Study the vocabulary and the text and do the tasks given below.
1 essential – неотъемлемый, необходимый
2 regardless of – не обращая внимания; невзирая на; не считаясь с
3 freight – груз, фрахт
4 tiny – крошечный, очень маленький
5 scheduled – запланированный, предусмотренный графиком
6 route – маршрут, дорога, путь
7 convenience – удобство, пригодность
8 apparent – видимый, очевидный, явный
9 depreciation – снижение стоимости, обесценивание
10 to expand – развивать(ся), увеличивать(ся)
11 purpose – цель
12 rather than – скорее . . . , чем . . .
13 to convert – преобразовывать, превращать
14 ferry – перевоз
15 to ply – курсировать, маневрировать, лавировать
Being in a different place from one's usual residence is an essential feature of tourism. This means that transportation companies are one vital aspect in the total tourist industry, regardless of what other business (such as carrying freight) they may undertake. Without the modern high-speed forms of transportation that are available to large numbers of people, tourism would be possible only for a tiny fraction of the population.
During the 19th Century, railroads spread across Europe, North America, and many other parts of the world. They formed the first successful system of mass transportation, carrying crowds of people to such English seaside resorts as Brighton, Margate, and Blackpool. The tourists on Thomas Cook's first organized tour in 1841 traveled by railroad.
Steamships were developed at about the same time as railroads, but during the first half of the last century, they were used for the most part on inland waterways. In the second half of the century, steamships that could cover longer distances were developed. By 1900, they were carrying passengers and freight on all the oceans of the world. Historically, the North Atlantic route between western Europe and North America has been the most important. In the period between the two world wars, steamships made scheduled crossings between New York and either Southampton or Cherbourg in only five days.
Unfortunately for those people who prefer leisurely travel, both railroads and steamships have lost much of their business in the past twenty years. The automobile has replaced the railroad for most local travel, especially in the United States, where the only remaining route that offers adequate passenger service is between New York and Washington. Passenger train service is better in Europe than in the United States, but it has been cut sharply on many routes. The New Tokaido Line between Tokyo and Osaka in Japan is one of the few successful passenger services to be operated in recent times.
The automobile offers convenience. The traveler can depart from his own home and arrive at his destination without transferring baggage or having to cope with any of the other difficulties that would ordinarily confront him. The apparent costs of a trip by automobile are also lower, especially for family groups, although the actual costs, including such hidden items as depreciation (a lowering or falling in value), may be greater than realized. A very large percentage of domestic tourism now takes advantage of the automobile for transportation. In Europe, where the distance from one national boundary to another may be very short, automobiles are also used extensively for international journeys.
For long-distance travel, the airplane has replaced the railroad and the ship as the principal carrier. The airplane has become so common that we often fail to realize what a recent development in transportation it really is. The first transatlantic passenger flights were made only a few years before World War II began in 1939. Frequent service came into being only after the war, and it was not until jets were introduced in the 1950s that passenger capacity began to expand to its present dimensions.
The railroads have suffered on short-distance routes as well as on long-distance routes. Motor buses, or coaches as they are called in England, have replaced railroad passenger service on many local routes. Most small towns in the United States are served only by bus.
Regularly scheduled steamship passenger service has disappeared from almost all transoceanic routes. Ships still play an important part in tourism, however, for the purpose of cruising. A cruise is a voyage by ship that is made for pleasure rather than to arrive quickly at a fixed destination. The cruise ship acts as the hotel for the passengers as well as their means of transportation. When the tourists reach a port, they are usually conducted on one-day excursions, but return to the ship to eat and to sleep. A majority of cruise ships operate in the "warm seas," the Caribbean and the Mediterranean. Wider-ranging cruises-around-the-world, for example, or even into Antarctic waters off the tip of South America-have been offered for the more adventurous. Many of the liners that once sailed on transatlantic or transpacific routes have been converted for cruising, but they are often unable to operate economically on cruise routes. Smaller and lighter ships that are especially designed for cruising have been built in recent years.
Ships play another part in modern tourism as car ferries. Particularly in Europe, the tourist who wants to have his car with him on a trip can take advantage of car ferries across the English Channel or the Strait of Gibraltar. Car ferries even ply across large bodies of water such as the North Sea between England or Scotland and Scandinavia. The city of Dover on the English Channel now handles the largest volume of passenger traffic of any port in the United Kingdom primarily because of car ferry services.
