Место в общем курсе изучения английского языка, цели и задачи домашнего чтения

Место в общем курсе изучения английского языка, цели и задачи домашнего чтения

Курс домашнего чтения на английском языке должен дополнять основной курс английского языка, выполняя ряд функций.

Первостепенные задачи (реализующиеся в рамках курса чтения)

1. Формирование интереса к чтению на английском языке. Работая с аутентичными текстами для чтения разных жанров под руководством преподавателя, студенты приобретут большую уверенность в своих силах, научатся преодолевать языковые трудности, почувствуют вкус к чтению литературы по специальности.

2. Углубление знаний в области культуры стран изучаемого языка. Данные материалы позволят студентам познакомиться с образцами современных материалов зарубежных авторов, связанных со средствами массовой информации, рекламой и связями с общественностью.

3. Обучение началам литературного анализа. Выполняя задания по прочитанным материалам, студенты научатся излагать основное содержание, составлять информацию, познакомятся с некоторыми особенностями научно-популярной литературы в области лексики, грамматики и стиля.

4. Формирование прописанного в ФГОС умения «использовать иностранный язык как средство для получения информации из иноязычных источников в образовательных целях». Пособие включает в себя научно-популярную литературу и отрывки из монографий по следующим темам: Public Relations History, Mass Media, Advertising and Culture). Пособие, таким образом, стимулирует  познавательную активность студентов, расширят их кругозор и укрепляет межпредметные связи.

Вспомогательные задачи (решающиеся совместно с основным курсом)

1. Расширение словарного запаса студентов за счет лексических единиц текстов пособия и, что особенно важно, устойчивых словосочетаний.

2. Дальнейшее развитие устной монологической и диалогической речи при помощи пересказов разных видов, обсуждения прочитанного, дискуссий и докладов.

4. Формирование навыков академического письма через выполнение специальных заданий, таких, как составление рефератов, аннотаций и описания статистических тенденций.

 

Результаты освоения курса

Личностные результаты:

·  повышение учебной мотивации путем формирования интереса к чтению;

· расширение кругозора учащихся и стимулирование познавательной деятельности;

· воспитание толерантности и уважения к чужой культуре;

· повышение учебной автономности студентов: от чтения под руководством преподавателя до самостоятельного внеаудиторного  чтения на иностранном языке.

Метапредметные результаты:

· формирование умения работать с книгой как источником информации;

· воспитать «грамотного читателя», умеющего выбирать материалы для чтения в соответствии со своими целями и задачами, работать со справочными источниками, анализировать прочитанное;

· дальнейшее развитие умения вести дискуссию, аргументировать свою точку зрения.

Предметные результаты:

Пособие может внести заметный вклад в формирование коммуникативной иноязычной компетенции учащихся:

· в области речевой компетенции: способствует формированию умений в основных видах речевой деятельности (чтение, говорение и письмо);

· в сфере лингвистической компетенции: позволяет овладеть новыми языковыми средствами, как лексическими, так и грамматическими;

· в области социокультурной компетенции: приобщает студентов к культуре, традициям, реалиям стран изучаемого языка.

 

Содержание и учебно-методическое обеспечение

Пособие построено на работе с текстами из различных современных источников по следующим темам: Public Relations History, Mass Media, Advertising and Culture. В ходе работы над текстами студенты:

· знакомятся с содержанием, развивая при этом навыки чтения;

· знакомятся с историческими фактами и особенностями описываемых событий, а также с современными тенденциями в развитии СМИ, связей с общественностью и рекламы;

· выполняют разнообразные задания на проверку понимания;

· анализируют прочитанное, обсуждают ситуации и поступки;

· учатся пересказывать текст подробно и кратко (выбирая основное содержание);

· расширяют свой словарный запас и овладевают новыми грамматическими структурами;

· овладевают навыками академического письма;

 

Задания включают в себя

(1) дотекстовые задания, направленные на:

    пробуждение интереса к данной теме путем установления связей с предыдущим опытом студента (Personalizing);

     снятие лексических трудностей при чтении текстов, как произносительных, так и связанных с пониманием лексического значения многозначных слов и установления соответствия между терминологией в русском и английском языках (Pre-reading) ;

(2) задания, связанные с пониманием прочитанного:

    чтение с извлечением основного содержания (Reading for Gist/Skimming);

    чтение с полным извлечением информации  или с поиском конкретных деталей (Reading for Detail/ Scanning) В случае необходимости и в целях более полного понимания материала, студенту предлагается осуществить поиск дополнительной фоновой информации в Интернете;

(3) задания, связанные с содержанием материалов и интерпретацией/оценкой прочитанного

    анализ содержания;

    составление плана прочитанного, резюме и аннотации;

    учебная дискуссия.

