· begin — начинать:
Дети начали играть.
The children began playing.
The children began to play.
· can’t bear — не выносить, не терпеть:
Он терпеть не может быть в одиночестве.
He can’t bear being alone.
He can’t bear to be alone.
· can’t stand — не терпеть:
Она терпеть не может работать в ночную смену.
She can’t stand working the late shift.
She can’t stand to work the late shift.
· continue — продолжать:
Она продолжала писать.
She continued writing.
She continued to write.
· hate — ненавидеть:
Она ненавидит мыть посуду.
She hates washing dishes.
She hates to wash dishes.
· like — нравиться, любить:
Мне нравится читать.
I like reading.
I like to read.
· love — любить:
Мы любим путешествовать.
We love travelling.
We love to travel.
· p refer — предпочитать:
Он предпочитает есть бананы.
He prefers eating bananas.
He prefers to eat bananas.
· propose — предлагать:
Он предложил заплатить за поездку.
He proposed paying for the trip.
He proposed to pay for the trip.
· start — начинать:
Я начал изучать английский язык.
I started learning English.
I start to learn English.
После перечисленных глаголов допустимо употребление как инфинитива, так и герундия. В этом случае они практически взаимозаменяемы. Но все-таки, хотя и небольшая, но разница в значениях есть, особенно часто это заметно в контексте. Инфинитив обозначает более краткое, конкретное проявление действия, а герундий предполагает процесс, то есть более продолжительное действие. Также стоит обратить внимание на то, что употребление герундия подразумевает, что говорящий ссылается на реальный опыт и реальные действия. А инфинитив, напротив, предполагает возможный опыт и действия.
a) He likes living in New York . — Ему нравится жить в Нью-Йорке (он живет в Нью-Йорке, и ему это нравится).
b) He likes to live in New York whenever he works in the USA. — Ему нравится жить в Нью-Йорке, когда он работает в США (ему нравится вариант жить именно в Нью-Йорке, когда он приезжает в США по делам, это кратковременное действие).
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык.
1. The buyers want to know our terms of payment.
2. This is for you to decide.
3. The plan of our work will be discussed at the meeting to be held on May 15.
4. To walk in the garden was a pleasure.
5. Jane remembered to have been told a lot about Mr. Smith.
6. I felt him put his hand on my shoulder.
7. This writer is said to have written a new novel.
8. She seems to be having a good time at the seaside.
9. They watched the boy cross the street.
10. To advertise in magazines is very expensive.
11. He proved to be one of the cleverest students at our Institute.
12. He knew himself to be strong enough to take part in the expedition.
13. To see is to believe.
14. He is sure to enjoy himself at the disco.
15. To tell you the truth, this company has a very stable position in the market.
Упражнение 2. Поставьте, где нужно, “to” перед инфинитивом.
1. My son asked me … let him … go to the club.
2. You must make him … practice an hour a day.
3. She was made … repeat the song.
4. He is not sure that it can … be done, but he is willing … try.
5. Let me … help you with your work.
6. She asked me … read the letter carefully and … write an answer.
7. You ought … take care of your health.
8. I looked for the book everywhere but could not … find it.
9. He was seen … leave the house.
10. We had … put on our overcoats because it was cold.
11. The man told me not … walk on the grass.
12. Have you heard him … play the piano?
13. You had better … go there at once.
14. I would rather not … tell them about it.
15. We shall take a taxi so as not … miss the train.
Упражнение 3. Используйте соответствующую форму инфинитива.
1. They want (to take) to the concert by their father.
2. I am glad (to do) all the homework yesterday.
3. This plant is known (to produce) tractors.
4. He wants his son (to become) a lawyer.
5. The enemy army was reported (to overthrow) the defense lines and (to advance) towards the suburbs of the city.
6. He seems (to know) French very well: he is said (to spend) his youth in Paris.
7. You had better (to call) our distributors at once.
8. We are happy (to invite) to the party.
9. That firm is reported (to conduct) negotiations for the purchase of sugar.
10. It seemed (to snow) heavily since early morning: the ground was covered with a deep layer of snow.
11. He didn’t hear me (to knock) at the door.
12. I want (to inform) of her arrival.
13. Our sportsmen are proud (to win) the cup.
14. He is known (to work) on the problem for many years.
15. The representative of the firm asked for the documents (to send) by air mail.
Упражнение 4. Поставьте частицу “to” там, где это необходимо.