1. Give Russian equivalents:
1 an essential feature of tourism
2 carrying freight
3 a tiny fraction of the population
4 inland waterways
5 to cover longer distances
6 scheduled crossings
7 apparent costs of a trip
8 for the purpose of cruising
9 one-day excursions
10 to ply across large bodies of water
2. Find synonyms to the following words in the text above:
3 in spite of
10 to cope
3. Find antonyms to the following words:
4. Match the given words with definitions:
1) Transportation a) a large sea-going vessel
2) Population b) the act of carrying or the state of being carried from one place to another
3) Passenger c) the total number of inhabitants of any town or country
4) Boundary d) a person who travels in a public vehicle, ship
5) Ship e) a line that marks the end or limit a dividing line
5. Read and translate the following group of words derived from one root:
1 To confront – confrontation – confrontational
2 To introduce – introduction – introductory
3 To operate – operation – operative – operator
6. Answer the questions, using the information from the text:
1 How can you prove that transportation companies are one vital aspect in the tourist industry?
2 What was the reason for development of transportation?
3 In what part of the world was the most development of railroads?
4 What is the most convenient way of transportations?
5 Are there any new methods of organization?
6 What voyage would you like to undertake?
7 Will you organize the route yourself or will you apply for a tourist agency?
8 What type of transport would you choose?
Text 2. Railways
Study the text and find the information about the construction of a train. Discuss it
with your partner.
Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The term is derived from the Latin trans ("across") and portare ("to carry"). Industries which have the business of providing equipment, actual transport, transport of people or goods and services used in transport of goods or people make up a large broad and important sector of most national economies, and are collectively referred to as transport industries.
Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. A typical railway (or railroad) track consists of two parallel steel rails, generally anchored perpendicular to beams (termed sleepers or ties) of timber, concrete, or steel to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are usually then placed on a foundation made of concrete or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast to prevent the track from buckling (bending out of its original configuration) as the ground settles over time beneath and under the weight of the vehicles passing above. The vehicles traveling on the rails are arranged in a train; a series of individual powered or unpowered vehicles linked together, displaying markers. These vehicles (referred to, in general, as cars, carriages or wagons) move with much less friction than on rubber tires on a paved road, and the locomotive that pulls the train tends to use energy far more efficiently as a result.
In rail transport, a train consists of rail vehicles that move along guides to transport freight or passengers from one place to another. The guideway usually consists of conventional rail tracks, but might also be monorail or maglev. Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate locomotive, or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units. Most trains are powered by diesel engines or by electricity supplied by trackside systems. Historically the steam engine was the dominant form of locomotive power through the mid-20th century, but other sources of power (such as horses, rope or wire, gravity, pneumatics, or gas turbines) are possible.
Rail transport is an energy-efficient and capital-intensive means of mechanised land transport and is a component of logistics. Along with various engineered components, rails constitute a large part of the permanent way. They provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train can roll with a minimum of friction. As an example, a typical modern wagon can hold up to 125 tons of freight on two four-wheel trucks (100 tons in UK). The contact area between each wheel and the rail is tiny, a strip no more than a few millimetres wide, which minimizes friction. In addition, the track distributes the weight of the train evenly, allowing significantly greater loads per axle / wheel than in road transport, leading to less wear and tear on the permanent way. This can save energy compared with other forms of transportation, such as road transport, which depends on the friction between rubber tires and the road. Trains also have a small frontal area in relation to the load they are carrying, which cuts down on forward air resistance and thus energy usage, although this does not necessarily reduce the effects of side winds.
Due to these various benefits, rail transport is a major form of public transport in many countries. In Asia, for example, many millions use trains as regular transport in India, China, South Korea and Japan. It is also widespread in European countries. By comparison, intercity rail transport in the United States is relatively scarce outside the Northeast Corridor, although a number of major U.S. cities have heavily-used, local rail-based passenger transport systems or light rail or commuter rail operations.