 (4) Пособие также включает методические указания для студентов, объясняющие, как работать с текстами, а также приложение, состоящее из двух частей:

  1. Клише, используемые при реферировании текста или статьи;

  2 Глоссарий (Определения наиболее часто встречающихся терминов из области PR и рекламы).

 

Методическая новизна данного учебно-методического комплекса

    отбор аутентичного материала, по темам, представляющим интерес для специалиста по связям с общественностью и рекламе;

    студенто-центрированный подход: основной акцент делается на организации самостоятельной деятельности студентов. Данное пособие позволяет организовать самостоятельную работу студента и способствует личностному развитию студента как будущего специалиста в сфере связей с общественностью и рекламы.

    обучение творческому и критическому отношению к содержанию учебного материала (критическое осмысление, логическое обоснование, отстаивания своей точки зрения и т. д.).

    одновременного развития чтения, говорения и письма что обуславливается их взаимосвязанностью в процессе реального профессионального общения.

Авторы надеются, что данное пособие позволит достичь высокой мотивированности в изучении как иностранного языка, так и специальных предметов, что способствует повышению интереса к занятиям, позволяет совершенствовать личностные качества студента и позволит им получить доступ к самым современным материалам, связанным с профессиональной деятельностью.


 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТА

Особенностью овладения иностранного языка является то, что объем самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений должен значительно превышать объем практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем. Таким образом, каждому аудиторному двухчасовому занятию должно предшествовать около двух часов самостоятельной работы студента.

· Для того чтобы добиться успеха, необходимо заниматься систематически. Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка охватывает: заучивание слов английского языка;

· уяснение действия правил словообразования;

· грамматические правила;

· чтение тестов на английском языке вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения; понимание текстов, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).

Для того чтобы достигнуть указанного в целевой установке уровня владения языком, следует систематически тренировать память заучиванием иноязычных слов, отрывков текстов. Надо помнить, что способности развиваются в процессе работы, что осмысленный материал запоминается легче, чем неосмысленный, что навык вырабатывается путем многократно повторения выполняемого действия.


Работа над текстом

Поскольку основной целевой установкой обучения иностранному языку является получение информации из иноязычного источника, особое внимание следует уделить чтению текстов. Понимание текста достигается при осуществлении двух видов чтения:

1) чтения с общим охватом содержания;

2) изучающего чтения.

Читая текст, предназначенный для понимания общего содержания, необходимо, не обращаясь к словарю, понять основной смысл прочитанного.

Точное и полное понимание текста осуществляется путем изучающего чтения, которое предполагает умение самостоятельно проводить лексико-грамматический анализ текста. Итогом изучающего чтения является адекватный перевод текста на родной язык с помощью словаря. При этом следует развивать навыки пользования отраслевыми терминологическими словарями и словарями сокращений.

Оба вида чтения складываются из следующих умений:

· а) догадываться о значении незнакомых слов на основе словообразовательных признаков и контекста;

· б) видеть интернациональные слова и определять их значение;

· в) находить знакомые грамматические формы и конструкции и устанавливать их эквиваленты в русском языке;

· г) применять знания по специальным, предметам в качестве основы смысловой и языковой догадки.

Работа над лексикой

Чтобы понимать читаемую литературу, необходимо овладеть определенным запасом слов и предложений. Для этого рекомендуется регулярно читать на английском языке учебные тексты, газеты и оригинальную литературу по специальности.

Работу над закреплением и обогащением лексического запаса рекомендуем проводить следующим образом:

Слова выписывайте в тетрадь или на карточки в исходной форме с соответствующей грамматической характеристикой, т.е. существительные – в ед. числе, глаголы – в неопределенной форме (в инфинитиве), указывая для неправильных глаголов основные формы.

При переводе с английского языка на русский необходимо помнить, что трудности вызывает следующее:

1. Многозначность слов. Например, слово convention имеет значения:

1) собрание, съезд; 2) договор, соглашение, конвенция; 3) обычай; 4) условность. Подобрать нужное значения слова можно только исходя из контекста.

The convention was successful. That is not in accordance with convention. Собрание прошло успешно. Это здесь не принято.

 

2. Омонимы (разные по значению, но одинаково звучащие слова). Их следует отличать от многозначных слов.

Some – какой-нибудь и sum – сумма

break – ломать и brake – тормоз

 left – левый и left - Past Indefinite (Simple) от глагола to leave – оставлять, покидать.

 

Only few people write with the left hand. They left Moscow for Kiev. Немногие пишут левой рукой. Они уехали из Москвы в Киев.