1. I think you ought … apologize. 2. Make him … speak louder. 3. Help me … carry this bag. 4. My son asked me … let him … go to the theatre. 5. I must … go to the country. 6. It cannot … be done to-day. 7. She asked me … read the letter carefully and … write an answer. 8. The man told me not … walk on the grass. 9. Let me … help you with your work. 10. She ought … take care of her health. 11. We had better … stop to rest a little. 12. I don’t know what … do. 13. He was seen … leave the house. 14. We have come … ask whether there is anything we can … do. 15. We heard the siren … sound and saw the ship … move. 16. I cannot … go there now, I have some work … do. 17. During the crossing the passengers felt the ship … toss. 18. You must make him … practice an hour a day. 19. He is not sure that it can … be done, but he is willing … try. 20. I looked for the book everywhere but could not … find it. 21. He said that she might … come in the evening. 22. She was made … repeat the song. 23. Would you rather … learn shorthand than typewriting?
Упражнение 5. Переведите на русский язык .
1. I called every morning to see if there was any news.
2. We stopped to have a smoke.
3. He came here to speak to me, not to you.
4. The car was waiting at the door to take them to the station.
5. To explain the problem he drew diagrams all over the blackboard.
6. The steamship “Minsk” was chartered to carry a cargo of timber from St.Petersburg to Hull.
7. Under clause 35 the charterers were to supply the steamer with icebreaker assistance to enable her to enter or to leave the port of loading.
8. To meet the increased demand for industrial goods, a great number of new shops have been opened in the towns.
9. The first lot is ready for shipment, but to economize on freight we have decided to ship it together with the second lot.
10. Please send us your instructions at once to enable us to ship the machines by the 20th of May.
Упражнение 6. Переведите на английский язык, используя объектную инфинитивную конструкцию (сложное дополнение), где это возможно.
1. Он хочет, чтобы мы пришли к нему сегодня.
2. Я хотел бы, чтобы вы подождали меня здесь.
3. Он хочет, чтобы его сын стал врачом.
4. Он хочет, чтобы его послали в С.-Петербург на конференцию.
5. Она хочет, чтобы ее пригласили на вечер.
6. Мы не хотели, чтобы нас прерывали.
7. Хотите ли вы, чтобы я вам помог?
8. Я хочу, чтобы его статья была опубликована.
9. Доктор не хочет, чтобы вы ехали на юг.
10. Он хочет, чтобы груз был застрахован.
11. Она не любит, чтобы дети готовили уроки вечером.
12. Она любит, чтобы обед был вовремя.
13. Он не любит, когда его прерывают.
14. Он хочет, чтобы ему задавали вопросы.
Упражнение 7. Образуйте формы инфинитива (подставьте “to”) или герундия (прибавьте “-ing”) глаголов в скобках, чтобы следующие предложения стали грамматически правильными.
1. When I’m tired, I enjoy ... television. It’s relaxing. (watch)
2. It was a nice day, so we decided ... for a walk. (go)
3. It’s a nice day. Does anyone fancy ... for a walk? (go)
4. I’m not in a hurry. I don’t mind ... (wait)
5. They don’t have much money. They can’t afford ... out very often. (go)
6. I wish that dog would stop ... It’s driving me mad. (bark)
7. Our neighbour threatened ... the police if we didn’t stop the noise. (call)
8. We were hungry, so I suggested ... dinner early. (have)
9. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk ... the train. (miss)
10. I’m still looking for a job but I hope ... something soon. (find)
Упражнение 8. Дополните следующие предложения формами инфинитива (подставьте “to”) или герундия (прибавьте “-ing”) глаголов, данных ниже, чтобы они стали грамматически правильными.
1. He tried to avoid ... my question.
2. Could you please stop ... so much noise?
3. I enjoy ... to music.
4. I considered ... for the job but in the end I decided against it.
5. Have you finished ... your hair yet?
6. If you walk into the road without looking, you risk ... knocked down.
7. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. He wants to carry on ....
8. I don’t mind you ... the phone as long as you pay for all your calls.
9. Hello! Fancy ... you here! What a surprise!
10. I’ve put off ... the letter so many times. I really must do it today.
11. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody ... so stupid?
12. Sarah gave up ... to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad.
Упражнение9. Образуйте формы инфинитива (с частицей “to” или без нее) или герундия (прибавьте “-ing”) глаголов в скобках, чтобы следующие предложения стали грамматически правильными.
