Very … plants grow here.

12. I have seen … nice photos in your album.

Exercise 5. Translate into English the words given in brackets using a lot (of), much, many, little, few, a little, a few.

1. There is (много) paper on the desk.

2. There are (много) students in the classroom.

3. There is (немного) milk in the jug.

4. There are (много) newspapers on the shelf.

5. There is (много) time left.

6. There is (много) butter on the plate.

7. There are (несколько) notebooks in the bag.

8. Give me (немного) water, please.

9. Can you give him (несколько) coloured pencils?

10. May I take (несколько) sheets of paper?

11. There are (много) families in this house.

12. I have not got (много) money. I cannot buy this coat.

13. There are not (много) sentences in this text.

14. Put (немного) salt into your soup.











EXTRA EXERCISES

 (INDEFINITE PRONOUNS, QUANTIFIERS)

Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps with some, any, n о .

1. There are ... pictures in the book.

2. Are there ... new students in your group?

3. There are ... old houses in our street.

4. Are there ... English textbooks on the desks? — Yes, there are ... .

5. Are there ... maps on the walls? — No, there aren’t ... .

6. Are there ... pens on the desk? — Yes, there are ... .

7. Are there ... sweets in your bag? — Yes, there are ... .

8. Have you got ... English books at home? - Yes, I have ... .

9. There are ... beautiful pictures in the magazine. Look at them.

10. There is ... ink in my pen: I cannot write.

11. Is there ... paper on your table?

12. I haven’t got ... exercise books. Give me ... , please.

13. It is winter. There are ... leaves on the trees.

14. I need ... sugar, ... flour, ... eggs, ... butter and ... milk to make a cake.

15. There is ... butter in the fridge, but there isn’t ... milk.

16. Are there ... eggs? - There aren’t ... eggs left.

17. We haven’t got... flour.

18. To make cabbage soup I need ... cabbage, ... onions, ... carrots, and ... salt. I don’t need ... plums or ... pineapples.

19. I need to buy a lot of things. There isn’t ... time to waste.

20. Oh, dear! There is ... money in my purse.

21. We haven’t got ... milk. We can’t make an omelette.

22. Bob always likes ... sugar in his coffee.

23. Poor Oliver was hungry. He wanted ... bread.

24. They haven’t got ... stamps. I can’t post my letter.

25. He has got ... money. He can’t spend his holidays in Switzerland any more and stay at luxury hotels.

26. There are ... schools in this street.

27. Are there ... pictures in your book?

28. There are ... flowers here in winter.

29. I can see ... children in the yard. They are playing.

30. Are there ... new buildings in your street?

31. There are ... people in the park because it is cold.

32. I saw ... boys in the garden, but Mike was not among them.

33. They brought … good books from the library.

34. Give me ... water please, I am thirsty.

35. Dinner was not yet read so she gave the children ... bread and butter because they were hungry.

36. Do you want... milk in your coffee?

37. Have you got ... time to spare? I’d like to ask you ... questions.

38. Is there ... cheese the plate?

39. There is ... ham on the plate.

40. There is ... tea in the cup: the cup is empty.

 

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with something, anything, nothing or everything,

1. My husband taught his son ... he knows.

2. Her patient has a bad memory. She can’t remember ... .

3. I think there is ... wrong with my watch.

4. We’ve got ... to eat. We’ve got only ... to drink.

5. The student didn’t understand ... because she heard ….

6. Does he know ... about computers? - Yes, he knows ... because he is the best specialist in computer science at Harvard University.

7. He felt terrible. He couldn’t do ... else.

8. ... is all right, the patient is much better today.

9. Is there ... interesting in the programme of the concert?

10. I could see ... as it was quite dark.

11. Give me ... to drink.

12. I didn’t take any money with me, so I couldn’t buy ... .

13. My new eyeglasses are very good, I can see ... now.

14. I saw ... near the wood that looked like a tent.

15. She has to go to the supermarket. There isn’t ... in the fridge.

16. I’ve had a terrible day. ... went wrong.

17. The young man is very upset. There is … wrong with his car.

18. His grandparents like doing ...: cooking, playing board games, going to museums, visiting their friends.

19. She never says …. nice about her neighbours.

20. What do you want to drink? - .... I’m not thirsty.

21. Nobody told me ... about his lung cancer. I could do ... to save his life.

22. Give me ... to read, please. — With pleasure.

23. I don’t know ... about your town. Tell me ... about it.

24. Please give me ... warm: it is cold here.

25. I understand ... now. Thank you for уоur explanation.

26. There is ... white in the box. What is it?

27. Is there ... that you want to tell me?

28. Where is the book? - It is on the table. — No, there is ... there.

29. Don’t tell ... about it. It’s a secret.

30. Life is tough! ... has problems.

31. ... has eaten all the ice cream. That’s terrible! ... will be able to have it for dessert tonight.

32. I think, ... in our class is honest. That’s why we trust... .

33. If you look in the yellow pages, I am sure you’ll find ... who can fix your TV.

34. I am not a perfectionist. ... is perfect in this world.

35. Is there ... in the office?

36. ... needs good friends. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

37. Has ...in this group got a dictionary?

38. ... left a magazine in our classroom yesterday.

39. The question was so difficult that ... could answer it.

40. I am afraid I won’t be able to find ... in the office now: it is too late.

41. ... knows that water is necessary for life.

42. Is there ... here who knows French?

43. You must find ... who can help you.

44. ... knew anything about America before Columbus discovered it.

45. I saw ... in the train yesterday who looked like you.

46. There is ... in the next room. I don’t know him.

47. Please tell us the story. ... knows it!

48. Is there ... in my group who lives in the dormitory?

49. Has ... here got a red pencil?

50. ... can answer this question. It is very easy.

 

GENERAL QUESTONS

 

A question that demands either an affirmative or a negative answer is called a general question.

 

AUXILIARY VERB (OR MODAL VERB) + SUBJECT + NOTIONAL VERB + SECONDARY MEMBERS

 

It is pronounced with Low Rise. The first verb (or auxiliary verb) is stressed.

 

In general questions some - any; a lot of - many, much.

EXERCISES

 

ALTERNATIVE QUESTONS

 

They are put to suggest a choice between 2 or more things, actions or qualities.                

e. g. Is this pen red or black?

 

Alternative questions demand a full answer.

e.g. It’s red.

 

The answer is short if the question is to the subject. The stress is on the subject in this case.

e. g. Is Nick or John at the table? - John is.

 

Like in general questions some - any; a lot of - many, much.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Put general and alternative questions to the following statements:

1. The girl is small.

2. The children are at school.

3. It is dark in the room.

4. This is a velvet dress.

5. The dog is in the yard.

6. They are busy all the time.

 

DISJUNCTIVE QUESTIONS

1. Disjunctive questions as well as general ones demand an affirmative or negative answer. They consist of two parts. The first part is a statement (affirmative or negative) and the second is a short general question corresponding to the Russian не так ли. If the first part is affirmative, the tag is negative and vice versa if the first part is negative, the tag is affirmative.

 e. g. He is a teacher, isn’t he?