 

3. Конверсия. Образование новых слов из существующих без изменения написания слов называется конверсией. Наиболее распространенным является образование глаголов от соответствующих существительных. Например:

water – вода to water – поливать

control – контроль to control – контролировать

cause – причина to cause – причинять, являться причиной

4. Интернационализм. В английском языке большое место занимают слова, заимствованные из других языков, в основном латинского и греческого. Эти слова получили широкое распространение и стали интернациональными.

По корню таких слов легко догадаться об их переводе на русский язык, например: mechanization механизация; atom атом и т.д.

Другие слова по звучанию несколько сходны с соответствующими русскими словами, но их значение не всегда совпадает со значением русских слов. Так, transformation не только «трансформация», но и «преобразование, изменение».

Однако нужно помнить, что многие интернационализмы расходятся в своем значении в русском и английском языках, поэтому их часто называют «ложными друзьями» переводчика. Например: accurate точный, а не аккуратный,resin смола, а не резина, control не только контролировать, но и управлять и т.д.

5. Словообразование. Эффективным средством расширения запаса слов в английском языке служит знание способов словообразования. Умея расчленить производное слово на корень, суффикс и префикс, легче определить значение неизвестного слова. Кроме того, зная значения наиболее употребительных префиксов и суффиксов, вы сможете без труда понять значение гнезда слов, образованных из одного корневого слова, которое вам известно.

Personalizing

 

Exercise 1 Answer the questions.

1. When do you think history of public relations began?

2. Do you know anything about ancient origins of public relations?

3. What country has made the greatest contribution to public relations history in your opinion?

Before reading

Exercise 2. Give Russian equivalents of the following words.


1. to sow

2. ivory

3. a newsletter

4. citizenry

5.  BCE

6. civil

7. to destroy

8. to court

9.  support

10.  in order to

11.  to commission

12.  divine

13. to ordain

14.  requirement


Exercise 3. Find the pronunciation of the following words.


1. ancient

2. medieval

3. to contribute

4. persuasive

5. influential

6. realm

7. to conquer

8. technique

9. mediterranean

10. emperor

11. epic.


Exercise 4. Find and list all the words in the text with a similar meaning to:


1. crops

2. to boost

6.purpose

7.a problem

3.modern

4.to suggest

5to understand

8.to define

9.to describe

          10.to dispute








Text A

PUBLIC RELATIONS HISTORY

Compiled by Ron Smith (Updated Fall 2004)

Reading for gist

Exercise 6. Read the text once to get the general idea, try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The passage describes

    (A) the history of advertising from Egyptian time to this century.

    (B) the use of advertising techniques for non-commercial purposes.

     (C) the history of advertising from Egyptian time to 27BCE.

 

Scanning for information

Exercise 7.What do the following figures and dates mean?

1. 2,200 BCE

2. 1,800 BCE

3. 5th сentury BCE

4. the 3rd Century BCE

5. mid-first century BCE

6. 500-year-old

7. 27 BCE

 

Reading for detail

Exercise 8. Read the text and decide whether the following sentences are true or false.

1. Plato was Aristotle’s student.

2. Philip of Macedonia conquered almost the whole world.

3. Archeologists have found ancient bulletins and brochures in present-day Iraq.

4. These bulletins and brochures date to 2000 BC.

5.     Plato is one of the most famous Sophist teachers.

6. Socrates said that effective communication should be based on truth.

7. Aristotle’s book Rhetoric is well-known nowadays.

8. Julius Caesar became the first Roman emperor.

Exercise 9. Read the article again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Exercise 10. Analyze the sentence “But it was Plato's student, Aristotle of Athens, who has contributed most to contemporary communication thought. ’’

Compare: It is our age that has offered possibilities for new types of experiments in this field of science. - Именно наш век создал возможности для использования новых методов экспериментального исследования в этой области науки.

Exercise 1 1. Answer the questions.

1. What did publications on stone tablets tell farmers?

2. Who is one of the best-known Sophist teachers?

3. What did Socrates of Athens teach?

4. Who carried on his work?

5. Who has contributed most to contemporary communication thought?

6. What book by Aristotle is well-known nowadays?

7. Where did Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the Great have statues of themselves?

8. What is Julius Caesar famous for?

9. What destroyed the Roman republic?

10. Who did Augustus ask to write an epic poem?

Exercise 12. Choose the correct option.