1 equipment – оборудование
2 railway – железная дорога, железнодорожный путь
3 anchored – надежно закрепленный
4 beam – балка, брус
5 sleeper – шпала
6 buckling – перекашивание; потеря устойчивости
7 friction – трение
8 guideway – направляющий путь
9 maglev – магнитная подвеска
10 to distribute – распределять
1. Find English equivalents in the text:
1 термин происходит от
2 прочно закрепленный перпендикулярно балкам
3 использовать энергию гораздо эффективнее
4 отдельный состав
5 распределять вес поезда равномерно
6 верхнее строение пути
7 по сравнению с другими видами транспорта
8 уменьшать воздействие бокового ветра
9 благодаря различным преимуществам
10 относительно скудный
2. Find the synonyms to the given words in the text:
1 to carry on, to preserve
2 to compact
4 to drag
8 constant , continual
10 advantage , favour
3. Fill in the table with words with common root:
4. Skim the text once again and find the information about efficiency of rail transport. Retell it to your partner.
5. Read the following extract about reasons of accidents and necessary safety measures. Fill in the table to summarize the main information. Then study similar statistics in your own country and add it into your table devoted to railway safety in your country.
Trains can travel at very high speed; however, they are heavy, are unable to deviate from the track and require a great distance to stop. Although rail transport is considered one of the safest forms of travel, there are many possibilities for accidents to take place. These can vary from the minor derailment (jumping the track), a head-on collision with another train and collision with an automobile or other vehicle at a level crossing/grade crossing. Level crossing collisions are relatively common in the United States where there are several thousand each year killing about 500 people - although the comparable figures in the United Kingdom are 30 and 12 (collisions and casualties, respectively).
The most important safety measures are railway signalling and gates at level/grade crossings. Train whistles warn of the presence of a train, while trackside signals maintain the distances between trains. In the United Kingdom, vandalism or negligence is thought responsible for about half of rail accidents. Railway lines are zoned or divided into blocks guarded by combinations of block signals, operating rules, and automatic-control devices so that one train, at most, may be in a block at any time.
Compared with road travel, railways remain relatively safe. Annual death rates on roads are over 40,000 in the United States and about 3,000 in the United Kingdom, compared with 1,000 rail-related fatalities in the United States and under 20 in the UK.
|Reasons of accidents
|Annual death rates
6. Look through the pictures and choose the type of train you would like to travel by; discuss and explain your choice to your partner.
Blücher, an early railway locomotive built Two SD70M diesel locomotives of the Union
in 1814 by George Stephenson. Pacific refuelling at Dunsmuir, California.
Electric streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train passing
in 1888. Mount Fuji.
Text 3. Air transport
Scan the text and find the information about the first flights in different countries. Make up a scheme of air transport development. Compare with your partner.
Many countries have national airlines that the government owns and operates. Fully private airlines are subject to a great deal of government regulation for economic, political, and safety concerns. For instance, the government often intervenes to halt airline labor actions in order to protect the free flow of people, communications, and goods between different regions without compromising safety.
The first countries in Europe to embrace air transport were Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
KLM, the oldest carrier still operating under its original name, was founded in 1919. The first flight (operated on behalf of KLM by Aircraft Transport and Travel) transported two English passengers to Schiphol, Amsterdam from London in 1920. Like other major European airlines of the time (see France and the UK below), KLM's early growth depended heavily on the needs to service links with far-flung colonial possessions (Dutch Indies). It is only after the loss of the Dutch Empire that KLM found itself based at a small country with few potential passengers, depending heavily on transfer traffic, and was one of the first to introduce the hub-system to facilitate easy connections.
France began an air mail service to Morocco in 1919 that was bought out in 1927, renamed Aéropostale, and injected with capital to become a major international carrier. In 1933, Aéropostale went bankrupt, was nationalized and merged with several other airlines into what became Air France.
In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y (now Finnair, one of the oldest still-operating airlines in the world) was signed in the city of Helsinki on 12 September 1923. Junkers F 13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on 14 March 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, and it took place on 20 March 1924, one week later.
Germany's Lufthansa began in 1926. Lufthansa, unlike most other airlines at the time, became a major investor in airlines outside of Europe, providing capital to Varig and Avianca. German airliners built by Junkers, Dornier, and Fokker were the most advanced in the world at the time. The peak of German air travel came in the mid-1930s, when Nazi propaganda ministers approved the start of commercial zeppelin service: the big airships were a symbol of industrial might, but the fact that they used flammable hydrogen gas raised safety concerns that culminated with the Hindenburg disaster of 1937. The reason they used hydrogen instead of the not-flammable helium gas was a United States military embargo on helium.