You have two sisters, don’t you?

There are a lot of children in the park, aren’t there?

You have no brothers, do you?

He isn’t married, is he?

There is no coffee at home, is there?

 

2. Answers to disjunctive questions are usually short.

e. g. She is very busy, isn’t she? - Yes, she is. (Да, очень.)

No, she isn’t. (Нет, не очень.)

BUT: She is not fond of sports, is she? – No, she isn’t, (Да. Не увлекается.)

Yes, she is. (Нет, увлекается.)

 

NOTE: am not doesn’t have a contracted form, that’s why we use aren’t I.

e. g. I am right, aren’t I?

 

3. Remember the following:

Close the door, will/won’t you?

Don’t move, will you?

Let’s dance, shall we?

Everyone was present, weren’t they?

 

EXERCISES

 

    Exercise 1. Put disjunctive questions to the following sentences.

1. You usually start your work at nine o’clock, …? 2. Tamara can’t speak any foreign languages, …? 3. He hasn’t got a pet, …? 4. You can always trust me, …? 5. They never argue with me, …? 6. Helen didn’t come to the party, …? 7. We are going to see the ocean tomorrow, …? 8. You haven’t been to the Bolshoi before, …? 9. He isn’t lazy,  …? 10. Pamela won’t date Jack, …?  11. I am lucky, …? 12. Pay attention, …?         13. Don’t be late, …? 14. Nobody called for me, …? 15. Everyone was very happy, …? 16. Nothing could be better, …? 17. Let’s start, …? 18. You are Marina Serebrova, …? 19. He isn’t a student, …? 20. She lives in York, …? 21. You have a big family, …? 22. They have lunch at one o’clock, …? 23. My father has to drive to his office, …? 24. He doesn’t have to get up too early,…? 25. German isn’t difficult, …? 26. There is a lot of light in this hall, …? 27. There are no stars in the sky,…? 28. Ted didn’t come to class yesterday,…? 29. Our teacher gave us much homework to do,…? 30. You didn’t have to lie to her,…? 31. It snows a lot in Siberia, …? 32. It never rains in the Gobi, …? 33. Those are your gloves, …? 34. I am a fool, …? 35. We haven’t met before,…? 36. He has never been to Jamaica,…? 37. The Browns will never sell their house, …? 38. He can cook well,…? 39. You can’t buy happiness,…? 40. Let’s start working,…? 41. Let’s not argue,…? 42. Make him take his words back,…? 43. Don’t shout at me, …? 44. Nothing ever happens to me,…? 45. Everything depends on the situation, …? 46. Everyone will be present at the conference,…? 47. Nobody has ever thought about it,…?

SPECIAL QUESTIONS

We put special questions in order to find something out and to get additional information about things, actions or qualities.

The structure of special questions is as follows:

 

Question Word + Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Notional Verb (+ Secondary Members)

 

e. g. What kind of dress do you have?

How old is Kitty?

 

The answer to special questions contains missing information.

 

If there is a preposition, it is usually put at the end of a sentence.

e. g. What court is Dan in?

 

In special questions to the subject the word order is like in affirmative sentences (it is direct).

e. g. Who has some books at home?

 

In special questions SOME doesn’t change into ANY; A LOT doesn’t change into MANY, MUCH.

 

Question Words

Who [hu:] Whom [hu:m] Whose [hu:z] What [wɔt] When [wen]   Кто? Кого? Кому? Чей? Что? Какой? Когда? Where [wɛə] Why [waɪ] How [haʊ] How many ['haʊ 'menɪ] How much ['haʊ 'mᴧʧ] Куда? Где? Почему? Как? Сколько? Сколько?

WHAT also means КТО? if the predicate is expressed by a noun denoting a job. Such questions are usually asked about the 3rd person.

- What is he?

- He is a teacher.

WHAT means КАКОЙ? if it stands before a noun and refers to an attribute denoting a nationality, a material, a season or to a compound element.

- What dress is this?

- It’s a silk dress.

- What cup is that?

- It’s a tea cup.

Such questions are not questions about a quality of a thing or person. The question about a quality is WHAT KIND OF …?

 

WHO is used if the predicate is expressed by a noun denoting the name (surname), social status (husband, wife etc.), relatives (uncle, cousin etc.).

 

WHICH means КОТОРЫЙ? when the choice is limited. It is also a question to an attribute expressed by an ordinal numeral, a word like YOUNGER, OLDER, an adjective in the superlative degree or a demonstrative pronoun.

 

EXERCISES

 

Questions in the Plural

1. These are boys.

 -Who are these?

 

Those are bigyellowapples.

-What kind of yellow apples are those?

-What colour apples are those?

-What are those?

 

These are niceJapanesegirls.

-What kind of Japanese girls are these?

-What girls are these?

-Who are these?

 

1. Those are littleharmfulfish.

2. These are cosyFrenchflats.

 

2. The girls are beautiful.

-Who is beautiful?

-What are the girls like?

 

The berries are tasty.

-What is tasty?

-What are the berries like?

 

Her geese are white.

-What is white?

-What colour are her geese?

 

1. The pears are yellow.

2. Thosebags are black.

 

The children are on the skating rink.

-Who is on the skating rink?

-Where are the children?

 

The roses are in the flower bed.

-What is in the flower bed?

-Where are the roses?

 

H.W.

1. These are longorangeRussianties.

2. They are industriousDutchgirls.

3. The children are in the kindergarten.

4. Those radio-sets are new.

5. The pears are on the plate.

6. My little mice are grey.

7. His friends are interesting.

 

3. The twins are five.   

-Who is five?

-How old are the twins?        

 

The children are both 7.

-Who is 7?

-How old are both the children?

 

1. Mymum and dad are 36.

2. HisGranny and Grandpa are 78.

 

The children are fond of birds and animals.      

-Who is fond of birds and animals?

-What are the children fond of?

 

1. Mycousins are fond of skating.

2. We are fond of books.

 

We are proud of our country.

-Who is proud of their country?

-What are we proud of?

 

The children are proud of their parents.

-Who is proud of their parents?

-Who are the children proud of?

 

We are finenow.

-Who is fine now?

-How are we now?

-When are we fine?

 

The birds are sadin the cage.

They are awfully unwell.

-How much unwell are they?

 

1. The mountains are veryhigh.

2. The summer months are quitewarmhere.

 

H.W.

1. My friends are 15.

2. The students are always hungry after classes.

3. The cows are very fine in the green field.

4. Those books are rather difficult for me.

5. The birds are fond of worms.

6. The dogs are fond of fluffy kittens.

7. The 6th form pupils are proud of their English teacher.

8. Most of the students are clever.

9. The cucumbers are in the fridge.

 

4. My brothers are doctors.

-What is my brothers’ occupation?