1. The publications on stone tablets taught farmers to…

a) speak in public

b) grow plants

c) sow flowers

d) plant trees

2. Aristotle’s book Rhetoric … nowadays.

a) is significant

b) is unknown

c) is of no interest

d) has got out of existence

3. Monarchs wanted their followers to …

a) be poor

b) be well-educated

c) thrive

d) be unsuccessful

4. The civil war that destroyed the 500-year-old Roman republic was …

a) short

b) long

c) bloody

d) inevitable

5. Augustus wanted the … of the people to reign successfully.

a) hatred

b) love

c) admiration

d) backing

 

Summarizing information

Exercise 13. Look through the text again. Give the main points of each paragraph of the text.

Exercise 14. Put a key-question to each paragraph of the text given above.

Exercise 15. Make up a detailed plan of the text.

Exercise 16. Abridge the text by way of shortening each paragraph (throwing off unnecessary sentences and even words).

Exercise 17. Summarize the text to the others in your group.

Speaking

Exercise 18. Identify and discuss contemporary parallels to some of these examples of the ancient origins of the public relations.

Exercise 19. (Interview) Think about the questions you would ask any of the famous people mentioned in the text. Make up dialogues with your partner.

Writing

Exercise 20. Collect all the information and write an abstract under the title “Famous ancient people”.

Exercise 21. Write a summary of the text. Use ‘The author describes (presents, touches upon)’ etc.

TEXTS B, C

Personalizing

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. Do you think that public relations have ever been linked with religion?

2. In what way can public relations be connected with religion?

3. Do you know any priests who made a great contribution to public relations in the past?

 

Before reading

Exercise 2. Mind the pronunciation of the following words.


1. maintenance

2. cohesive

3. society

4. throughout

5. Christianity

6. a colleague

7. orchestration

8. honorable

9. the Bible

10.  synagogue

11.  catholic

12.  similarly

13.  honesty


 

Exercise 3. Study the key-vocabulary.

1. Maintenance (noun) - the process of keeping something in existence.

2. Refute (verb) -to say that a statement is not true.

3. Bide (verb) - to stay in a place.

4. Cohesive (adj.) - combining well to form a strong well-organized unit.

5. Preach (verb) - to talk about a religious subject at a religious meeting , especially in church.

6. Endorsement (noun) - support.

7. Bishop (noun) - a senior Christian priest.

8. Diocese (noun) - an area that a bishop is in charge of.

9. Disregard ( noun) - the ability of somebody who does not respect something.

10. Connotation ( noun ) - an additional idea or emotion that a word suggests to you, that is not part of its usual me

Exercise 4. Find English equivalents of the following words in the text. (text C)


1. преувеличение

2. незаселенный

3. беспечный, веселый

4. привлекать

5. объезд, окольный

6. убедить

7. болотистая местность

8. недостаточный, скудный

9. покинуть, забросить

10.  поощрять

11.  подгонять, подстрекать

12.  тем временем

13.  равнина

14.  предшественник


 





TEXT B

TEXT C

Reading for gist

 Exercise 5. Read text B once to get the general idea, try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The passage describes

    (A) religious organizations from Egyptian time to this century.

     (B) influence of religious leaders on public relations.

     (C) religious history.

Scanning for information

Exercise 6.What do the following figures and dates mean? (text B)

1. the mid-first century

2. the 5th century

3. the 8th century

4. the 6th century

5. 1095

6. 1215

7. 1351

8. 1622

Reading for detail

Exercise 7. Read text B and decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1. Peter and Paul’s aim was to decrease interest in Jesus Christ’s message.

2. Nero accused the Christians of the burning of Rome.

3. Augustine of Hippo said that true statements were the purpose of public speaking.

4.  Use of public relations strategies was limited to the Christian church.

5. Martin Luther used the same means of persuading people as John Wycliffe.

Exercise 8. Read texts B and C again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Exercise 9. Analyze the sentence ‘Much of the pre-history of public relations is linked with the growth and maintenance of religion, one of the most basic and cohesive aspects of society throughout the ages. ‘(grammar tense, active or passive voice) . Make up your own sentences using passive constructions.

Exercise 10. Answer the questions. (Text B)

1. Who improved the concepts of rhetoric?

a) Paul of Tarsus

b) Augustine of Hippo

c) The early Christian Church

d) The first Roman emperor

2. What is the Koran?

a) Jesus Christ’s works

b) Mohammed’s writings

c) Stephen Langton’s articles

d) Martin Luther’s Bible

3. What approach did Pope Urban II use?

a) He used slogans, public speaking etc.

b) His approach involved some peculiar communication tactics.

c) He used only writing.

d) His approach involved only public speaking.

4. What did Thomas Aquinas revisit Aristotle for ?

a) He wanted to communicate with Aristotle.

b) He was eager to learn the convincing nature of religious communication.

c) His aim was to study Aristotle’s religious beliefs.

d) His purpose was to refute the persuasive nature of religious communication.

