1 What countries have you traveled in?
2 Do you prefer to travel inside your country or abroad?
3 Do you need different documents for domestic and international traveling?
4 What documents do you need to travel abroad?
5 Does it take you much time to get all the documents ready for the journey?
6 Look at the photos of different passports. What features are the same in all of the them?
A British passport with the name of A Peruvian passport with the name of
European Union in the top Andean Community in the top
An Argentine passport with the name of An ordinary Polish e-passport
Mercosur in the top
Text 1. Passport
Scan the text and do the tasks given after the text.
1 citizenship – гражданство
2 congruent – соответствующий
3 consular – консульский
4 to permit – разрешать, позволять
5 attachment – прикрепление, присоединение
6 breakdown – распад; развал
7 enforcement – правоприменение
8 abolition – отмена; упразднение
9 manpower – рабочая сила
10 controversy – разногласия
11 auspice – покровительство
12 biometric – биометрический
13 to affix – ставить (подпись, печать)
14 designator – указатель
15 fraud – мошенничество, обман
A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth. Most often, nationality and citizenship are congruent.
A passport does not of itself entitle the passport holder entry into another country, nor to consular protection while abroad or any other privileges, in the absence of any special agreements which cover the situation. It does, however, normally entitle the passport holder to return to the country which issued the passport. Rights to consular protection arise from international agreements, and the right to return arises from the laws of the issuing country. A passport does not represent the right or the place of residence of the passport holder in the country which issued the passport.
It is considered unlikely that the term "passport" is derived from sea ports, but is considered likely to derive from a medieval document required to pass through the gate ("porte") of a city wall. In medieval Europe, such documents were issued to travelers by local authorities, and generally contained a list of towns and cities into which a document holder was permitted to pass. On the whole, documents were not required for travel to sea ports, which were considered open trading points, but documents were required to travel inland from sea ports.
Early passports included a description of the passport holder. Attachment of photographs to passports began in the early decades of the twentieth century, when photography became widespread.
In the later part of the nineteenth century and up to World War I, passports were not required, on the whole, for international travel in Europe, and crossing a border was easy. Consequently, comparatively few people had passports. The breakdown of the European passport system of the early part of the nineteenth century was a result of rail travel. Trains, used extensively from the mid-nineteenth century onward, traveled rapidly, carried numerous passengers, and crossed many borders. Those factors made enforcement of passport laws difficult. The general reaction was abolition of passport requirements. The Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire maintained passport requirements for international travel, in addition to an internal-passport system to control travel within it.
During World War I, European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons (to keep out spies) and to control emigration of citizens with useful skills, retaining potential manpower. These controls remained in place after the war, and became standard procedure, though not without controversy. British tourists of the 1920s complained, especially about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which they considered led to a "nasty dehumanisation".
In 1920, the League of Nations held a conference on passports and through tickets. Passport guidelines resulted from the conference, which was followed up by conferences in 1926 and 1927.
The United Nations held a travel conference in 1963, but passport guidelines did not result from it. Passport standardisation came about in 1980, under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO.
The standard passport format includes the name of the issuing country on a passport cover, a national symbol, a description of the document (e.g., passport, official passport, diplomatic passport), and, if the passport is biometric, the biometric-passport symbol. Inside, there is a title page, also naming the country. This is followed by a data page, on which there is information about the bearer and the issuing authority, although passports of some European Union member states provide that information on the inside back cover. There are blank pages available for foreign countries to affix visas, and to stamp for entries and exit. Passports have numerical or alphanumerical designators ("serial number") assigned by the issuing authority.
Standards for machine-readable passports have also been issued by the ICAO, with an area set aside where most of the information written as text is also printed in a manner suitable for optical character recognition.
To conform with ICAO standards, a biometric passport has an embedded radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip, which contains data about the passport holder, a photograph in digital format, and data about the passport itself. Many countries now issue biometric passports. The objectives for the biometric passports are to speed up clearance through immigration and the prevention of identity fraud. These reasons are disputed by privacy advocates. Governments are reluctant to acknowledge privacy concerns.
Although many countries issue biometric passports, few introduced the equipment needed to read them at ports of entry. In the absence of an international standard, it is not possible for one country to read the biometric information in passports issued by another country.
