Составьте рассказ на одну из предложенных тем, используя следующие слова
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И словосочетания .

Soil formation

Weathering, disintegration of parent rock material, chemical processes, soil-forming processes, plant and animal residues, physical processes, to originate.

Soil properties

Static, to change, time, to influence, chemical, biological, physical, to depend on.

Root development

Crop plants, roots, root development, to grow, shallow root system, soil layers, to utilize water and nutrients.

Soils in tropics and subtropics

Geologically old, rainfall, high temperature, leaching of nutrients, to induce, rapid decomposition, soil organic matter.

Complexity of soil formation

Property, to modify, soil, use, to differ, organic matter content, between regions, variation.   

 

 

 

Unit 2

Soil productivity

Фонетические упражнения

Прочитайте следующие многосложные слова, обращая внимание на суффиксы:

- tion: production, interaction, population, irrigation, description, decomposition,

exploration, application ;

- ment: environment, development, management;

- ly: slowly, ultimately, entirely, conversely, comparatively, seriously, relatively;

- al: biological, natural, physical, beneficial, chemical, microbial, essential;

- ity: productivity, capacity, availability, complexity;

- able: available, unsuitable, changeable, variable, supportable, valuable, suitable.

2. Прочитайте следующие многосложные слова, обращая внимание на ударение:

anchorage, water-holding, contribute, potassium, plant- available, related, although, pathogenic, decompose, biomass.

Словообразование

3. Подберите ряд однокоренных слов к следующим глаголам:

to depend, to differ, to change, to grow, to decompose, to compare, to apply.

 

4. Переведите без словаря следующие слова и определите, к каким частям речи они относятся:

physical, seriously, role, genetics, topography, status, biological, organism, resource.

 

Лексико -грамматические упражнения

5. Подберите синонимы из правого столбика к словам из левого столбика:

1. to differ                                                      a) to stay

2. to provide                                                   b) to influence

3. to remain                                                    c) to get

4. to receive                                                   d) to comprise

5. to decompose                                             e) to supply

6. to affect                                                      f) ability

7. capacity                                                      g) profitable

8. beneficial                                                    h) to decay

9. to include                                                    i) to vary

10. essential                                                        j) fundamental                  

                                                     

6. Прочитайте следующие слова:

1) anchorage- закрепление

 2) apply - применять

 3) beneficial -выгодный, полезный

 4) capacity - способность

 5) contribute-способствовать

 6) decrease-уменьшаться

 7) differ - различаться

 8) environment -окружающая среда

 9) explore- исследовать

10) genetics - генетика

11) habitat - среда обитания

12) harmful - вредный

13) interaction- взаимодействие

14) irrigation - орошение

15) nutrients -питательные вещества

16) organic matter - органическое вещество

17) pathogenic - патогенный

18) property -свойство

19)productivity –производительность

 

 7. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на слова из упражнения № 7.

Soil productivity

Soil is the natural resource on which food production depends. Although plants can grow in water culture, almost all crops are grown in soil. Soil provides crops with water and nutrients, physical anchorage for the plants and stability for the roots' chemical and physical environment. Soil also retains nutrients against loss by leaching and provides a habitat for soil organisms which have an essential role in the cycling of carbon and plant nutrients.

Soils differ in their ability to support crops, and some are entirely unsuitable for agriculture. The productivity of poor soils can be changed with fertilizers, irrigation but ultimately water, weather and crop genetics limit productivity. The term “soil productivity” is used to describe a soil's ability to support crop biomass production. Soil productivity is related to climate, topography, and complex interactions involving many factors that contribute to the biological, chemical and physical properties of the soil.

Biological factors can be both beneficial and harmful. Microbial populations decompose organic residues to recycle nutrients. Conversely, soil-borne pathogenic organisms can seriously decrease yields. Physical factors are soil structure, soil volume that can be explored by roots and the water-holding capacity. Chemical factors contributing to soil productivity include nutrients status, soil pH and soil organic matter. The phosphorus and potassium status of a soil is affected by inputs of organic manure and fertilizers. Part of phosphorus, potassium and other major nutrients applied to crops will remain in the soil in plant-available forms, and thus improve soil productivity.

Many of these biological, chemical and physical properties of the soil change comparatively slowly with time.

 

8. Подберите английские эквиваленты из правого столбика к словам и выражениям из левого столбика:

1. продуктивность почвы                             a) poor soil

2. химический фактор                                   b) biological factor

3. производство пищи                                   c) change with time

4. природные ресурсы                                 d) natural resources

5. биологический фактор                             e) soil productivity

6. улучшать продуктивность почвы           f) food production

7. изменяться со временем                          g) physical properties of soils

8. физические свойства почвы                    h) improve soil productivity

9. структура почвы                                      i) soil structure

10.неплодородная почва                               j) chemical factor

 

9. Определите, какие слова из левого столбика могут служить определениями

 к слову из правого столбика.

Soil                      poor, highly, fertile, fast, low

Factor                  slowly, chemical, harmful, main, quickly, important

Property              deep, physical, main, loud, organic

Productivity        high, soil, nutrients, pathogenic, biological

Yield                   low, serious, good, high, badly

Water                  irrigation, clean, mineral, dirty, well

Structure             soil, complex, comparatively, chemical, changeable

 

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 369.