-What are my brothers’ occupations?

-What are my brothers?

 

1. Thesemen are successfulbusinessmen.

2. Hisfriends are also lazystudents.

3. Ourpals are Englishteachers.

 

5. Thesebigboys are mycousins.

-Which big boys are my cousins?

-What kind of boys are my cousins?

-Who are my cousins?

-Whose cousins are these big boys?

-Who are these big boys?

 

Myfriends are doctors.

-Whose friends are doctors?

-Who are doctors?

-What are your friends?

 

1. Hiscousins are prettygirls.

2. The whitemice are animals.

3. Mybrothers are goodstudents.

4. Theirsisters are still schoolgirls.

5. The water-melons are fruit.

 

H.W.

1. Those little kids are my nephews.

2. My father and brother are old farmers.

3. The children are at home after school.

4. We are proud of our new house.

5. His younger brothers are very naughty and noisy.

6. Our group-mates are all 17.

7. Those charming ladies are foreigners.

8. The first experiences are always difficult.

9. These naughty cats are white and black.

10. The first letters are on the wooden table.

11. The pictures are rather beautiful.

12. The writers are famous for their novels.

13. The poets are known for their poems.

 

Stop and Check

1. Our elder brothers are good teachers.

2. His English friends are 21. (alt.)

3. These modest boys are clever.

4. Those tall girls are shop-assistants. (gen.)

5. Children’s books are pretty interesting.

6. The second letters are in the blue envelopes.

7. These nice Chinese dogs are red.

8. Her cotton summer frocks are light.

9. Those are thick yellow sticks.

10. They are their relatives.

11. People are fresh in the morning.

12. Most French children are fond of cheese.

13. Most people are proud of their achievements.

14. The black fur coats are very warm.

15. The green American suits are modem.

16. His first horse races are lucky.

 

IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

 

They are used to express a request or order. Usually we address requests and orders to the 2nd person singular and plural.

 

Imperative sentences are formed with the infinitive without “to".

e. g. Be careful. Come over here, please.

 

Negative imperative sentences are formed with the help of the auxiliary verb “do”.

e. g. Don’t be lazy. Don’t listen to him.

 

If we address requests and orders to the 3rd person, we use “let”.

e. g. Let her get us something to eat. Let your secretary find all the information.

If we address a request or order to the 1st person plural we use “let us + Infinitive” (Let’s).

e. g. Let’s go out and have a talk. Let’s not discuss it.

 

EXERCISES

THERE IS / THERE ARE

 

1. Sentences with the construction there is / there are are used when speaking about some thing or person that is or is not in a definite place.

e. g. There is a newspaper on the table. - На столе газета.

There are students in the classroom. - В классе студенты.

 

2. If there are several subjects in the sentence with there is / there are, the form of the verb “to be” depends on the number of the subject that immediately follows it.

e. g. There is a table and four chairs in the room.

There are five chairs and a table in the room.

 

3. To form questions we put the verb “to be” in front of the word “there”.

e. g. Is there a map in the room?

Very often we use an indefinite pronoun “any”, especially before uncountable nouns, e. g. Is there any chalk on the table?

 

4. Special questions with there is / there are.

As the aim of the speaker is to inform about a thing or person, such sentences can be answers to “what / who” questions.

 e. g. What is there on the table? - There is a book on the table.

Who is there in the library? - There are students in the library.

 

N. B.! Don’t mix up there is / there are sentences with those speaking about the place that can be answers to “where” questions.

 e. g. The book is on the table. - Where is the book?

 

EXERCISES

 

Exercise 1. Make the following sentences plural:

1. There is a sentence on the blackboard.

2. Is there a desk in the room?

3. There is not any book on the table.

4. Is there a dictionary on the chair?

5. There is a match in the box.

6. There is a girl in the picture.

7. There is no child in their family.

8. There is a telegram on the table.

9. There is a cinema near our house.

10. There is a mistake in his dictation.

11. There is a pen in his bag.

12. There is a sofa in the room.

13. There is a child in the park.

EXERCISES

 

ADVERBS

Formation of Adverbs

♦ We usually form an adverb by adding -ly to the adjective.

e.g. serious - seriously

♦ Adjectives ending in -le drop the -e and take -y.

e.g. gentle - gently

♦ Adjectives ending in consonant + у drop the -y and take -ily.

e.g. happy - happily

♦ Adjectives ending in -l take -ly.

e.g. awful - awfully

♦ Adjectives ending in -ic usually take -ally.

e.g. dramatic - dramatically But: public - publicly

♦ Adjectives ending in -e take -ly.

e.g. polite - politely But: true - truly

1. The following words end in –ly, but they are adjectives: elderly, cowardly, friendly, likely, deadly, lively, lonely, silly, ugly, lovely, etc.

e.g. She’s a lively child.

 

We use the words way/manner to form their adverbs.

e.g. She greeted me in a friendly way/manner.

He complained in a cowardly way/manner.

 

2. Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives. These include: hard, fast, free, high, low, deep, early, late, long, near, straight, right, wrong. Also hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly.

e.g. The lake is deep.(adjective)

They went deep into the forest. (adverb)

These biscuits are very hard. (adjective)

He tried hard in order to succeed. (adverb)

‘Bella Donna’ is a weekly magazine. (adjective)

It comes out weekly. (adverb)

 

3. The adverbs below have two forms, each with a different meaning:

· The treasure was buried deep underground. (= a long way down)

He is deeply in love with her. (= very)

· The hotel guests can use the swimming pool free. (= without payment)

The animals in the safari park can roam freely. (= without limit or restriction.)

· The kite flew high in the sky. (= at/to a high level)

He is a highly respected doctor. (= very much)

· She arrived late for the meeting. (= not early)

He hasn’t been feeling well lately. (= recently)

· Which of his songs do you like most? (= superlative of much)

I’m mostly interested in modern art. (= mainly)

· As he came near, I realized that something was wrong. (= close)

She nearly fainted when she heard the news.(= almost)

· He is a pretty strange man. (= rather)

The bridesmaids were prettily dressed in pink. (= in a pretty way)

· He is working hard these days. (= with a lot of effort)

They hardly go anywhere now that they have children. (= almost never)

· Don’t stand so close to me, please! (=near)

The inspector looked at my passport very closely. (=attentively)

hard трудный, трудно, усердный, усердно hardly едва, с трудом
late поздний, поздно lately недавно, за последнее время
high высокий, высоко highly очень, весьма
great великий, сильный greatly очень, весьма, значительно
near близкий, близко nearly почти, приблизительно
short короткий, коротко shortly вскоре, незадолго
large большой, значительный largely в значительной степени
pretty прелестный, весьма prettily прелестно
close близкий, близко closely внимательно
deep глубокий, далеко от deeply очень, в высокой степени
free свободный (на свободе,  доступный) freely свободно (без ограничений)
most превосходная степень от much mostly главным образом

 

4. Adjectives after Verbs

After the verbs:

to feel (кроме well)   She felt bad yesterday.
to look (кроме well) - выглядеть adjectives are You look nice.
to sound used The music sounds very loud.
to taste   This soup tastes good.
to seem   Everything seemed strange to him.
to smell   The cake smells wonderful.
to remain   He remained calm.