1. Give English equivalents for the following Russian words and word-combinations
1 давать право на въезд в другую страну
2 давать право на возвращение в страну
3 проходить через городские ворота
4 открытые торговые точки
5 правоприменение паспортных законов
6 сохраняя потенциальную рабочую силу
7 под покровительством Международная организация гражданской авиации
8 биометрический паспортный символ
9 оптическое распознавание
10 ввиду отсутствия международных стандартов
2. Find synonyms to the following words from the text
2 to give right to do something
4 to cross
5 to allow
3. Match the given words with definitions
1 nationality a) the power to give orders and make others obey
2 citizenship b) the fact of living in a particular place
3 residence c) membership of a particular nation
4 agreement d) an arrangement, a promise or a contract made with somebody
5 authority e) being a citizen of a particular country, with the rights and duties
4. Read and translate the following groups of words derived from a common root
1 nation – national – nationalize – nationality – nationalization
2 city – citizen – citizenship – citizenry
3 identity – identify – identification – identificational
5. Answer the questions
1 What is passport?
2 What facts of personality should be stated in any passport?
3 When was this document issued first?
4 Was it widely spread in the beginning of the 19th century? Why?
5 What features appeared in the 20th century?
6 Why were border passport requirements intriduced in World War I?
7 When did passport standartization come about?
8 What does the standard passport format include?
9 What is radio-frequency identification?
10 Do we have biometric passports?
Text 2. Russian passport
Scan the text and find the information about the countries that Russian people can visit without visas. Retell it to your partner. Discuss what other countries are desirable to have visa-free access.
Russian passports are issued to citizens of Russia for the purpose of international travel.
The Russian internal passport is the primary identity document for citizens of the Russian Federation residing in Russia. It is initially issued to citizens at the age of 14 by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, and has to be renewed at the ages of 20 and 45. Every citizen after the age of 14 who is a permanent resident of Russia is required to have a valid internal passport.
The passport contains the information about the full name of the citizen, his/her sex, birth date and birthplace and a picture of him/her. Also it contains remarks about his/her home address, military duty, marriage, children under 14, other internal and foreign passports issued by the Russian authorities, blood group (optional) and individual taxpayer identification number (also optional). All the data is filled in Russian. Any other remarks render it invalid.
The Russian police will sometimes do random ID checks to look for draft dodgers, illegal immigrants, people who don't have the proper registration, etc. Since the lack of an identity document can be grounds for temporary detention (it happens in practice though it is against the law), many Russians, especially young people, carry their passport whenever going outside.
The Russian internal passport serves as an identity document only within Russia. To go abroad to most countries with current exceptions for some ex-Soviet Union countries, and to reside there while retaining Russian citizenship, Russian adults need a passport for travel abroad issued by Russian authorities (in Russian: заграничный паспорт, zagranichny pasport; sometimes translated as international passport or foreign passport), which is valid for only 5 years and is not granted by default. In addition to the standard zagranichny pasport, there exist three special-purpose types of passports for traveling abroad: the diplomatic passport (issued to Russian diplomats), the service passport (issued to government employees going abroad on official business), and the seaman's passport. A citizen can be denied a passport for travel abroad, and hence the right to leave Russia, if: (s)he had, in order to get access to classified information, signed a contract with the government that included a provision restricting his/her right to leave the country; has been conscripted to the military or alternative civil service; is detained as a suspect for a crime; is under investigation or is serving his/her term according to a court decision; disobeys obligations imposed by a court decision; or has provided false information in his/her application. Children under 18 can only go abroad by consent of both parents or when permitted to do so by a court decision.