5. How do religious organizations continue to use public relations strategies and tactics?

a) They use quotations from the Bible.

b) They paraphrase the Koran.

c) They attract professionals.

d) They translate the Bible into the language of the people.

Exercise 11. Answer the questions (Text C).

1. Was Erik Thorvaldsen right to name an uninhabited land of  ice and snow Greenland ?

2. What island was swampland?

3. Is it possible to see a Fountain of Youth in Florida?

4. Who hyped the Californian Gold Rush?

5. When did the Burlington Railroad promote land sales out West?

6. Do you think you will promote undersea colonies or the first settlements on the Moon?

Summarizing information

Exercise 12. Look through the text again. Give the main points of each paragraph of the text.

Exercise 13. Put a key-question to each paragraph of the text given above.

Exercise 14. Make up a detailed plan of the text.

Exercise 15. Abridge the text by way of shortening each paragraph (throwing off unnecessary sentences and even words).

Exercise 16. Summarize the text to the others in your group.

Speaking

Exercise 17. Identify and discuss contemporary parallels to some of these examples

of public relations in religious history.

Exercise 18. Identify and discuss contemporary parallels to some of these examples of public relations in colonization.

Exercise 19. (Interview) Think about the questions you would ask any of the famous people mentioned in the texts. Make up dialogues with your partner.

Writing

Exercise 20. Collect all the information and write an abstract under the title “Famous people in the sphere of public relations”.

Exercise 21. Write a summary of the text. Use ‘The author describes (presents, touches upon)’ etc.

TEXTS D, E, F

Personalizing

Exercise 1 Answer the questions.

1. What universities in the USA do you know?

2. Do you think they use publicity to promote higher education?

3. What public relations techniques can you numerate?

4. What modern trends within public relations are you acquainted with?

Before reading

Exercise 2. Study the key vocabulary.


1. preacher-проповедник

2. to credit- приписывать

3. legacy- наследие

4. outraged-возмущенный

5. dissent- раскол, несогласие

6. sympathetic-сочувствующий

7. circulate-распространять

8. to sustain-поддерживать

9. a sentry-часовой

10.  a riot-мятеж, бунт, беспорядки

11.  mob-толпа

12.  a martyr-мученик

13.  a hireling-наемник

14.  to orate-ораторствовать


Exercise3. Find the pronunciation of the following words.


1. campaign

2. financial

3. ceremony

4. routine

5. comprehensive

6. throughout

7. legal

8. equality

9. essentially

10.  accurate

11.  technique

12.  particularly


Exercise 4 Translate the following words into Russian.

1. Preacher

2. comprehensive

3. riot

4. promulgate

5. leak

6. dissemination

7. abolition

8. hire

9. ecumenical

10. implementation





TEXT D

TEXT E

Public Relations Strategies

  • News pegs
  • Audience interest
  • Positive appeals (love, patriotism, etc.)
  • Negative appeals (fear, guilt, bigotry)
  • Personalizing and humanizing issues
  • Audience segmentation
  • Activist organizations
  • Organizing group
  • Orchestration of messages
  • Single-minded (often extremist) presentation of the central message
  • Leaks to media
  • Third-party endorsement & use of opinion leaders
  • Sustained campaigns
  • Slogans
  • Songs
  • Symbols
  • Themes

Public Relations Tactics

  • Planned and staged events
  • News media
  • Essays & commentaries
  • Multimedia saturation
  • Petitions
  • Serial publications
  • Stand-alone publications
  • Speeches
  • Meetings

TEXT F

Publicity Era (1800s)

  • Focus: Dissemination and attention-getting
  • Nature of Communication: One-way
  • Research: Little
  • Current Use: Entertainment, Sports, Marketing

In the 1820s, Amos Kendall, a Kentucky newspaper editor, became essentially the first presidential press secretary. He worked in support of Andrew Jackson during Jackson's election campaign and his term as president. Kendall conducted polls; wrote speeches, news releases, pamphlets; distributed reprints of other favorable articles reprints; and advised Jackson on image and strategy.

The opening of American West provided many opportunities for public relations messages to influence people living along the Atlantic coast to migrate west. Many of these messages were exaggerated, such as the legend of Daniel Boone, so important to the settlement of Kentucky, and later the stories of Buffalo Bill Cody, Wyatt Earp and Calamity Jane that induced settlers to the territories west of the Mississippi.

