Scan the text and find out the things which a tourist should be prepared to before participating in an extreme tourism.
1 niche – надлежащее место (область, сфера деятельности)
2 to overlap – частично совпадать
3 rush – прилив, приток
4 rugged – пересеченный, заваленный, труднопроходимый
5 terrain – местность, место, территория, район
6 flyover – эстакада
7 trekking – путешествие (особенно длительное, сопряженное с трудностями)
8 knotting – связывание, завязывание в узел
9 pond – пруд; маленькое озеро
10 rowing – гребля
11 steep – крутой
12 cliff – обрыв, клиф
13 exhaustion – изнеможение, истощение
14 viable – жизнеспособный
15 torch – осветительный прибор (факел, фонарь)
Extreme tourism or shock tourism is a type of niche tourism involving travel to dangerous places (mountains, jungles, deserts, caves, etc.) or participation in dangerous events. Extreme tourism overlaps with extreme sport. The two share the main attraction, "adrenaline rush" caused by an element of risk, and differing mostly in the degree of engagement and professionalism.
Extreme tourism is a growing business in the countries of the former Soviet Union (Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, etc.) and in South American countries like Peru, Chile and Argentina. The mountainous and rugged terrain of Northern Pakistan has also developed into a popular extreme tourism location.
While traditional tourism requires significant investments in hotels, roads, etc., extreme tourism requires much less to jump-start a business. In addition to traditional travel-based tourism destinations, various exotic attractions are suggested, such as flyovers in MiGs at Mach 2.5, ice diving in the White Sea, or travelling across the Chernobyl zone.
River trekking or river tracing is a form of hiking or outdoor adventure activity, particularly popular in Hong Kong and Taiwan, and, in some ways, similar to canyoning or canyoneering. River trekking is a combination of trekking and climbing and sometimes swimming along the river. It involves particular techniques like rock climbing, climbing on wet surfaces, understanding the geographical features of river and valleys, knotting, dealing with sudden bad weather and find out possible exits from the river.
River trekking is especially popular in Hong Kong because it is totally a surprise that in this highly developed region are preserved a number of excellent geographical features in its rivers in the countryside. Through river trekking, it is possible to access numerous waterfalls, large ponds, pot holes, other special geographical features as well as special species of animals and plants. Also, it is a very cheap activity in comparison with other challenging outdoor activities like rock climbing, rowing and wind-surfing. No training courses are needed because there is no one in Hong Kong who would provide training for river trekking. However, river trekking has long been one of the most popular outdoor activities in Hong Kong, even though most of the river trekking routes or sites are indicated as "danger" or "no entry" by the government. There is a trend that more and more foreigners and even tourists are taking part in this activity.
River trekking has certain level of risk. There are occasional accidents in river trekking, including falls from steep cliffs or waterfalls, drownings, exhaustion, or getting lost. Risks that should be prepared for include the following:
First, sudden changes in weather, like rainstorms, can cause rapid rises in water levels and speed in the river. Also, the number of viable paths and climbing areas inside the river valley would be reduced suddenly in a very short period. Besides this, bad or misty weather would also cause low visibility. Low visibility may come in to quickly for trekkers to adapt to. Therefore, a torch (flashlight), preferably a head-mounted one, is a must for river trekking.
Second, steep cliffs inside river valleys require a certain level of rock climbing skills. However, because of the humid environment inside the river valley, some rock surfaces can be very wet and some rocks can be very loose despite appearing solid. To deal with such wet climbing conditions, a pair of professional river-trekking boots are strongly advised.