According to a somewhat outdated 2008 study done by Henley & Partners, Russian citizens could enjoy visa-free access to 60 countries and territories for short-term tourism visits. Russia was ranked 53rd in the study in terms of international travel freedom. So far, holders of the ordinary Russian travel passport can visit 81 country - either visa free or visa-on-the-border. An agreement between the European Community and Russia on the facilitation of the issuance of visas has been in force since June 1, 2007. It has unified the cost of visas, and made it easier to obtain visas for close relatives, journalists, official delegations, transport crew members and some other groups of visitors. Similar agreements have been signed, but not yet ratified, between Russia and Denmark, and Russia and Norway. Silvio Berlusconi, the Prime Minister of Italy, and later Alexander Stubb, the Foreign Minister of Finland have started public discussions on the future possibility for visa-free travel between the EU countries and Russia. Both the EU and Russia acknowledge, however, that there are many problems to be solved before visa-free travel is introduced. On November 26, 2008 the President of Brazil, Luis Inacio Lula da Silva and the President of Russia, Dmitry Medvedev signed an agreement on the abolition of visas for citzens of both countries for up to 90 days. A similar agreement was signed with Venezuela. A normal treaty ratification procedure by the parliaments is still required for the visa-free travel to become available with these two countries. Argentina is expected to join the visa-free regime with Russia sometime in 2009. Visa-free regime with Vietnam for up to 15 days was introduced on 01/01/2009.
1 initially – в начальной стадии, в начале
2 to renew – обновлять, продлить срок действия
3 valid – действительный, имеющий силу; правомерный
4 draft dodger – лицо, уклоняющееся от призыва на военную службу
5 detention – задержание, арест
6 to reside – проживать, жить (где-л.); пребывать
7 service passport – служебный паспорт
8 to be conscripted to - призванный на военную службу
9 investigation – расследование, следствие
10 facilitation – облегчение, помощь
1. Answer the questions:
1 When does the citizen of Russia get passport?
2 When should the passport be renewed?
3 What information should the passport contain?
4 What passport is considered valid and invalid?
5 Why does the Russian police carry out casual ID checks?
6 Do you need the Russian passport to travel abroad?
7 What kinds of passport do you know?
8 What citizens of Russia are not allowed to leave the country?
9 What countries can Russian people enter without visa?
10 When will Argentina join the visa-free regime with Russia?
2. Give Russian equivalents to the given phrases:
1 the primary identity document
2 a permanent resident of Russia
3 a valid internal passport
4 individual taxpayer identification number
5 to look for draft dodgers
6 grounds for temporary detention
7 valid for only 5 years
8 can be denied a passport for travel abroad
9 imposed by a court decision
10 to obtain visas for close relatives
3. Decide whether the statements are true or false:
1 Passport is given to the citizen of Russia at the age of 18.
2 No Russian citizen can be denied a passport for travel abroad.
3 There are 5 countries with visa-free-access for Russian people.
4 It is considered easier to get visas for close relatives.
5 Argentina does not have visa-free access for Russian people.
Text 3. Visa and its types
Scan the text and find the main reasons for refusal in visa receiving. Can you imagine any other reasons for rejection of entry or exit the country? Discuss them with your partner. Compare your lists with other students.
A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit. “a document that has been seen”) is a document issued by a country giving an individual permission to formally request entrance to the country during a given period of time and for certain purposes and usually stamped or glued inside of a passport, or sometimes issued as separate pieces of paper.
Many countries require possession of a valid passport and visa as a condition of entry for foreigners, though there exist exemptions.
Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter (or exit) a country, and are thus, for some countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country.
Some countries require that their citizens, and sometimes foreign travelers, obtain an exit visa in order to be allowed to leave the country.
Until 2004, foreign students in Russia were issued only an entry visa on being accepted to University there, and had to obtain an exit visa to return home. This policy has since been changed, and foreign students are now issued multiple entry (and exit) visas.
Some Visas can be granted on arrival or by prior application at the country’s embassy or consulate, or sometimes through a specialized travel agency with permission from the issuing country in the country of departure. If there is no embassy or consulate in one’s home country, then one would have to travel to a third country (or apply by post) and try to get a visa issued there. The need or absence of need of a visa generally depends on the citizenship of the applicant, the intended duration of the stay, and the activities that the applicant may wish to undertake in the country he visits; these may delineate different formal categories of visas, with different issue conditions.
Some, but by no means all, countries have reciprocal visa regimes: if Country A requires citizens of Country B to have a visa to travel there, then Country B may apply reciprocity and require a visa from citizens of Country A. Likewise, if A allows B’s citizens to enter without a visa, B may allow A’s citizens to enter without a visa.