Social reform in the second half of the 19th century also relied heavily on classic public relations techniques. The movement to abolish slavery included strategies such as personalizing the issue, as Harriet Beecher Stowe (right) did so well with her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. It also used the strategy of social activism, such as Harriet Tubman (left) who lead midnight escapes of slaves and then spoke about it in the North). The abolition movement involved other strategies: third-party endorsement, appeal to justice and moral authority, etc. It employed tactics such as publications, public speaking, rallies and so on.

The temperance movement to abolish liquor and the suffrage movement to gain women the right to vote were other successful social reform movements that employed similar public relations strategies and tactics.

The Bryan-McKinley presidential campaign of 1896 was the first to mount an all-out effort of public opinion. It used posters, pamphlets and news releases; it used public meetings and speeches at whistle-stop train visits throughout the country.

Advocacy Era (mid 1900s)

  • Focus: Modify attitudes & influence behavior
  • Nature of Communication: Two-way
  • Research: Attitude & opinion
  • Current Use: Competitive business organizations, causes & movements

During the middle and latter parts of the 20th Century, much of public relations activity, both research and practice, was built on the advocacy model, in which organizations tried to influence the attitudes and behaviors of their publics. Much of the communication research was related to the war-time interest in propaganda, brainwashing and social manipulation. In the post-war era, many researchers and practitioners continued to explore their interests in persuasive communication.

Following are some of the highlights associated with this era:
1922: Walter Lippman wrote Public Opinion
1923: Edward Bernays wrote Crystallizing Public Opinion
1922: Bernays taught the first college class in public relations (New York University)
1939: Rex Harlow became the first full-time college professor of public relations (Stanford University)

Social reform continued to be a key impetus for public relations activity, and many techniques were successfully employed on behalf of issues such as child labor, workers' comp, prostitution, regulation of big business, food safety and other early consumer issues.

Government also was using public relations techniques. Th Committee on Public Information headed by George Creel (left). This committee was active during the First World War. It was replaced during the Second World War by the Office of War Information. The OWI was a precursor to the United States Information Agency (USIA), which later became the Office of International Information Programs (OIIP) of the State Department. The Voice of America radio system was established.

Meanwhile, the era saw the development of many public relations agencies and departments. Among the better known historical figures are agency founders Edward Bernays, Carl Byoir, Leona Baxter and Clem Whitaker (political public relations), and Henry Rogers (entertainment public relations).

The advocacy model continues to be used in many situations. Most public relations agencies provide advocacy services for their clients, particularly those with products or services in competitive environments. the advocacy model is prevalent in political public relations, as well as in cause-related promotions of many types, from promoting citizen support for military campaigns to generating public support for health, safety, welfare, and other public issues.

4 - Relationship Era (late 1900s and beyond)

  • Focus: Mutual understanding & conflict resolution
  • Nature of Communication: Two-way
  • Research: Perception, values
  • Current Use: Regulated business, government, nonprofit organizations, social movements

The latter part of the 20th Century and the beginning of the 21st has spawned a new approach to public relations, which complements the earlier three approaches of publicity, public information and advocacy. This new relationship model is built on the principles of communication as listening and on conflict resolution and the search for mutual benefits for both organizations and their publics.

In the civil world, this relationship approach has been seen in concepts such as détente and rapprochement. In the religious world, the ecumenical movement and interreligious dialogue are examples of the relationship model. In the business world, public-private partnerships and the courting of consumers are becoming common.

In all of these situations, public relations is becoming more research based and more a function of the management and leadership of an organization, rather than simply the implementation of communication tactics. Meanwhile, new technologies such as the Internet that allow organizations to communicate directly with their publics, combined with the fragmentation of the so-called mass media, are creating new opportunities for public relations practitioners.





Reading for gist

 Exercise 5. Read the text once to get the general idea, try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The passage describes

    (A) the history of public relations from the 18th to the 21st century.

    (B) the use of advertising techniques from the 17th to the 21st century.

    (C) the history of advertising from the 19th to the 21st century.

Scanning for information

Exercise 6.What do the following figures and dates mean? (text D)

1. 1641

2. 1758

3. 5th March 1770

4. 85

5. 1,500

6. 20

7. 25

8. 29

Reading for detail

Exercise 7. Read text B once and decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1. Democracy played the main role in American struggle for independence.

2. The Horrid Boston Massacre allowed Catholics the right to practice their faith.

3. Jonathan Sewall wrote works for the move toward independence.

4. The colonists  were oppressed people.

5. A lot of colonists did not want separation from England.

Exercise 8.Read texts D, E and F again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Exercise 9.Analyse the sentence ‘It is a fundamental element of democracy that played a major role in the American campaign for independence from Britain…’ Make up your own sentences with the structure ‘It is … that’.

Exercise 10.Answer the questions (text F).