1. Give English equivalents for the following Russian words and word-combinations
1 путешествие в опасные места
2 частично совпадает с экстремальным спортом
3 степень профессионализма
4 труднопроходимая местность
5 добраться до многочисленных водопадов
6 подготовительные курсы не нужны
7 определенная степень риска
8 падение с крутых обрывов
9 неожиданные изменения погоды
10 настоятельно рекомендуется
2. Find synonyms to the following words from the text
2 to resemble
3 uneven, stony
3. Match the given words with definitions
1 risk a) moving a boat through the water by using oars
2 professionalism b) the sport of going under water or of swimming and
exploring under water
3 terrain c) making a fastening by tying a piece or pieces of string,
4 diving d) the possibility of meeting danger or of suffering harm or
5 trekking/tracing e) the skill or qualities required or expected of a person
6 knotting f) a stretch of land, with regard to its natural features
7 rowing g) a long hard walk lasting several days or weeks, especially
4. Read and translate the following groups of words derived from a common root
1 To differ – different – differentiate – difference – differenciation
2 To exhaust – exhaustion – exhausted
3 To visualize – visual – visible – visibility
5. Answer the questions
1 What is extreme tourism?
2 In what countries is it greatly popular?
3 What types of extreme tourism do you know from the text? Which seems to be the most/the least attractive for you? Why?
4 Are there any training courses preparing for this type of tourism?
5 What are the main risks?
Text 2. Canyoning
Scan the text and find the passage devoted to the risks of canyoning. Retell it to your partner. Think of ways of avoiding such dangerous events.
Canyoning (known as canyoneering in the U.S.) is traveling in canyons using a variety of techniques that may include walking, scrambling, climbing, jumping, abseiling, and/or swimming.
Canyoning is frequently done in remote and rugged settings and often requires navigational, route-finding and other wilderness travel skills.
Canyons that are ideal for canyoning are often cut into the bedrock stone, forming narrow gorges with numerous drops, beautifully sculpted walls, and sometimes spectacular waterfalls. Most canyons are cut into limestone, sandstone, granite or basalt, though other rock types are found. Canyons can be very easy or extremely difficult, though emphasis in the sport is usually on aesthetics and fun rather than pure difficulty. A wide variety of canyoning routes are found throughout the world, and canyoning is enjoyed by people of all ages and skill levels.
Canyoning gear includes climbing hardware, static ropes, helmets, wetsuits, and specially designed shoes, packs, and rope bags. While canyoners have used and adapted climbing, hiking, and river running gear for years, more and more specialized gear is invented and manufactured as canyoning popularity increases.
In most parts of the world canyoning is done in mountain canyons with flowing water. Countries with established canyoning include: Portugal, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Reunion Island, Greece, Jordan, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil, Ecuador, Japan, Croatia, Turkey, Israel, Mauritius and the United States.
Canyoning can be dangerous. Escape out the sides of a canyon is often impossible, and completion of the descent is the only possibility. Due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of many canyons, rescue can be impossible for several hours or several days.
A potential danger of many canyoning trips is a flash flood. A canyon “flashes” when a large amount of precipitation falls in the drainage, and water levels in the canyon rise quickly as the runoff rushes down the canyon. In canyons that drain large areas, the rainfall could be many kilometers away from the canyoners, completely unbeknown to them. A calm or even dry canyon can quickly become a violent torrent due to a severe thunderstorm in the vicinity. Fatalities have occurred as a result of flash floods; in one widely-publicized 1999 incident, 21 tourists on a commercial canyoning adventure trip drowned in Saxetenbach Gorge, Switzerland.
Temperature related illnesses are also canyoning hazards. In arid desert canyons, heat exhaustion can occur if proper hydration levels are not maintained and adequate steps are not taken to avoid the intense rays of the sun. Hypothermia can be a serious danger in any canyon that contains water, during anytime of the year. Wetsuits and drysuits can mitigate this danger to a large degree, but when people miscalculate the amount of water protection they will need, dangerous and sometimes fatal situations can occur. Hypothermia due to inadequate cold water protection is cited as a cause of a 2005 incident in which two college students drowned in a remote Utah canyon.
Narrow sandstone slot canyons tend to have abrasive walls which act as sandpaper as a canyoner moves or slides along them. This abrasion tends to rip clothing and gear, and can cause painful skin abrasion.