EXERCISES

 

Exercise 1. Change the italicized noun into a verb and the italicized adjective into an adverb.

Model: His answer was very quick. - He answered very quickly.

1. They gave a beautiful performance. 2. She gave me a formal answer. 3. His was a heroic action. 4. He gave an accurate description of the situation. 5. We heard their happy laugh in the room. 6. The actors got a very warm greeting from the audience.

EXERCISES

REVISION

PREPOSITIONS

 

Prepositions of Time

 

AT IN ON
at 10.30 at Christmas/Easter at noon/night/midnight at lunch/dinner/breakfast (time) at that time at the moment at the weekend in the morning/evening/afternoon/night in the Easter/Christmas holiday(s) in January (months) in (the) winter (seasons) in 1992 (years) in the 19th century in two hours (two hours from now) on Monday on Easter Sunday etc. on Christmas Day on Friday night on July 30th on a summer afternoon on that day

 

· We never use at, in, or on before yesterday, tomorrow, next, this, last, every.

                  e.g. She’s leaving next Sunday.

· We use from … to/until to talk about periods of time.

                  e.g. The museum is open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.

· on time – neither late nor early, at the correct time / in time – not late

                  e.g. I always make sure I get to work on time.

                  e.g. I hope I’ll get to the airport in time to watch the plane land.

· at the beginning – at the place or time at which smth starts / in the beginning – initially. This suggests further change

e.g. There is a contents page at the beginning of the book.

e.g. He thought German was hard in the beginning, but now he finds it easy.

· at the end – at the furthest or last part of smth / in the end – at last, finally, when everything is taken into consideration

e.g. At the end of the day I like to relax in front of the TV.

e.g. I was going to take the bus home, but in the end I got a taxi.

 

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Fill in at, on, in.

1. … 6 June 7. … 24 September 13. … Friday morning
2. … the evening 8. … Thursday 14. … Saturday night
3. … half past two 9. … 11.45 15. … night
4. …Wednesday 10. … Christmas Day 16. … the end of the day
5. … 1987 11. … Christmas 17. … the weekend
6. … September 12. … the morning 18. … winter

Exercise 2. Fill in at, on, in.

1. Goodbye! See you ___ Friday.       

2. Whеrе were you ___ 28 February?

3. I got up ___ 8 o’clock this morning.        

4. I like getting up early ___ the morning.   

5. My sister got married ___ May.     

6. Diane and I first met ___ 1979.

7. Did you go out ___ Tuesday?        

8. Did you go out ___ Tuesday evening?     

9. Do you often go out___ the evening?      

10. Let’s meet ___ 7.30 tomorrow evening.

11. I often go away ___ the weekend.

12. I’m starting my new job ___ 3 July.

13. We often go to the beach ___ summer.

14. George isn’t here ___ the moment.

15. Julia’s birthday is ___ January.

16. Do you work ___ Saturdays?

17. The company started ___ 1969.

18. I like looking at the stars ___ night.

 

EXERCISES

Exercise 10. Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use in/at/on and the words in brackets.

1. Where is the man?

2. Where are the shoes?

3. Where is the pen?

4. Where is the clock?

5. Where is the bus?

6. Where are the horses?

7. Where are the people standing?

8. Where is she swimming?

9. Where is he standing?

10. Where is the spider?

11. Where is he sitting?

12. Where is she sitting?

 

Exercise 11. Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use in/at/on and the words in brackets.

1. Where is she?

2. Where are they?

3. Where is he?

4. Where are they?

5. Where are the stars?

6. Where are they?

7. Where is Brian?

8. Where is the restaurant?

9. Where is she?

10. Where are they?

11. Where are they?

12. Where are they?

 

 

Exercise 12. Put in in/at/on.

1. Don’t sit … the grass. It’s wet.

2. What have you got … your bag?

3. Look! There’s a man … the roof. What’s he doing?

4. There are a lot of fish … this river.

5. Our house is number 45 – the number is … the door.

6. Is the cinema near here? – Yes, turn left … the traffic lights.

7. I usually do my shopping … the city centre.

8. My sister lives … Brussels.

9. There’s a small park … the top of the hill.

10. I think I heard the doorbell. There’s somebody … the door.

11. Munich is a large city … the south of Germany.

12. There are a few shops … the end of the street.

13. It’s difficult to carry a lot of things … a bicycle.

14. I looked at the list of names. My name was … the bottom of the list.

15. There is a mirror … the wall … the living room.

16. Helen is studying law … university.

17. There was a big table … the middle of the room.

18. What’s the longest river … the world?

19. Were there many people … the concert last night?

20. Will you be … home tomorrow afternoon?

21. Who is that man … this photograph? Do you know him?

22. Where are your children? Are they … school?

23. George is coming by train. I’m going to meet him … the station.

24. Charlie is … hospital. He’s going to have an operation tomorrow.

25. How many pages are there … this book?

26. Are you hungry after your journey? – No, I had a meal … the train.

27. I’m sorry, I’m late. My car broke down … the way here.

28. Is Tom here? – No, he’s … his brother’s.

29. Don’t believe everything you see … the newspaper.

30. I walked to work but I came home … the bus.

 

Exercise 13. Write to or in.

1. I like reading … bed.

2. We're going … Italy next month.

3. Sue is on holiday … Italy at the moment.

4. I must go … the bank today.

5. I was tired, so I stayed … bed late.

6. What time do you usually go … bed?

7. Does this bus go … the centre?

8. Would you like to live … another country?

 

Exercise 14. Write to or at if necessary.

1. Paula didn’t go … work yesterday.

2. I'm tired. I’m going … home.

3. Ann is not very well. She has gone … the doctor.

4. Would you like to come … a party on Saturday?

5. Is Liz … home? – No, she's gone … work.

6. There were 20,000 people … the football match.

7. Why did you go … home early last night?

8. A boy jumped into the river and swam … the other side.

9. There were a lot of people waiting … the bus stop.

10. We had a good meal … a restaurant and then we went back … the hotel.

 

Exercise 15. Write to, at or in if necessary.

1. I’m not going out this afternoon. I’m staying … home.

2. We’re going … a concert tomorrow evening.

3. I went … New York last year.

4. How long did you stay … New York?

5. Next year we hope to go … Canada to visit some friends.

6. Shall we go … the cinema this evening?

7. Is there a restaurant … the station?

8. After the accident three people were taken    … hospital.

9. How often do you go … the dentist?

10. Is Diane here? – No, she’s … Ann’s.

11. My house is … the end of the street on the left.

12. I went … Mary’s house but she wasn't … home.

13. There were no taxis, so we had to walk … home.

14. What did you study … university? – I didn’t go    … university.

15. What time do you usually get … work?

16. What time do you usually get … home?

17. What time did you arrive … the party?

18. When did you arrive … London?

19. What time does the train get … Paris?

20. We arrived … home very late.

 

Exercise 16. Complete these sentences about yourself. Use to/in/at.

