Questions and patterns for discussions on common diseases

What is the definition of the disease? What is the disease defined? What is the disease termed? What is the disease referred to?

The definition of the disease is… The disease is defined as… The disease is termed as…The disease is referred to as…

What is the classification of the disease? What types is the disease classified into? What kinds is the disease subdivided into?

The classification of the disease includes … The disease is classified into several types. They are… The disease is subdivided into several kinds. They are…

What are the main causes of the disease? What do the main causes of the disease include? What is the disease caused by? What is the disease triggered by? What is the disease induced by? What does the disease result from? What factors lead to the disease?

The main causes of the disease are… The main causes of the disease include… The disease is caused by… The disease is triggered by… The disease is induced by… The disease results from … Smoking and alcohol lead to the disease.

What are the main risk factors? What are the most common predisposing factors? What do the main risk factors include? What are the main risk situations? What are the main risk groups? Who is at high risk for the disease?

The main risk factors are… The main risk factors include… The most common predisposing factors are… The main risk situations are… The main risk groups are…Alcoholics, immunocompromised people, diabetics, AIDS patients are at high risk for the disease.

What is the morbidity rate of the disease? What is the mortality (death) rate of the disease? What is epidemiology of the disease? What is prevalence of the disease?

What is frequency of the disease?

The morbidity rate of the disease is 10 cases per 1,000 people. The morbidity rate of the disease is 1.2 deaths per 1,000 cases.

What are the most common symptoms, signs, clinical features, clinical manifestations of the disease? What are the most common signs of the disease? What are the most common clinical features of the disease? What are the most common clinical manifestations of the disease? What symptoms do patients with the disease have? What symptoms do patients with the disease experience?

The most common symptoms of the disease are… The most common signs of the disease are… The most common clinical features of the disease are… The most common clinical manifestations of the disease are… Patients with this disease have (experience) the following symptoms…

What does evaluation for the disease include? What does examination for the disease consist of? What does investigation for the disease involve? What does evaluation for the disease comprise?

Evaluation for the disease includes three main stages. Examination for the disease consists of three main steps. Investigation for the disease involves three main parts. 

Evaluation for the disease comprises three main levels.

They are first(ly), history, second(ly), physical examination and third(ly), instrumental evaluation.

What does history include? What does history evaluation consist of?

History includes a personal medical history or a previous history, a history of the present illness, a history of presenting complaint, a childhood illness history, a past medical history, an allergic history, a family history, a pregnancy history, an obstetric history, a gynecological history, a medication or drug history, an immunization history, a psychiatric history, an occupational history, a social history, a surgical history, an environmental history, a sexual history, a diet history, etc.

What does physical examination include? What does physical evaluation consist of?

Physical evaluation includes observation, percussion, palpation, auscultation.

What does instrumental evaluation include?

Instrumental evaluation includes different blood tests, urinalysis, X-ray, MRI, ultrasound, ECG, echocardiography, laboratory tests, pulmonary function testing, audiograms, full body CAT scanning, heart stress tests, and mammograms or prostate exams depending on gender, etc.

What does treatment for the disease include? What does management for the disease consist of? How is the disease treated? What are the most common treatment methods for the disease? What are the most common treatment modalities for the disease?

Treatment for the disease includes…The most common treatment methods and modalities are…pharmacotherapy or drug therapy (antibiotics, sedatives, non-steroid anti-inflammatory medications, insulins, etc.), surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, vitamin therapy, phytotherapy or herbal therapy, hydrotherapy, blood transfusion, plasma transfusion, etc.

What does prevention for the disease include? How is the disease prevented? What does self-care include?

The most common prevention includes…avoidance of smoking, avoidance of alcohol, avoidance of sedentary life style, healthy diet low in fats, cholesterol and dietary sodium, exercises within tolerant levels…

What questions does the doctor ask the patients with this disease?

