III. Translate into English

1. Сын сестры моего друга - студент.

2. Жену моего брата зовут Анна.

3. Имя сына моего бывшего одноклассника странное.

4. Книги сына моего друга всегда чистые.

5. Оценки сыновей этого инженера только отличные.

6. Квартира дочери моей золовки большая.

7. Комната Лены и Ани светлая.

8. Романы Диккенса и Лондона хорошо известны.

9. Имя бывшего мужа моей подруги - Алексей.

 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

 

We find the following personal pronouns in English:

        

  Singular Plural
1st person I we
2nd person you you
  3rd person he she it they  

        

I and we are said to be the pronouns of the 1st person, i.e. a person (or persons) who speaks (speak).

You is said to be the pronoun of the 2nd person, i.e. a person (persons) spoken to. He, she, it and they are said to be the pronouns of the 3rd person, i.e. a person (persons) or a thing (things) spoken about.

We distinguish singular and plural personal pronouns. Singular personal pronouns refer to one person or thing and plural personal pronouns refer to more than one person or thing. The pronouns I, we, you, he and she are mainly used for persons. I, we and you are indifferent to gender, while he is masculine and she feminine.

The pronoun it is used for animals, concrete things and abstract notions, i.e. it refers to neuter nouns.

The pronoun they is used for persons, animals and things and is indifferent to gender.

The personal pronouns are used as nouns in the sentence.

The personal pronouns have the category of case. There are two cases for personal pronouns – the nominative case and the objective case.

 

The Nominative Case Thе Objective Case
I me
you you
he him
she her
it it
we us
you you
they them

 

The forms of the nominative case function in the sentence as subjects.

e. g. I expect they will laugh at me.

Don’t you know what he's up to?

 

The forms of the objective case function in the sentence as objects.

e. g. I met him in the street. (direct object)

He gave me some advice (indirect object)

Please, don't tell anyone about us. (prepositional object)

 

When personal pronouns are used as predicatives or after than, as and but, the nominative case is considered to be very formal; the use of the objective case is preferred in spoken English.

e. g. Who is it? – It’s me.

Do you need anything? - Yes, a secretary that I’ll dictate my piece to. - I’ll be her. You’re better off than them (they).

She is as tall as him (he).

No one can do it but him (he).

 

But only a nominative case personal pronoun can be used in the following sentence pattern where the pronoun is followed by a clause.

e. g. It was I who did it.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Name the forms of the personal pronouns. Make up sentences with all the pronouns. If a pronoun has the same form in the Nominative and the Objective Case, make up 2 sentences.

Model: She is the Nominative Case.

Her is the Objective Case.

You is the Nominative Case and the Objective Case.

The Singular —it, she, him, you, me, her, I, he.

The Plural —we, them, you, they, us.

Exercise 2. Replace the following nouns by the corresponding personal pronouns.

A family, a daughter, parents, a clog, Robert, people, an orange, fruit, morning, a word, Helen, a boy, the sun, a man, a teacher, sister, a doctor, the King, a grandmother, pets, the Queen, animals, a horse, grammar, a fly, a teenager, police, a boy-friend, paper, a book, news, scissors, weather.

Exercise 3. Work in pairs. Take turns to ask and answer the questions. Fill in the gaps with personal pronouns in the Nominative Case.

Model:

A: Is John a student?

B: No, he is not a student. He is a teacher.

1. A: Is the pencil in the box? B: No, ... is on the desk. 2. A: Are the windows open? B: No, ... are shut. 3. A: Is Ann here? B: No, ... is not here. … is there. 4. A: What colour are the desks? B: ... are brown. 5. A: Put the books into the bag. B: Where is ...? A: … is on the bed. 6. A: Put the pieces of paper on the table. B: Where are ...? A: … are on the shelf. 7. A: The boy is in the classroom. B: Where is …? A: … is in the classroom. 8. A: Where are the pencils? B: ... are in the box. 9. A: What are you? B: … am a student. 10. A: Where are ...? B: ... are in the classroom.

Дата: 2019-02-25, просмотров: 280.