At three o’clock this morning I was ….

Yesterday I went ….                       

At 11 o’clock yesterday morning I was ….

One day I’d like to go ….

I don’t like going ….

At 9 o’clock yesterday evening I was ….

 

Exercise 17. Fill in the blanks with prepositions of place at, in, on.

1. Excuse me, can you tell me where the concert hall is? – Turn ___ the right ___ the roundabout. It's ___ the corner of the square.

2. We spent our holiday___ the south coast of France.

3. He lives ___ the tenth floor ___ the centre of the city.

4. There was a black spot___ the back of the letter.

5. There were no vacant chairs to sit ___, so he sat____ the armchair ___ the corner.

6. Do you know that Englishmen drive ___ the left?

7. Look, how many stars there are ___ the sky!

8. I'm going ___ the concert ___ the Central Concert Hall tomorrow.

9. The delegation was met___ the airport.

10. I don't want to sit ___the back row, let's sit ___the front.

11. At first it seemed that there wasn't his name ___ the list, but then he found it ___ the bottom of the page.

12. __ my way home I saw Helen. She was standing____ the bus stop.

13. She did not want anybody to see her, so she sat ___the back of the car.

14. We were ____the restaurant yesterday. There were a lot of delicious things___ the menu.

15. Where did you meet? – We met ___ the party ___ the Greens’.

ARTICLES

The article is a part of speech used with the noun. There are two types of the articles in the English Language: the Indefinite and the Definite articles. The absence of the article is also grammatically important.

 

The Definite Article - the,

EXERCISES

 

Exercise 1. Use an indefinite article with the predicatives where possible:

A.     

1. This is yellow pencil.

2. The text is easy.

3. This is easy text.

4. These are low tables.

5. This table is low.

6. This is low table.

7. Roses are beautiful flowers.

8. This town is big.

9. Moscow and Minsk are big cities.

10. Kiev is big city, too.

11. It is rose. The rose is beautiful flower.

12. This is grass. The grass is green.

13. Pizza is very tasty food.

14. “A fateful choice” by Rachel Lee is interesting novel.

15. Mr. Clark’s favourite drink is beer.

16. Michael and Jane are twins.

17. Benny is naughty.

18. Benny is naughty and noisy kid.

19. Is it red apple?

20. The apple is red.

 

В.     

1. John's father is... dentist.

2. Mr. Kelly’s children are... pupils.

3. Max Stephenson is... good counsel, they say.

4. Roger and Steve are... easy-going chaps. Jack is... nice guy, too.

5. “Are уоu ... journalist?”

6. “Young Smith is... poet, isn’t he?” – “Yes, and... promising one.”

7. Are the Browns... friendly family?

8. Are cucumbers... vegetables?

9. “Peter, I am ...attractive woman, aren’t I?” – “Sure, Nora.”

10. Ice is... frozen water.

11. Flies are... insects.

12. The eagle is... bird.

13. The deer is... animal.

14. The horse is... domestic animal.

15. The wolf is... wild animal.

16. The lion is... dangerous animal.

17. Bananas, oranges, apples are... fruit.

18. Cooking salt is... mineral.

19. Venus is... planet.

20. “Is a “screw driver” ... instrument?” – “Well, it is... cocktail, as well.”

 

Exercise 7. (Revision.)

 

Situation: two friends are in the country, they are having a rest and talking.

 

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE (THE)

 

The Definite Article is used with uncountable nouns and countable nouns both in the Singular and Plural forms. We use it to show that the noun denotes a particular object, thing, person or notion (to single out an object or a person from others of the same class) i.e. to individualize it (the individualizing function).

The object or the person can be individualized by:
a) a limiting attribute or
b) a situation.

e.g. How did you like the play? (a situation)

Where is the key? (a situation)

(For lunch I had a sandwich.) The sandwich wasn’t very nice. (a situation: the object is mentioned for the second time)

This is the house that Jack built (a limiting attribute).

The walls in my room are painted blue (a limiting attribute).

a) NB! A limiting attribute should not be confused with a descriptive attribute, which is used to describe an object or to give some additional information about it.

e.g. I have a wonderful clock which is 100 years old. (descriptive attribute)
We have received a letter containing interesting information. (descriptive attribute)

 

Limiting attributes:

-   such adjectives as “wrong”, “right”, “very (тот самый)”, “next”, "following”, “only”, “whole”, etc;

-   adjectives in the superlative degree;

-   ordinal numerals (the first, the twenty-second, the eleventh, etc.)
* but: a noun + cardinal numeral = Zero Article ( page 23, bus №11, etc.)

-   the pronoun “same”:

e.g. You are the very person I need.

It is the right answer.

Max is the only son of the Smiths.

We have more time the following week.

The highest mountains are in Asia.

She is the most beautiful girl I have ever met.

It is the first and the last time when I ask you.

 

b) We use “the” when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean. For example, in a room we talk about ‘the light/ the floor/ the ceiling/ the door/ the carpet’ etc.

e.g. Can you turn on the light, please? (= the light in the room)

Where is the toilet, please? (= the toilet in this house)

The postman was late yesterday (our usual postman).

I took a taxi to the station (= the station in this town).

We got to the airport just in time for our flight.

 

Also we say: the police / the fire-brigade / the army/ the bank / the post office / the doctor / the dentist:

e.g. I must go to the bank to change some money and then I’m going to the post office to buy some stamps (the speaker thinks of a particular bank or post office).
 e.g. John isn’t very well. He has gone to the doctor (= his doctor).

 

The Definite Article is used with the name of the whole family: e.g. the Browns (семья Браунов), the Smiths (семья Смитов), etc.

        

We use the Definite Article with a noun denoting a unique thing: the sun, the moon, the sky, the earth, the world, the globe, the universe, the Milky Way, the ground, the cosmos, the atmosphere; unique person: the President, the manager, the director, the captain, the monitor, etc.; unique notions; the present, the past, the future, the plural, the North, the South, the East, the West, the equator, the horizon, the post, the press, the telegraph, the telephone, the radio.

 

But: TV, (the) television.

e.g. The sun was shining in the sky .

The president is elected every 4 years.

Paris is the capital of France.

The captain was standing on the deck.

The telephone in this town is as private as the radio.

 

NB 1! Exception: we say “space" but not “the space” when we mean space in the universe:

e.g. There are millions of stars in space.

 

NB 2! The Indefinite Article can be used when we mean a certain state or aspect of the unique thing.

e.g. A pearl-white moon smiles through the green trees.