1 to scramble – пробираться с трудом; карабкаться; ползти
2 to abseil – спускаться на веревке (об альпинистах)
3 rugged – труднопроходимый (о местности)
4 bedrock – скальное основание
5 gorge – узкое ущелье, теснина
6 gear – принадлежности
7 descent – спуск, скат, склон
8 inaccessibility – недоступность, недосягаемость; неприступность
9 precipitation – выпадение осадков
10 torrent – стремительный поток; ливень
1. Answer the questions:
1 What is canyoning?
2 What is the difference between canyoning and usual hiking?
3 What countries are popular for canyoning?
4 What equipment do you need for this kind of tourism?
5 Do any accidents take place? Why?
6 Is it difficult of easy to save people who are in trouble while canyoning? Why?
7 Does the weather change influence the conditions of canyoning?
8 What happened to the students in 2005? What were the reasons?
9 Would you like to experience canyoning? Why?
10 What country would you choose for this kind of tourism?
2. Give Russian equivalents:
1 using a variety of techniques
2 in remote and rugged settings
3 wilderness travel skills
4 beautifully sculpted walls
5 climbing hardware, static ropes, helmets, wetsuits
6 remoteness and inaccessibility of many canyons
7 a large amount of precipitation falls in the drainage
8 to avoid the intense rays of the sun
9 can mitigate this danger to a large degree
10 narrow sandstone slot canyons
3. Imagine that you are going to undertake canyoning. Work with your partner and make up a route of your traveling. Discuss all the things that can be useful in your journey.
Text 3. Hiking
Scan the text and find the main characteristics of hiking. Retell them to your partner. Does hiking in Russia have its own features?
Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. It usually takes place on trails in rural or wilderness areas.
The word ‘hiking’ is understood in all English-speaking countries, but there are differences in usage. In some places, off-trail hiking is called ‘cross-country hiking’, ‘bushwalking’, or ‘bushbashing’. In the United Kingdom, hiking is a slightly old-fashioned word, with a flavor more of heartiness and exercise than of enjoying the outdoors; the activity described here would be called hillwalking or simply ‘walking’. Australians use the term ‘bushwalking’ for both on- and off-trail hiking. New Zealanders use ‘tramping’ (particularly for overnight and longer trips), ‘walking’ or ‘bushwalking’. Hiking in the mountainous regions of India and Nepal and in the highlands of East Africa is sometimes called ‘trekking’. Overnight hiking is called ‘backpacking’ in some parts of the world. Hiking a long-distance trail from end to end is referred to as ‘thru-hiking’ in some places.
Hiking is one of the fundamental outdoor activities on which many others are based. Many beautiful places can only be reached overland by hiking, and enthusiasts regard hiking as the best way to see nature. It is seen as better than a tour in a vehicle of any kind (or on an animal; horseback riding) because the hiker’s senses are not intruded upon by distractions such as windows, engine noise, airborne dust and fellow passengers. Hiking over long distances or over difficult terrain does require some degree of physical ability and knowledge.
Hikers often seek beautiful natural environments in which to hike. Ironically, these environments are often fragile: hikers may accidentally destroy the environment that they enjoy. The action of an individual may not strongly affect the environment. However, the mass effect of a large number of hikers can degrade the environment. For example, gathering wood in an alpine area to start a fire may be harmless once (except for wildfire risk). Years of gathering wood, however, can strip an alpine area of valuable nutrients.
Generally, protected areas such as parks have regulations in place to protect the environment. If hikers follow such regulations, their impact can be minimized. Such regulations include forbidding wood fires, restricting camping to established camp sites, disposing or packing out faecal matter, imposing a quota on the number of hikers per day.
Many hikers espouse the philosophy of Leave No Trace: hiking in a way such that future hikers cannot detect the presence of previous hikers. Practitioners of this philosophy obey its strictures, even in the absence of area regulations. Followers of this practice follow strict practices on dealing with food waste, food packaging, and alterations to the surrounding environment.
Human waste is often a major source of environmental impact from hiking. These wastes can contaminate the watershed and make other hikers ill. Bacterial contamination can be avoided by digging ‘catholes’ 10 to 25 cm (4 to 10 inches) deep, depending on local soil composition and covering after use. If these catholes are dug at least 60 m (200 feet) away from water sources and trails, the risk of contamination is minimized. Many hikers warn other hikers about the location of their catholes by marking them with sticks stuck into the ground.
Sometimes, hikers enjoy viewing rare or endangered species. However, some species (such as martens or bighorn sheep) are very sensitive to the presence of humans, especially around mating season. Hikers should learn the habits and habitats of the endangered species, in order to avoid adverse impact.