This reciprocal fee has gained prominence in recent years with the decision of the United States to charge nationals of various countries a $131 visa processing fee (non-refundable, even if a visa is not issued). A number of countries, including Brazil, China, Chile, Russia, and Turkey have reciprocated. Brazil requires an advance visa before entry into the country, and that a US citizen be fingerprinted and photographed on arrival – matching U.S. requirements for Brazilians and other foreigners.
The issuing authority, usually a branch of the country’s foreign ministry or department (e.g. U.S. State Department), and typically consular affairs officers, may request appropriate documentation from the applicant. This may include proof that the applicant is able to support himself in the host country (lodging, food), proof that the person hosting the applicant in his or her home really exists and has sufficient room for hosting the applicant, proof that the applicant has obtained health and evacuation insurance, etc. Some countries ask for proof of health status, especially for long-term visas; some countries deny such visas to persons with certain illnesses, such as AIDS. The exact conditions depend on the country and category of visa. Notable examples of countries requiring HIV tests of long-term residents are the USA, Russia and Uzbekistan. However, in Uzbekistan, the HIV test requirement is sometimes not strictly enforced.
Developed countries frequently demand strong evidence of intent to return to the home country, if the visa is for a temporary stay, and especially if the applicant is from a developing country, due to immigration concerns.
The issuing authority may also require applicants to attest that they have had no criminal convictions, or that they do not partake in certain activities (like prostitution or drug trafficking). Some countries will deny visas if the travelers passports show evidence of citizenship or travel to a country which is not recognized by that country. For example, some Muslim countries will not issue visas to nationals of Israel or those whose passports bear evidence of visiting Israel.
Visas can also be single-entry, which means the visa is canceled as soon as the holder leaves the country, double-entry, or multiple-entry, permitting multiple entries into the country with the same visa. Countries may also issue re-entry permits that allow temporarily leaving the country without invalidating the visa. Even a business visa will normally not allow the holder to work in the host country without an additional work permit.
Once issued, a visa will typically have to be used within a certain period of time.
The validity of a visa is not the same as the authorized period of stay in the issuing country. The visa validity usually indicates when the alien can apply for entry to the country. For example, if a visa has been issued January 1st and expires March 30th, and the typical authorized period of stay in a country is 90 days, then the 90-day authorized stay starts on the day the passenger reaches the country, which has to be between January 1st and March 30th. The traveler could therefore stay in the issuing country until July 1st.
Once in the country, the validity period of a visa or authorized stay can often be extended for a fee at the discretion of immigration authorities. Overstaying a period of authorized stay given by the immigration officers is considered illegal immigration even if the visa validity period isn’t over (i.e. for multiple entry visas) and a form of being “out of status” and the offender may be fined, prosecuted, deported, or even blacklisted from entering the country again.
Entering a country without a valid visa or visa exemption may result in detention and removal (deportation or exclusion) from the country. Undertaking activities that are not authorized by the status of entry (for example, working while possessing a non-worker tourist status) can result in the individual being deemed removable, in common speech an illegal alien. Such violation is not a violation of a visa, however despite the common misuse of the phrase, but a violation of status hence the term “out of status.”
Even having a visa does not guarantee entry to the host country. The border crossing authorities make the final determination to allow entry, and may even cancel a visa at the border if the alien cannot demonstrate to their satisfaction that they will abide by the status their visa grants them.
Visa and immigration laws may be very different among countries. As such, aliens are advised to check with the relevant officials for visa and immigration laws governing the countries they wish to enter and eligibility to receive visas or other immigration benefits.
1 to stamp – ставить печать
2 exemption – освобождение (от налога и т. п.)