The doctor may ask different questions, for example,

Do you have a family history of this disease? Do (did) you parternal (marternal) relatives have this disease? Have you ever had… ? Have you ever been troubled, disturbed, bothered by …? Are you troubled, disturbed, bothered by … ? Are you being troubled, disturbed, bothered by … ? Are you having…. ? Do you often have … ? Has your doctor ever told you that you may have… ? Have you ever been told that you may have … ? What medications do you take? What medicines (pharmaceutical drugs, remedies) are you taking? Are you allergic to any drugs? Are you sensitive to any medications? What medications do you have allergies to? Have you ever been hospitalized for your disease? Have you ever been operated for your disease?

 

THE SKELETON

Phonetic exercise: skeleton [‘skelitn], skull [skʌl], cranium [‘kreiniəm], frontal [‘frʌntl], occipital [ɔk’sipitl], temporal [‘tempərəl], parietal [pə’raiitl], ethmoid [‘eθmɔid], lacrimal [‘lækriməl], zygomatic [,zaigə’mætik], mandible [‘mændibl], maxilla [mæk’silə], palatine [‘pælətain], vomer [‘voumə], vertebra [‘və:tibrə], vertebrae [‘və:tibri:], false [fɔ:ls], limbs [limz], extremities [iks’tremitiz], upper [‘ʌpə], lower [‘louə], forearm [‘fɔ:ra:m], wrist [rist], femur [‘fi:mə], tibia [‘tibiə], fibula [‘fibjulə], phalange [‘fælændʒ]

Make a report on the skeleton according to the plan below:

Definition: a rigid framework that provides structure as well as protection in humans.

Function: to provide structure as well as protection in humans

Structure: around 206 bones.

The skull or the cranium: 22 bones: 1 frontal bone, or os frontale in Latin, 1 occipital bone, or os occipitale in Latin, 2 temporal bones or ossa temporalia in Latin, 2 parietal bones, or ossa parietalia in Latin, 1 ethmoid bone, or os ethmoidale in Latin, 2 nasal bones, or ossa nasalia in Latin, 2 lacrimal bones, or ossa lacrimalia in Latin, 2 zygomatic bones, or ossa zygomatica, 1 mandible, or low jaw bone, 2 maxilla bones, or upper jaw bones, 1 vomer, 2 palatine bones, etc.

Function: to protect the brain.  

Vertebral column: 33 vertebrae, the sacrum, intervertebral discs, and the coccyx; 7 cervical vertebrae, or vertebrae cervicales in Latin, 12 thorasic vertebrae, or vertebrae thoracicae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, or vertebrae lumbales, 5 sacral vertebrae in small babies, or vertebrae sacrales, 3 to 5 separate or fused vertebrae (the coccygeal vertebrae) below the sacrum.

Function: to house and protect the spinal cord in its spinal canal. 

Thorax, rib cage: the sternum, or the breastbone, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 pairs of ribs: 7 pairs of true ribs, or costae verae in Latin, 3 pairs of false ribs, or costae spuriae in Latin, 2 pairs of floating ribs, or costae fluitantes in Latin.

Function: to protect the heart, the bronchi, the lungs, and the esophagus

2 upper limbs, or upper extremities: each upper limb: 1 shoulder, 1arm (the region between the shoulder and the elbow), 1 elbow, 1 forearm, 1 wrist, 1 hand.

Bones of the upper limb: 1 clavicle, or collarbone, 1 scapula, or shoulder blade, 1 humerus, 1 radius, 1 ulna, 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpals, 14 phalanges.

Fingers: a thumb, an index finger, a middle finger, a ring finger, and a little finger.

2 lower limbs: each lower limb: 1 femur (thighbone), 1 tibia (shinbone), and 1 fibula.

Each foot: 7 tarsal bones, 5 metatasal bones, 14 phalanges.

Pelvis: the greater pelvis (inferior part of the abdominal cavity) and the lesser or true pelvis which provides the skeletal framework for the pelvic cavity.

The main parts of the pelvis: the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis.

Functions: to bear the weight of the upper body when sitting and standing; to contain and protect the pelvic and abdominopelvic inferior parts of the urinary tracts and internal reproductive organs.