A new president will be elected in 4 years.

 






EXERCISES

Exercise 8.Complete these sentences using “the” + noun (denoting an object individualized by the situation)

Example: It was getting dark in the room, so I turned on... (the light).

1. There were no chairs, so we all had to sit on ....

2. As soon as I saw the fire, I called ….

3. We didn’t have any stamps, so we had to go to ....

4. I had a toothache, so I made an appointment with ....

5. Ann had to catch a train, so I took her to ....

6. When we found that someone had broken into our house, we called ....

7. Bill wasn’t feeling well, so he went to ....

8. We didn’t have any money, so we had to go to….

9. The plane was delayed, so we had to wait at ... for three hours.

Exercise 14. (Revision.)

Situation: Imagine you have a pen-friend in Great Britain. That is his letter where he writes about himself and his family.

Exercise 17.

EXERCISES

EXERCISES

 

Exercise 24. Fill in the gaps with one of the words from the list adding ‘the’ where necessary. Use each word twice.

prison school bed sea hospital

 

1. The minute we reached the beach, the children ran into … to swim.

2. My brother is in the navy. He is at … for months sometimes.

3. I usually go to … at about 11 pm to get a good night’s sleep.

4. The cat is sitting on ….

5. The Prime Minister visited … yesterday and talked to the prisoners.

6. The men who robbed the bank are in   … now.

7. The ambulance took the injured people to ….

8. I must go to … to visit my aunt. She’s had an operation.

9. We saw the children in their classrooms as we walked past ….

10. I want to go to university when I leave ….

 

REVISION EXERCISES

Exercise 31. Use the proper article:

1. He is … honesty itself.

2. … iron is … metal.

3. … knife is made of… metal.

4. I want… glass of… milk.

5. I like … jam on … piece of… bread.

6. We can write … letter in … ink or with … pencil.

7. I prefer … book of … poetry to stories of … adventure.

8. Can you give me … piece of… advice?

9. No news is … good news.

10. … kindness is … good quality.

11. He read … leading article slowly moving his lips over … words.

12. … thought of Nessie faded from his mind.

13. I was … interpreter during … war.

14. We were shocked by… scene that followed.

15. And then … lady came in, … tall young lady.

16. We were met by … handsome young man. … man was … guide.

17. … street was empty. But suddenly she noticed … old woman on … opposite side of… street.

18. Long ago this park was … large private garden.

19. She changed … wrapper in which she did the housework for … black satin blouse and … skirt.

20. … marble clock on … mantelpiece softly chimed twelve.

21. He had … wild desire to run away.

22. I want you to explain … incident we had this morning.

23. What … nice cheerful fellow he is!

24. … young woman of about 30 with … pleasant face rose to greet them when they entered … room.

25. What shall we have for … dessert today?

26. Let’s go to … canteen and have … bite.

27. … cucumbers and … tomatoes are … vegetables.

28. I don’t like … mineral water, I prefer … cup of … tea.

29. Pass me … butter, please.

30. … water, … milk, … tea and … coffee are drinks.

31. Is there anything to your taste on … menu?

32. Will you bring … knife from … kitchen?

33. Only after … second course he felt he was not hungry any longer.

34. Is … pudding to your taste?

35. They sat down to … table and began eating.

36. It was … stewed-fruit and … ice-cream to follow. … ice-cream was rather melted.

37. Did you finish … school … last year?

38. … examiner has already come.

39. What was your mark in… History?

40. He has made … great progress since … beginning of… term.

41. It is easy for … child to study … foreign language.

42. Where is … money? – It is on … table.

43. … boy is good at… Mathematics, … Physics and … Chemistry, but his knowledge of… Literature and … English is rather poor.

44. What … fine weather we are having today!

45. At last he found … very interesting work.

46. … news he brought yesterday is very important.

47. What … clever advice!

48. … Phonetics is … branch of… Linguistics.

49. If you want to speak without … mistakes you must study … Grammar hard.

50. What is … news?

51. … exercise 12 must be done in … written form.

52. Do you often work in … laboratory?

53. She attends … course of… lectures on … Russian Literature at … University.

54. I am not interested in … Chemistry.

55. Her subject is … History of… Art.

56. It was clear she had … good news.

57. … advice is good but I cannot follow it.

58. … driver was … young fellow with … large red hands, … long legs and … orange hair.

59. They watched them go with … amused look.

60. She always met me with … smile.

61. He sat down to table with … great pleasure.

62. They have been working with … enthusiasm all this time.

63. It was … little house with … green windows and … brown door.

64. It was … cold winter with … sunny weather and … severe frosts.

65. The child looked at us with … surprise.

66. He was … young man with … pleasant open smile.

67. He spoke with … bitterness.

68. She nodded to me with … smile.

69. I shall do it with … pleasure.

70. He closed the door with … bang.

71. Everybody looked at her with … approval.

72. They were talking in … low voices.

73. Though he said it in … whisper I heard everything.

74. She was pulling her gloves on in … very slow way.

75. She went up the steps like … bird.

76. I was trembling like … leaf.

77. She said it in … matter-of-fact voice.

78. The young man smiled in …amazement.

79. She was weeping like … child.

80. With … deep sigh she rang the bell.

81. They were walking along … side by … side.

82. He worked from … morning till… night but earned very little.

83. She told me everything … word for … word.

84. The boys were all dirty from… head to … foot.

85. I always meet them walking … arm in … arm.

 

Exercise 32. Use the proper article:

... boy who had always lived in ... country and who had never heard of ... animals that live in other lands came one day to ... town where there was ... wild-beast show. ... elephant attracted his attention, and he was particularly struck by ... animal very much like ... cat, but considerably larger, with ... spotted skin and of... quiet and peaceful appearance. Near ... cage, containing this beautiful animal, was another of much less attractive appearance with two humps on its back and with ... long ugly neck. "What is ... name of that pretty animal which you have placed next to this other ugly one?" asked ... boy of... attendant. "That animal which you admire so much," he replied, "is ... leopard, and is one of... most dangerous of all wild beasts."

 

Exercise 33. Use the proper article:

Моr knew that now was his chance to give Miss Carter ... letter. He stood up. Miss Carter looked at him, ... little surprised. Моr searched his pockets for ... letter, which took him ... moment or two. Then he held it forth and threw it quickly on to her knee. It fell to ... floor and she picked it up with ... puzzled look. As she did this, ... motion caught... Mor's eye and he looked over ... Miss Carter's head to see that Demoyte was standing at... open door and had seen ... scene. Miss Carter, who had her back to ... door, had not observed him. She put... letter quickly into ... handbag, which lay beside her, and looked up again at Моr.