3 multiple – многократный; множественный
4 prior – предшествующий
5 to delineate – очерчивать, обрисовывать
6 reciprocal – взаимный, обоюдный
7 HIV – вирус иммунодефицита человека
8 to attest – подтверждать
9 to partake – принимать участие
10 prosecuted – преследуемый судебным порядком
1. Find the synonyms to the following words from the text
1 individual permission
2 for certain purposes
3 prior application
4 absence of need of a visa
5 the citizenship of the applicant
6 to support himself in the host country
7 temporary stay
8 invalidating the visa
9 can be extended
10 cancel a visa
2. Use the phrases from Exercise 1 in your own sentences.
3. Decide whether the statements are true or false:
1 Visa gives a permission to enter some definite country.
2 You can enter the country with the given visa only once.
3 Sometimes you need an exit visa to leave the country.
4 Visa has a validity period.
5 The border crossing authorities can cancel a visa even at the border.
Text 4. Schengen Agreement
Scan the text and find the information of permitted period of stay in the country included into the Schengen Agreement. Discuss the terms of stay with your partner. What rules would you like to abolish? Why?
The term Schengen Agreement is for two agreements concluded among European states in 1985 and 1990 which deal with the abolition of systematic border controls among the participating countries. By the Treaty of Amsterdam, the two agreements themselves and all decisions that have been enacted on their basis have been incorporated into the law of the European Union. This body of legal provisions is referred to as the Schengen Acquis. Subsequent amendments to that acquis, including the Schengen Agreements themselves, have been made in the form of European Union regulations. The main purpose of the establishment of the Schengen rules is the abolition of physical borders among European countries.
The Schengen rules apply among most European countries, covering a population of over 400 million and a total area of 4,268,633 km² (1,648,128 sq mi). They include provisions on common policy on the temporary entry of persons (including the Schengen Visa), the harmonisation of external border controls, which are coordinated by the Frontex agency of the European Union, and cross-border police and judicial co-operation.
A total of 29 states, including 25 European Union states and four non-EU members (Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland), are bound to the full set of rules in the Schengen Agreement (as amended), and 24 have fully implemented its provisions so far. Ireland and the United Kingdom were, at the time of the implementation of the Schengen acquis into EU law, the only EU members that did not sign up to the original Schengen Convention of 1990 and retained a right to opt out of the application of the rules after their conversion into European Union law. Thus, they have not ended border controls with other EU Member States, this being the core purpose of the Schengen Agreement, but apply the provisions relating to police and judicial co-operation which form part of the Schengen acquis.
Border posts and checks have been removed between the states which form the Schengen area. A common Schengen visa allows tourists or other visitors access to the area. Holders of residence permits to a Schengen state enjoy the freedom of travel to other Schengen states for a period of up to three months.
The requirement of a visa for short-term stays in the Schengen area which do not involve employment or any self-employed activity are set out in an EU regulation. The list of the nationals which require a visa for a short-term stay (so-called Annex I list) and the visa-free nationals (so-called Annex II list) refers to the nationality of the third-country national and not to the passport or travel document he or she is holding (with an exception to holders of Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR passport holders, and another exception vis a vis holders of refugee travel documents, where the country which issued the travel document is relevant). Third-country nationals who intend to take up employment or self-employed activity may be required by member states to obtain a visa even if they are listed on the Schengen visa-free list; usual business trips are normally not considered employment in this sense.
Holders of such permit may cross the external borders, once there has not been issued an alert in the Schengen Information System for refusal of entry, and they do not form a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international relations of any of the Member States. The question whether an additional identity document is required for crossing the border (and which type may be used), and for how long the permit holder may stay in the border area, may be regulated bilaterally. The maximum permitted period of stay may not exceed three months. The features of the form of the permit have to comply with the uniform format for residence permits for third-country nationals. Permits are valid from one up to five years.
Permits may only be issued to persons having been lawful residents in the border area of a country neighbouring a Schengen State for a period specified in the relevant bilateral agreement, which generally has to be at least one year. The applicant for the permit has to show legitimate reasons frequently to cross an external land border under the local border traffic regime, and must meet the specific entry requirements as described above. Schengen states must keep a central register of the permits issued and have to provide immediate access to the relevant data to other Schengen states.