1. She doesn’t allow ... in the house. (smoke)
2. I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like ... there. (go)
3. I’m in a difficult position. What do you advise me ...? (do)
4. She said the letter was personal and wouldn’t let me ...it. (read)
5. We were kept at the police station for two hours and then we were allowed ... (go)
6. Where would you recommend me ... for my holidays? (go)
7. I wouldn’t recommend ... in that restaurant. The food is awful. (eat)
8. The film was very sad. It made me ... (cry)
9. Carol’s parents always encouraged her ... hard at school. (study)
Упражнение 10. Закончите предложение с выражением «get a good job». Употребите инфинитив или –ing-форму глагола.
1. I want ____________________________.
2. I suggest __________________________.
3. I decided __________________________.
4. I recommend _______________________.
5. I hope _____________________________.
6. I feel like ___________________________.
7. I managed __________________________.
8. I am trying __________________________.
9. I would appreciate ____________________.
10. I will not refuse ______________________.
11. I agree ______________________________.
12. I have denied _________________________.
Упражнение 11. Отметьте правильную форму .
1. Greg enjoys … in the rain.
а ) walk b) walking c) to walk
2. I’d like … Molly an e-mail now.
а) send b)sending c) to send
3. What does Steve want ...?
а) do b) doing c) to do
4. The cold coach watched his team … football.
а) play b) playing c) to play
5. I prefer … detective stories.
а) read b) reading c) to read
6. Would you like something …?
а) drink b) drinking c) to drink
Упражнение 12. Употребите инфинитив или -ing форму.
1. It was quite late when they saw Martin … (come) up the other side of the street. They saw him … (pause) in front of his house, … (look) up at it and … (knock) at the door.
2. My parents let me (stay) at Molly’s house last weekend. They agreed … (take) me to his place in the car and they made me (promise) to behave myself.
3. Mel hates (answer) the phone. And very often Mel just lets it … (ring).
4. At first Jenny enjoyed … (listen) to Steven but after a while she got tired of … (hear) the same story.
5. Polly can’t (go) to the cinema today. She’s busy … (study) for her exam, which is next week, but she’s decided … (take) a break and … (phone) Megan.
6. I tried … (listen) carefully and in order (not/show) how I was embarrassed, I did my best … (keep) the conversation … (go) on one topic and another.
Упражнение 13. Прочитайте предложения. Выберите один из предложенных вариантов ответа.
1. Peace activist Baroness Bertha von Suttner encouraged Alfred Nobel ... a prize for peace. (establish / to establish / establishing / to be established)
2. The police officer made Neil get out of the car and demanded … his driver's licence.(see / seeing / to see / to be seen)
3. In the time of Peter the Great the noblemen were not allowed … beards. (have / to have / having / having had)
4. They wouldn't let ... the country without the entry visa, would they? (him to enter / he enters / him enter / him entering)
5. Fred couldn’t make … that he had caught the huge fish himself. (I believed/ me believe / me believed / me to believe)
6. Nick was very close to the phone-box and Mary noticed him … the number, and then she heard him ... something to passer-by. (to dial, to say / dialing, to say / to dial, say / dial, say)
7. Nick was seen ... the hall and then Jane watched him ... (enter, go away / be entered, to go away / enter, go away / to have entered, to be gone away)
8. It's too late now, but I will always regret ... John to do the work. (to ask / asking / ask / to be asked)
9. My friend Moira stopped ... whole milk because she is on a diet. (to buy / buying / buy / to be bought)
10. They were allowed... discussing the plans, so their partner introduced himself and went on to talk about the project. (to continue / continuing / continue / to be continued)
Упражнение 14. Употребите глаголы в правильной форме – инфинитиве или герундии:
to see, to lock, to explain, to go, to show, to play, to listen, to do, to write, to earn, to discuss, to drive, to look, to speak, to understand, to do, to stay, to work, to spend
1. I wish ... the manager.— It’s no use ... to him.
2. Don’t forget ... the door before ... to bed.
3. My mother told me not ... to anyone about it.
4. He tried ... but she didn’t want ...
5. Would you mind ... me how the lift works?
6. I’m beginning ... what you mean.
7. The boys like ... tennis but not ... this in bad weather.
8. Try ... this correctly.
9. He likes ... in his cabinet.
10. I prefer ... my car myself.
11. I advice you ... at my place and ... for a new flat.
12. Let’s ... this tomorrow, I’m tired now.
13. Most people prefer ... money. Some don’t want ... it.
Упражнение 15. Раскройте скобки, употребив герундий или инфинитив (с чстицей или без частицы to). Если нужно, вставьте предлог
1. He used ... (think) that life ended at 40, but now when he’s 41, he knows it’s not true.
2. ... (make) such a terrible noise!