 

Exercise 34. Use the proper article:

a) Before ... week had passed, ... whole neighbourhood knew that Mr. Dale was going to ... Africa as ... mechanic with ... big scientific expedition. ... expedition would have to cross to ... America with all its machines on board ... big liner, and from there start for ... Africa. ... expedition would sail to ... Algeria and from there it would cross ... African continent to ... Madagascar.

b) Anyone who has ever travelled on ... New York underground railway during ... rush hours can easily understand ... following: ... little man, pushed into ... car, suddenly thought of... pickpockets and quite suddenly remembered that he had some money in his overcoat. He put his hand into his pocket and was somewhat shocked upon finding ... fist of... fat fellow-passenger.

"Aha!" cried ... latter, "I have caught you this time!"

"Let my hand go," replied ... little man.

"... Pickpocket," cried ... fat passenger.

"... Scoundrel," answered ... little one.

Just then ... tall man, who stood between them, glanced up from ... paper he was reading.

"I'd like to get off here, if you, ... fellows, don't mind taking your hands out of my pocket."


 


БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

1. Артикль: Учебно-методические рекомендации для студентов I курса института лингвистики, специальность «Иностранный язык» (английский язык). – Киров, 2002. – 53 с.

2. Морфология и синтаксис: Учебно-методические рекомендации для студентов I курса института лингвистики, специальность «Иностранный язык» (английский язык) / Сост.: О. В. Сычева, О. В. Чупракова, Н. Н. Кряжевских. – Киров: Изд-во ВятГГУ, 2004. – 59 с.

3. Практический курс английского языка: 1 курс: Учеб. для студ. пед. вузов / Под ред. В. Д. Аракина. – 5-е изд., испр. – М: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2002. – 544 с.: ил.

4. Романова  Л. И. Практическая грамматика английского языка / Лариса Романова. – 8-е изд. – М.: Айрис-пресс, 2008. – 384 с. – (Домашний репетитор).

5. Dooley, Jenny, Evans, Virginia Grammarway 4. – Express Publishing, 1999. – 224 p.


 


ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

 

OK PLACEMENT TEST. 3

SIMPLE SENTENCE. WORD ORDER. 9

HAVE / HAVE GOT. 23

THE VERB “TO BE”. 28

THE NOUN.. 31

THE NUMBER OF THE NOUN.. 31

THE POSSESSIVE CASE.. 40

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 48

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 53

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 58

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (SOME / ANY/ /NO) 62

QUANTIFIERS. 67

GENERAL QUESTONS. 79

ALTERNATIVE QUESTONS. 81

DISJUNCTIVE QUESTIONS. 81

SPECIAL QUESTIONS. 83

IMPERATIVE SENTENCES. 93

THERE IS / THERE ARE.. 95

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 105

ADVERBS. 118

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 123

PREPOSITIONS. 129

ARTICLES. 151

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE (A / AN) 152

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE (THE) 159

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE (GENERIC FUNCTION) 166

ARTICLES WITH PROPER NAMES AND SOME OTHER SPECIFIC CASES. 170

БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК.. 178

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ.. 179

 


 

 

Учебное издание

 

Сычева Оксана Валерьевна

 

 

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 1 КУРСА

 

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610000, г. Киров, ул. Московская, 36, тел.: (8332) 74-25-63, http://vyatsu.ru


УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 1 КУРСА

 

 

Киров

2017

УДК

 

 

Рекомендовано к изданию методическим советом

института гуманитарных и социальных наук ВятГУ

 

Допущено редакционно-издательской комиссией методического совета ВятГУ в качестве учебного пособия для студентов направления 44.03.05 «Педагогическое образование (с двумя профилями подготовки)»

 

 

Рецензенты:

кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры

иностранных языков и методики обучения иностранным языкам ВятГУ

С. Л. Бояринцева

 

кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры

иностранных языков и методики обучения иностранным языкам ВятГУ

О. Е. Загриева

 

Сычева, О. В.

Учебно-методическое пособие по грамматике английского языка для студентов 1 курса / О. В. Сычева. – Киров: ВятГУ, 2017. – … с.

 

УДК

Авторская редакция

Тех. редактор

 

© ВятГУ, 2017

 

OK PLACEMENT TEST

Choose the best answer. Mark your answers (a, b, c, d) with a cross (x) on the answer sheet.

1. … your name?

a) Why’s b) What’s c)How’s d) Who’s

2. … old are you?

a) Who           b)What           c)How             d) When

3. a) I’m 17 years old.

b) I’ve 17 years old.

c) I are 17 years old.

d) I’ve 17 years.

4. This is … interesting book.

a) the  b) a        c)an       d) –

5. a) They’re beautiful girls.

b) They’re girls beautiful.

c) They’re beautifuls girls.

d) They’re girls beautifuls.

6. John and I …English.

a) we are     b) are     c) we      d) are

7. a)I’ve cold

b) I has cold.

c) I are cold.

d) I’m cold.

8. … Italian?

a) You are    b) Is you c) You             d) Are you

9. There … ten students in the class.

a) is              b) are     c) be      d) am

10. Is this your pen?

a) No, not. b) No, isn’t. c) No, it isn’t  d) No, this isn’t.

11. She’s a student. … brother’s a teacher.

a) His b) Her             c) She              d) She’s

12. We’re Swedish. … names are Tomas and Karl.

a) Our b) We              c) Us      d) His

13. Give it to …

a) he  b) I        c) she     d) her

14. Show … the photographs.

a) their b) they            c) them  d) theirs

15. What’s … name of this book?

a) a     b) the     c) an      d) –

16. …a bicycle?

a) You have          b) Has you c) Have you got d)You’ve got

       Peter … a tennis racket.

a) hasn’t got          b) haven’t c) not has d) haven’t got

17. Has Anna got a boyfriend? …

a) No, she hasn’t   b) No, she hasn’t got c)No, she haven’t d) No, she not

18. a) He no can speak Spanish.

b) He can’t speaks Spanish.

c) He can’t to speak Spanish.

d) He can’t speak Spanish.

19. …on the right in Britain.

a) You mustn’t to drive     

b) You not must drive

c) You mustn’t driving

d) You mustn’t drive

20. Whose desk is this? …

a) It’s of Robert    b) It’s Robert  c) It’s Robert’s d) it’s to Robert

21. a) You he likes.

b) He likes you.

c) He you likes.

d)You likes he.

22. I speak French and English. David only … English.

a) speak b) does speak           c) do speak     d) speaks

23. Does Michelle like John?

a) No, she not. b)No, she doesn’t. c)No, she don’t. d)No, she doesn’t like.

24. a) He don’t smoke.

b) He not smoke.

c) He doesn’t smokes.

d)He doesn’t smoke.

25. a) What means this word?

b) What does mean this word?

c) What does this word mean?

d)What is this word mean?

26. Walk!

a) Not run    b) Run not c) Don’t run.            d) No run.

27. Listen! I … to you.

a) am talking b) talk             c) do talk d) am talk

28. We can’t go out now. …

a) It rains. B) It’s raining.     C) It rain. D) It raining.