1 abolition – отмена, аннулирование
2 treaty – договор, соглашение, конвенция
3 to enact – устанавливать; вводить закон; постановлять
4 acquis – согласие
5 amendment – поправка (к резолюции, законопроекту)
6 implementation – выполнение, исполнение, осуществление, реализация
7 to opt out – не принимать участия; устраняться, уклоняться
8 vis a vis – в отношении, по отношению
9 alert – тревога, сигнал тревоги
10 legitimate – законный, легальный; легитимный
1. Give Russian equivalents to the phrases from the text given above:
1 with the abolition of systematic border controls
2 the participating countries
3 incorporated into the law of the European Union
4 the establishment of the Schengen rules
5 the temporary entry of persons
6 judicial co-operation
7 for a period of up to three months
8 who intend to take up employment
9 are listed on the Schengen visa-free list
10 form a threat to public policy, internal security, public health
2. Agree or disagree with the statements according to the text:
1 The Schengen Agreements were concluded in 1985 and 1991.
2 The total population of the European countries included in the Schengen Agreements is over 500 million.
3 The United Kingdom was the only country that did not sign up to the original Schengen Convention of 1990.
4 Short-term stays visa is required according to an EU regulation.
5 Refusal of entry includes such cases as a threat to public policy, internal security, public health.
3. Look through the text once again and and find the meaning of the following dates and numbers:
1 1985 and 1990
2 400 million
3 1,648,128 sq mi
4 29 states
5 four non-EU members
4. Read the following article about types of visa and decide which one is the most widely used. Discuss it with your partner.
Types of visas include:
- transit visa, usually valid for 5 days or less, for passing through the country to a third destination.
- tourist visa, for a limited period of leisure travel, no business activities allowed. Some countries do not issue tourist visas. Saudi Arabia introduced tourist visas only in 2004 although it did (and still does) issue pilgrimage visas for Hajj pilgrims.
- business visa, for engaging in commerce in the country. These visas generally preclude permanent employment, for which a work visa would be required.
- temporary worker visa, for approved employment in the host country. These are generally more difficult to obtain but valid for longer periods of time than a business visa. Examples of these are the United States' H-1B and L-1 visas.
- on-arrival visa, granted immediately prior to entering the country, such as at an airport or border control post. This is distinct from not requiring a visa at all, as the visitor must still obtain the visa before they can even try to pass through immigration.
- spousal visa, granted to the spouse of a resident or citizen of a given country, in order to enable the couple to settle in that country. Examples include the United Kingdom's EEA family permit.
- student visa, which allows its holder to study at an institution of higher learning in the issuing country. Students studying in Algeria, however, are issued tourist visas.
- working holiday visa, for individuals traveling between nations offering a working holiday program, allowing young people to undertake temporary work while traveling.
- diplomatic visa (sometimes official visa), is normally only available to bearers of diplomatic passports.
- courtesy visa issued to representatives of foreign governments or international organizations who do not qualify for diplomatic status but do merit expedited, courteous treatment.
- journalist visa, which some countries require of people in that occupation when traveling for their respective news organizations. Countries which insist on this include Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, the United States (I-visa) and Zimbabwe.
- Marriage visa, granted for a limited period prior to intended marriage based on a proven relationship with a citizen of the destination country. For example, a German woman who wishes to marry an American man would obtain a Fiancee Visa (also known as a K-1 visa to allow her to enter the United States). "A K1 Fiancee Visa is valid for four months from the date of its approval."
- immigrant visa, granted for those intending to immigrate to the issuing country. They usually are issued for a single journey as the holder will, depending on the country, later be issued a permanent resident identification card which will allow the traveler to enter to the issuing country an unlimited number of times. (for example, the United States Permanent Resident Card)...
- pensioner visa (also known as retiree visa or retirement visa), issued by a limited number of countries (Australia, Argentina, Thailand, Panama, etc.), to those who can demonstrate a foreign source of income and who do not intend to work in the issuing country. Age limits apply in some cases.
- Special Category Visa is a type of Australian visa granted to most New Zealand citizens on arrival in Australia. New Zealand Citizens may then permanently reside in Australia under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement.
5. Scan the list of reasons for visa refusal and discuss it with your partner. Make up your own list of possible causes. Compare it with other groupmates. Do you have any common points?
A visa may be denied for a number of reasons, including (but not limited to) if the applicant:
6. Project work
Look at the photos and find some information about the symbol of Schengen Agreement. Make a presentation for your groupmates.
The sign announces entry to the A monument to the Agreement in
Federal Republic of Germany in German. Schengen, Luxembourg
Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 554.