There is one situation where an individual hiker can make a large impact on an ecosystem: inadvertently starting a wildfire. For example, in 2005, a Czech backpacker burned 7% of Torres del Paine National Park in Chile by knocking over an illegal gas portable stove. Obeying area regulations and setting up cooking devices on bare ground will reduce the risk of wildfire.
Hiking may produce threats to personal safety. These threats can be dangerous circumstances while hiking and/or specific accidents or ailments. Dangerous hiking circumstances include losing the way, inclement weather, hazardous terrain, or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions. Specific accidents include metabolic imbalances (such as dehydration or hypothermia), topical injuries (such as frostbite or sunburn), attacks by animals, or internal injuries (such as ankle sprain).
1 trail – тропа, тропинка
2 overland – по суше; на суше
3 fragile – ломкий, хрупкий
4 to strip – снимать верхний слой
5 nutrient – питательное вещество
6 to espouse – поддерживать
7 stricture – строгая критика, осуждение
8 watershed – водораздел
9 endangered – находящийся под угрозой исчезновения (о виде)
10 inadvertently – невнимательно; небрежно, неосторожно
1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1 Hiking is a world famous type of tourism.
2 Hiking can be called one of the most ecologically safe type of tourism.
3 This kind of tourism can be dangerous.
4 It is one of the most exciting types of tourism.
5 Hiking is an opportunity to see rare animals.
2. Answer the following questions:
1 What other names of “hiking” do you know?
2 What are the differences in meaning of different names of hiking?
3 Will you be understood in other countries if you use the term “hiking”?
4 Is hiking better than a tour in a vehicle of any kind?
5 What abilities should you have if you want to go hiking?
6 Can the hikers destroy the place they enjoy?
7 Is there any waste left after hikers?
8 How can the problem of hikers’ waste be solved?
9 Have you ever undertaken hiking? When and where was it?
10 What place would you like to enjoy while hiking? Why?
3. Project work
Read the following passage about hiking etiquette. Discuss it with your partner and then choose any type of tourism and create your own etiquette for this kind of traveling.
Hiking in a group increases safety, but hikers may wish to hike at different rates.
Because hiking is a recreational experience, hikers expect it to be pleasant. Sometimes hikers can interfere with each others' enjoyment, or that of other users of the land, but they can minimize this interference by following good etiquette. For example:
- When two groups of hikers meet on a steep trail, there may be contention for use of the trail. To avoid conflict, a custom has developed in some areas whereby the group moving uphill has the right-of-way. In other situations, the larger of the two groups will usually yield to the smaller.
- Being forced to hike much faster or slower than one's natural pace can be annoying, and difficult to maintain consistently. More seriously, walking unnaturally fast dramatically increases fatigue and exhaustion, and may cause injury. If a group splits between fast and slow hikers, the slow hikers may be left behind or become lost. A common custom is to encourage the slowest hiker to hike in the lead and have everyone match that speed. Another custom is to have experienced hiker(s) sweep up the rear on a rota, to ensure that everyone in the group is safe and nobody straggles.
- Hikers often enjoy the silence and solitude of their surroundings. Loud sounds, such as shouting or loud conversation, disrupt this enjoyment. Some hikers purposely avoid loud sounds, out of deference to other hikers. Staying quiet will also increase the likelihood of encountering wildlife. (This is a hazard if dangerous animals are present; see Personal safety hazards.)
- Hikers sometimes trespass onto private property from public land or rights of way (easements). Such trespass can alienate the property owners and (in countries where rights of way are not protected by law) close down hiking rights-of-way. To maximize hiking opportunities for everyone, most hikers will either stay on public land and easements, or solicit permission from property owners. Staying on well-marked trails avoids the possibility of trespass.
- Tree branches or other vegetation often hang low across trails. A passing hiker may cause a tree branch to snap back in the face of a hiker behind. While it is courteous to warn following hikers if a branch is likely to snap back, it is every hiker's responsibility to allow enough space between himself and the hiker ahead to avoid the hazard.
- When two groups of hikers meet, it is considered a common courtesy to exchange greetings (either verbal or physical, e.g. smiles and friendly nods). To pass another group without such acknowledgement is seen as rude.
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