1. What models is a historical development of contemporary public relations based on?

a) Press Agentry model

b) Grunig and Hunt models

c) Public Information model

d) Assymetrical model

2. Who worked in support of Andrew Jackson?

a) Harriet Beecher Stowe

b) Harriet Tubman

c) Amos Kendall

d) Daniel Boone

3. What strategies did social reform in the 19th century rely on?

a) the strategy of social activism and personalizing the issue

b) use of an organizing group

c) creation of activist organizations

d) creation of support groups

4. What model was public relations activity in the 20th century built on? 

a) Press Agentry model

b) Public Information model

c) Advocacy model

d) Symmetrical model

5. What is creating new opportunities for public relations practitioners?

a) principles of communication

b) the relationship model

c) public-private partnerships

d) new technologies such as the Internet

Summarizing information

Exercise 11. Look through the text again. Give the main points of each paragraph of the text.

Exercise 12. Put a key-question to each paragraph of the text given above.

Exercise 13. Make up a detailed plan of the text.

Exercise 14. Abridge the text by way of shortening each paragraph (throwing off unnecessary sentences and even words).

Exercise 15. Summarize the text to the others in your group.

Speaking

Exercise 16. Identify and discuss contemporary parallels to some of these examples of the political and military significance of public relations (text D).

Exercise 17. Identify a contemporary social movement, and discuss how it uses these examples of typical public relations strategies and tactics (text E).

Writing

Exercise 18. Write a summary of the text. Use ‘The author describes (presents, touches upon)’ etc.

UNIT 2

MASS MEDIA

Text A. MASS MEDIA EFFECTS

Personalizing

· How do you know about news?

· What media do you use?

Before reading

Exercise 1. Find the pronunciation of the following words.

Word Pronunciation
1 media (n)  
2 brochure (n)
3 appreciation (n)
4 advertising (n)
 5 emerging (adj)
 6 buoy (v)
 7 insurance (n)
 8 perceive (v)
 9 audience (n)

Exercise 2. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:

1 mass print electronic   media 2 media anti-tobacco anti- narcotic   programs

 

3 correct useful latest relevant precise     information 4 up to date fresh gained   knowledge

 

Exercise 3. Find the English equivalents in the text to the following Russian words and phrases.

Средства массовой информации, средства общения, рекламный проспект, несомненно, природные бедствия, благодаря усилиям и самоотверженности, помогли многим людям отказаться (от вредных привычек), похвальный, благо для молодых, влияние на умы, сообщение правдивых новостей, беречь доверие людей, большинство рекламных объявлений, устоять от соблазна, транслировать информацию, аргументы «за» и «против», целевая аудитория (группа), рекламодатель, последние новости, неверное истолкование ситуации, листовки, в конце концов, зависит от.

 

Exercise 4. Find these highlighted words in the text and decide whether they are nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Try to guess what they mean. Then check in a dictionary.

Word Part of speech Possible meaning
means 1 noun средства
entertainment 2    
information 3    
laudable 4    
surroundings 5    
shoulder 6    
appreciation7    
truly 8    
fights 9    
impressionable10    
insurance 11    
target 12    
public 13    
news 14    

 

Exercise 5. Look back at the text to find the definitions of the following words and phrases:

· mass media · print media · the Internet · the electronic media · mass communication · visual effect

 

Exercise 6. Find and list all the words and phrases in the text with a similar meaning to:

· world · disaster · young people · modern · illness · advanced · influence · help · citizens · overweight · pros and cons · media preconception

Exercise 7. Find and list all the words and phrases in the text with an opposite meaning to:

· positive · wrong information · boon · weakness · precise reporting · global audience · rights · children

 

Reading for gist

Exercise 8. Read the text once to get the general idea, try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The story describes

(A) different types of mass media and their influence on audience.  

(B) general information about mass media.

(C) the history of mass media.

MASS MEDIA EFFECTS

Mass media is an effective way of communicating with people living in different geographical regions of the world and engaged in different occupations. Mass media effects on society are phenomenal. Media is known to be the most powerful means1 of communication. The print media, electronic media and the Internet are all the subsets of mass media. The newspapers, newsletters, magazines and brochure are included in the print media, while the electronic media comprises of the television, radio and other modes of communication. The Internet is without doubt the fastest known way of communicating with millions of people across the globe. However, the effects of mass media on society can be positive as well as negative. Let us discuss them in detail in the next few paragraphs.

Mass Media Influence

It is hard to argue with the fact that mass media has a compelling effect on the human mind, especially on minds which are more impressionable10. For example, the mass media influence on children is understandably higher than it is in adults. So how exactly does mass media influence us?