3. It’s five in the morning. I’m not used ... (get) up this early,
4. It’s impossible... (cut) with this knife. It’s blunt.
5. My father enjoys ... (listen) to jazz music.
6. I’m sorry... (hear) that your mother isn’t well.
7. Harry looked so funny that I couldn’t help ... (laugh).
8. I couldn’t help them ... (find) what they were looking for as I was in too much of a hurry.
9. I’d like... (cook) something special when guests come.
10. What do you feel like... (do) tonight?
11. My dad promised ... (buy) me a bike if I passed my exams well.
12. I hate... (wait) in queues. It really annoys me.
13. I looked forward ... (see) you again soon.
14. It’s difficult ... (concentrate) when there’s loud playing on the radio.
15. We stopped for a while ... (admire) the scenery.
16. He can’t afford ... (hire) a taxi every day.
17. Is it worth ... (run) such an awful risk?
18. Would you mind ... (fetch) another chair?
19. I offered ... (pay) for the meal, but she refused.
20. I’m sorry... (disturb) you, but could you tell me the time?
21. My younger sister can’t stop... (eat) sweets.
22. He dislikes... (spend) money on car repairs.
23. I remember... (go) to Venice as a child.
24. ... (call) Mike
25. I suggested ... (call) a taxi so we wouldn’t be late.
26. I can’t stand ... (wait) in queues.
27. There used to ... (be) a cinema in our village but it closed down three years ago.
28. He is Spanish so he’s used ... (drive) on the right.
29. Did you remember ... (send) your sister a card? It’s her birthday today.
30. Have you tried ... (read) a book to help you to sleep?
31. Nowadays I’m used... (go) to bed early.
32. He’ll never forget ... (see) the Grand Canyon for the first time.
33. He offered ... (drive) me to the airport.
34. I’ll stop ... (lend) you money if you waste it on cigarettes.
35. Maya stopped ... (tie) her shoelace.
36. John suggested ... (go) together in one car.
37. Will you stop ... (make) so much noise, boys?
38. It’s difficult to get used ... (sleep) in a tent after having a soft, comfortable bed to lie on.
39. Linda offered ... (look after) my cat while I was out of town.
40. Could you please stop... (whistle)! I’m trying ... (concentrate) on my work.
Упражнение 16. Выберите правильный вариант .
|1. My parents never let me ______ in bed. a) reading b) to read c) to reading d) read 2. The teacher allowed us ______ reference material while writing the report. a) to use b) using c) use d) used 3. They expected the meeting ______ in a conference hall. a) to hold b) to be held c) holding d) to be holding 4. What makes him ______ so jealous of his friends' success? a) to be b) being c) be d) to have been 5. I am thinking ______ my country house. a) selling b) of selling c) to sell d) is selling 6. I would rather ______ her the truth. a) have told b) to tell c) telling d) tell 7. You had better ______ your studies more seriously. a) take b) to take c) taking d) are taking 8. I don't mind ______ out. a) against eating b) eat c) eating d) to eat 9. I hope ______ Moscow State University. a) for entering b) to enter c) of entering d) entering 10. I want my brother ______ the work as soon as possible. a) finishing b) to finish c) finishes d) finish 11. Could you help me ______ the work as soon as possible? a) finishing b) in finishing c) with finishing d) to finish 12. If you don't succeed ______ your exams, I won't let you ______ to a disco. a) in taking, go b) taking, go c) in taking, to go d) to take, go 13. The government intend ______ social programmes. a) at starting b) starting c) to start d) start||14. I was made ______ to play the piano. a) learn b) to learn c) learning d) in learning 15. My father makes me ______ the piano three hours a day. a) to play b) playing c) play d) in playing 16. A passer-by asked me how ______ to the railway station. a) can get b) get c) getting d) to get 17. The children were let ______ in the river. a) swim b) to swim c) swimming d) swam 18. The tourists expected the hotel ______ much better. a) be b) being c) of being d) to be 19. I would like my daughter ______ back home earlier. a) come b) coming c) to come d) to be coming 20. My father likes ______ for long walks in the early morning. a) go b) going c) to go d) of going 21. Some parents enjoy ______ their children what to do. a) telling b) in telling c) to tell d) tell 22. His aunt is a very fussy person who wants everything ______ in its right place. a) being b) to be c) be d) to being 23. A thermometer is used ______ the temperature. a) take b) for taking c) taking d) to take 24. Everyone hates ______ extra hours for nothing. a) work b) to work c) working d) of working 25. We dislike ______ in the city centre because of air pollution. a) living b) live c) to be living d) to live|
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