The most common diseases: bone tumors, osteosarcoma, osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, osteodystrophy, etc.

JOINTS

Definition: the location at which two or more bones make contact.

Functions: first(ly), to allow movement, second(ly), to provide mechanical support.

Classification: articulations of hand, elbow joints, wrist joints, axillary articulations, sternoclavicular joints, vertebral articulations, temporomandibular joints, sacroiliac joints, hip joints, knee joints, articulations of foot

Common diseases: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, septic arthritis, gouty arthritis, etc.

CARTILAGES

Definition: a stiff and inflexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs.

Structure: specialized cells called chondrocytes.

Common diseases: chondrodystrophies, osteoarthritis, traumatic rupture, costochondritis, spinal disc herniation, benign and malignant tumors, polychondritis, etc.

TENDONS

Definition: a tough band of fibrous connective tissue.

Function: to connect muscles to bones.

Common diseases: different kinds of tendonopathies.

 

LIGAMENTS

Definitions: articular ligaments: fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. Peritoneal ligaments: a fold of peritoneum or other membranes.

Types of ligaments: knee ligaments, head and neck ligaments, pelvic ligaments, and thoracic ligaments.

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

Phonetic exercise: rheumatoid [’ru:m t Id], arthritis [’ θraitis], chronic [‘kr nik], inflammatory [in’flæmətəri], disorder [dis’ :də], autoimmunity [, təui’mju:niti], autoimmune [, təui’mju:n], pleura ['pljuərə], sclera [‘skliərə], characterized [‘kærəktəraizd], evaluation [i,vælju’ei∫n]], epidemiology [‘epi,di:mi’ ləd3i]

Make a report on rheumatoid arthritis according to the plan below:

Definition: a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks synovial joints; a form of autoimmunity.

Symptoms, signs, clinical manifestations, clinical features: joint pains, morning stiffness, radiological changes, joint inflammation, joint swellings, diffuse inflammation in the lungs, pericardium, pleura, and sclera, etc.

Epidemiology: about 1% of the world's population; 3 cases per 10,000 population; Onset: most frequent between the ages of 40 and 50.

Risk groups: women three times more often than men; 4 times more common in smokers than non-smokers.

Causes: still incompletely known.

Evaluation: history: a personal medical history, a family history, a medication history, an occupational history, a professional history, an inveronmental history, a surgical history, a social history, etc.

Physical examination: observation and palpation.

Instrumental evaluation: blood tests (especially a test called rheumatoid factor) and X-rays.

Diagnostic criteria:

· Morning stiffness of >(more than) 1 hour, most mornings for at least 6 weeks.

· Arthritis and soft-tissue swelling of > (more than) 3 of 14 joints/joint groups, present for at least 6 weeks

· Arthritis of hand joints, present for at least 6 weeks

· Symmetric arthritis, present for at least 6 weeks

· Subcutaneous nodules in specific places

· Rheumatoid factor at a level above the 95th percentile

· Radiological changes suggestive of joint erosion

Treatment: non-pharmacological treatment: physical therapy, occupational therapy and nutritional therapy, special tools to improve hard movements (e.g. special tin-openers, pens, pencils); pharmaceutical treatment: painkillers), anti-inflammatory drugs, (steroids), disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), joint injections, etc.

 

Osteoarthritis

Phonetic exercise: osteoarthritis[, stiə’ θraitis], degenerative [di’d3enəreitiv], arthritis [’a:θraitis], abnormalities [,æbn :’mæliti], congenital [kən’d3entl], diabetes [,daiə’bi:ti:z], atrophy [‘ætrəfi], injury [‘ind3əri], impairment [im’pεəmənt], analgesics [,ænəl’d3i:siks], characterized [‘kærəktəraizd], evaluation [i,vælju’ei∫n], epidemiology [‘epi,di:mi’ ləd3i]

 

Дата: 2018-09-13, просмотров: 40.