The British company Aircraft Transport and Travel commenced a London to Paris service on 25 August 1919, this was the world's first regular international flight. The United Kingdom's flag carrier during this period was Imperial Airways, which became BOAC (British Overseas Airways Co.) in 1939. Imperial Airways used huge Handley-Page biplanes for routes between London, the Middle East, and India: images of Imperial aircraft in the middle of the Rub'al Khali, being maintained by Bedouins, are among the most famous pictures from the heyday of the British Empire.
Groups such as the International Civil Aviation Organization establish worldwide standards for safety and other vital concerns. Most international air traffic is regulated by bilateral agreements between countries, which designate specific carriers to operate on specific routes. The model of such an agreement was the Bermuda Agreement between the US and UK following World War II, which designated airports to be used for transatlantic flights and gave each government the authority to nominate carriers to operate routes.
1 to be subject to – подвергать (воздействию, влиянию и т. п.)
2 a great deal of – много, большое количество чего-л.
3 to intervene – вмешиваться
4 to halt – останавливать, задерживать
5 to embrace – принимать
6 carrier –авиаперевозчик; авиакомпания
7 to merge – сливать(ся), соединять(ся) (into, with)
8 zeppelin – цеппелин (вид дирижабля)
9 embargo – правительственный запрет
10 heyday – зенит, расцвет, лучшая пора
1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1 Only a few countries have their own airlines.
2 In most countries government does not interfere into air transportation.
3 The first countries in Europe to admit air transport were Holland, Japan and Italy.
4 The oldest carrier working under its original name was organized in 1919.
5 One of the oldest still-working airlines in the world is Finnish Aeropostale.
6 The apex of German air travel was in 1940s.
7 The disaster of Hindenburg took place in 1937.
8 The world's first regular international flight was in July, 1919.
9 Such group as ICAO proclaims worldwide standards for safety only.
10 World air traffic is controlled by bilateral agreements between countries.
2. Look through the text once again and explain to your partner the meaning of the dates and names given below.
5 12 September 1923
9 Bermuda Agreement
3. Work with your partner. Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of traveling by air. Compare your lists with other pairs of students. How many correspondences have you got?
4. Look through the pictures and read the article about the airline meals. What is your impression of that service. What would you change? Discuss in groups.
Short-haul meal of Austrian Airlines Breakfast served on short-haul flights in Aeroflot
A British Airways lunch (economy): baked fish, China Eastern Airlines - Domestic
salmon salad and apple pie. Flight Snack Box
The airline dinner typically includes meat (most commonly chicken or beef), a salad or vegetable, a small roll, and a dessert. Caterers usually produce alternative meals, e.g. kosher, halal and vegetarian. These must usually be ordered in advance, sometimes when buying the ticket. Some airlines do not offer a specific meal for vegetarians; instead, they are given a vegan meal. Some of other special meals include:
· Cultural diet, such as Chinese, French, Japanese, Indian or Italian style
· Infant and baby meals
· Medical diet which varies from low/high fibre, low fat/cholesterol, diabetic, peanut free, non-lactose, low salt/sodium, low-purine, low-calorie, low-protein, bland to gluten-free
· Religious diet, such as Hindu, Muslim or Buddhist diet (i.e Asian vegetarian)
· Children's meals, which often contain foods that picky children will enjoy such as baked beans, mini-hamburgers and hot dogs.
5. Find the following phrases in the extract given above (in Task 4):
1 маленькая булочка
2 поставщик провизии
3 кошерный, разрешенный законами иудаизма
4 заказывать заранее
5 бессолевая диета
6 низкопуриновая диета
7 безглютеновая диета
8 нестрогая (щадящая) диета
9 детское питание
10 разборчивые дети
6. Look through the pictures of different types of air transport. What would you choose to travel by and why? Explain your choice to your partner.
Hindenburg at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, First powered heavier-than air flight,
1936 December 17, 1903
Swiss International Air Lines Airbus A330 1947 Cessna 120
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