29. a) Come at nine o’clock in Monday.

b) Come on nine o’clock on Monday.

c) Come at nine o’clock on Monday.

d) Come at nine o’clock at Monday.

30. Do you go … school by bus?

a) at b)in c) on d)to

31. a) What you are doing?

b) What’s you doing?

c) What are you doing?

32. She usually … to bed at about 11.30.

a) go            b) is going c) does go d) goes

 

33. … people over there are German.

a) These b) This            c) That            d) Those

34. Come and look at …. photograph.

a) these b) that             c) this              d) those

35. How many chairs are there?

a) There are five.

b) There is five.

c) It is five.

d) They are five.

36. … five people in my family.

a) There are b) They are c) It is             d) There is

37. I haven’t got … money.

a) no            b) some c) -         d) any

38. There is … sugar in this coffee.

a) a lot of b) much c) many d) a lot

39. How much money have you got?

a) Much b) Not much   c) A lot of d) Not many

40. There are … people here already.

a) a few b) a little c) much d) a lot

41. … late this morning?

a) Were you b) Was you c) You were    d) You was

42. Was she at school yesterday?

a) No, she weren’t b) No, she wasn’t c) No, she not d) No, wasn’t

43. Were there many people at the party?

a) Yes, there were b) Yes, they were c) Yes, it was  d) Yes, there was

44. How long …?

a) waited  he          b) did he waited c) he waited    d) did he wait

45. Did Tim and Mark win the match?

a) No, they not. b) No, they did. c) No, they didn’t d) No, they don’t     

46. Sarah … out last night.

a) didn’t went b) didn’t goes           c) didn’t go d) no went

 Why … to your party?

a) they not come b) they didn’t come c) not they came d)didn’t they come

47. … to a disco last night?

a) Went you b) Did you go c) Did you went d)You go

48. I came to England … English.

a) for learning b) for to learn c) to learn d) to learning

49. a) I never go to bed before ten.

b) I go never to bed before ten.

c) Never I go to bed before ten.

50. She’s … than me.

a) more old            b) older  c) more older            d) most old

51. He’s … at tennis than at football.

a) more good b) better c) best             d) more better

 

52. England is … than Spain.

a) expensiver b) more expensiver c) more expensive d) the more expensive

53. It was … day of summer.

a) the hottest b) the most hot c) the most hottest   d) hottest

54. You’re not … me.

a) as tall than b) as taller as            c) tall as d) as tall as

55. I … television this evening.

a) am going to watch b) watching c) watch d) go to watch

56. a) What time is the train going to leave?

         b) What time the train is going to leave?

c) What time is going to leave the train?

d) What time going to leave is the train?

57. I enjoy … early.

a) to get up  b) getting up             c) to getting up d) get up

58. a) You will come with me tomorrow?

b) Do you come with me tomorrow?

c) Come you with me tomorrow ?

d) Will you come with me tomorrow?

59. Oh no! … my key.

a) I lost b) I’ve lost c) I’m lost d) I’ve lose

60. a) Where they have gone?

b) Where have they gone?

c) Where have they went?

d) Where have they go?

61. a) I’ve never be to America.

b) I never been to America.

c) I’ve never been to America.

d) I never was to America.

62. a) They didn’t arrive yet.

b) They haven’t arrive yet.

c) They hasn’t arrived yet.

d) They haven’t arrived yet.

63. He … school last June.

a) left  b) has left c) did leave d) has leave

64. I … in England since 20th May.

a) was b) am              c) been            d) have been

65. We … to the cinema yesterday.

a) were b) went c) have gone    d) have been

66. … English since I was twelve.

a) I’m learning b) I’ve been learning c) I learn d) I’ve learned

67. I spoke to a girl … was from Barcelona.

a) which b) … c) who             d) whose

 

68. We went to a disco … was open till 4 a.m.

a) who b) where c) …      d) which

69. I was in England … two weeks.

a) during b) for     c) in       d) on

70. When I looked out of the window, …

a) it was raining    b) it were raining c) it rained d) it’s raining

71. What … at ten o’clock when I phoned?

a) did you do b) you were doing    c) were you doing    d) did you

72. … a bath when I opened the door.

a) He had     b) He has had           c) He’s having          d) He was having

73. I … home when the party was over.

a) was driving b) drive  c) drove d) have driven

74. He left without … goodbye.

a) to say       b) say              c) saying d) said

75. I don’t mind …

a) waiting     b) I wait c) to wait d) that I wait

76. Did you … yesterday afternoon?

a) go shop             b) went shopping c) go to shop   d) go shopping

77. He speaks English …

a) good but slow   b) well but slow c) good but slowly d) well but slowly

78. a) I come if you pay for me.

b) I’ll come if you pay for me.

c) I’ll come if you paid for me.

d) I come if you’ll pay for me.

79. I like this record.

a) So do I.    b) So am I. c) So I like. d) So I do. 

80. I don’t want to go.

a)Neither he does. b) Neither does he want. c) Neither does he.d) So does he.

81. You don’t like me, … ?

a) do you b) are you c) don’t you    d) aren’t you?

82. He eats a lot, …?

a) don’t he   b) he does    c) he doesn’t  d) doesn’t he

83. They went to London, …?

a) don’t they b) weren’t they c) aren’t they            d) didn’t they

84. You…speak perfect English to get the job.

a) don’t have to    b) mustn’t       c) don’t have            d) not have to

85. English…all over the world.

a) are spoken b) is spoken             c) is spoke      d) is speaking

88. a) Where was these made?

b) Where was this make?

c) Where were these made?

d) Where these were made?

89. This fact …by many people.

a) are not known   b) not is known c) is not known d) is not knowing

90. My bike…

a) have been stolen b) has stolen  c) has been stole d) has been stolen

91. The match…on Saturday.

a) is going to play b) is going to be played c) is playing d) is going to be playing

92. a) If he asked you out, would you go?

b)If he asks you out, would you go?

c) If he asked you out, will you go?

d) If he asked you out, do you go?

93. a) You’d pass the exam, if you will work harder.

b) You passed the exam, if you worked harder.

          c)You’ll pass the exam, if you would work harder.

          d) You’d pass the exam, if you worked harder.

94. Do you think they’ll win? Yes, I …

a) hope b) hope that    c) hope so d) hope it

95. Will she pass the exam?

a) No, I don’t think so.

b) No, I don’t think it.

c) No, I don’t think.

d) No, I not think so.

96. …. this letter for me.

a) I want that you post

b) I want you to post

c) I want you post

d) I want you posting

97. They didn’t ask … to their party.

a) that I come b) me come c) me for to come d) me to come

98. Didn’t I tell …?

a) you shut the door

b) you to shut the door

c) you the door to shut

d) that you shut the door

99. There’s … wrong with this pen.

a) anything            b) somebody            c) something             d) anybody

100. I didn’t speak to … .

a) anybody            b) anything     c) nobody       d) somebody

 

 

Дата: 2019-02-25, просмотров: 186.