Mass Media Influence on Youth

There is a burgeoning need amongst the youth to be accepted as a part of a group, to be popular, to have friends and relationships with people of the opposite sex etc. Mass media experts understand this need of the people and hence they come out with advertisements on TV, or in the newspapers, or on websites on how people can be more popular using a certain product. Most advertisements you see which are aimed at the youth generally talk about the 'cool quotient' of the product and how it is going to be the next 'in-thing'. And if you want to stay ahead of the game, it is absolutely vital that you procure it. The visual effect, seeing the things happen in front of you and the slice-of-life effect makes them look a lot believable than they should be. So how should mass media be used with youth? Mass media, effective as it is, can be used on the youth to drive home pressing concerns in the country. Child obesity, the dangers of alcohol and preteen sexual relations, importance of exercise and fitness etc. If these things can be done, the mass media will be able to influence the youth for the better and send better messages for the development of the youth than what it is sending today.

Mass Media Influence on Adults

Like children and youth, mass media influences adults too, although perhaps not on the same scale. Most adults with a platonic view of things will resist the temptation of being buoyed up by what the mass media has to offer. While men usually find it difficult to hold themselves back in the face of the allure of sexuality. Other subjects which also appeal to men are financial security and a luxurious hassle-free lifestyle. Women on the other hand are more tempted towards products which guarantee immunity from aging altogether and not just what the previous generation called 'aging gracefully'. Mass media can yet be used constructively to teach the adults about the importance of insurance11, financial education and how to maintain a healthy lifestyle. As you can see, the mass media influence on society is at large, but if used constructively, it can be more of a boon than the bane which people consign it to be these days. After all, there are two sides to a coin and it is up to us to pick the correct one and take it forward!

Pros and Cons of Mass Media

Mass media enjoys a very prominent role in our lives. There are various effects of mass media on the society at large. Media tends to influence and it’s obvious, there are positive as well as negative influences of mass media. However, it also depends upon the way audiences perceive things. The power of the mass media is by far recognized by everybody in terms of advertising, marketing and as a medium to broadcast information to people at large. Since mass media is used to communicate and interact with people from various walks of life, it can often result in a conflict of options. Print media (magazines, newspapers, brochures, press releases, newsletters etc), electronic media (television, radio etc) and the Internet are all part of mass media. Today, mass media can give a person phenomenal exposure and this can result in various effects of the mass media on the society. However, have you paused to think about the pros and cons of mass media? Well, one cannot blame a particular medium because of outside influences. Here, we shall take a look at such advantages and disadvantages of mass media.

Pros of Mass Media:

· The wide reach offered by mass media is phenomenal. It can target12 a global audience.

· In terms of newspapers and magazines, it can reach a specified target12 group. Besides, it is easily accessible. For example, the newspaper lands on the doorstep and we have the latest news in our drawing rooms due to the television set.

· Certain types of media have a loyal fan following. This would mean that an advertiser, publication or news channel would have a ready audience.

· We have the latest news and information at the click of the mouse! The Internet is such a medium that it can give many options for the kind of information required.

· Television, movies, Internet and the radio are some of the best forms of entertainment.

· Mass media can be used for educational purposes in an effective manner.

Cons of Mass Media:

· At times, the information reported may not be authentic from every angle. Hence, there may be a misinterpretation of a situation.

· News can be manipulated to influence the minds of the audiences. For example – a particular political party may manipulate reports in their favor, which would indicate the political control in the media.

· Media bias can occur due to various issues. A journalist or an editor may give personal preference to an issue.

· A particular event or a celebrity may receive undue importance and set wrong ideals before the youth. It may present an ostentatious lifestyle, which may inculcate wrong ideals amongst youngsters.

· Unnecessary sensationalism of an issue may project wrong information to the public13.

· Misleading messages may again divert young minds towards a wrong path.

· Wrong interpretation of news14 may even blow things out of proportion. This would create further unrest in any place or even violence in case of extreme situations.

· At times, a particular event or news14 item may receive too much attention simply because of the lack of important news or snippets. This would again present a wrong idea before the public.

· Certain types of mass media such as newspapers or leaflets have a very short shelf life. In terms of advertising, it would not serve to be useful for every kind of product or message.

These were some of the pros and cons of mass media. Ultimately, it always depends upon the individual and the way a particular message is perceived for a positive influence of the mass media!

(10 000)

After reading

Exercise 9. Read the article again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Exercise 10. Find in the first paragraph and analyze the sentence with the structure “… is known to be …”. Write your own sentences with this structure.

Reading for detail

Exercise 11. Read the text and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false).

1. Mass media is the most powerful way of communication of people living only in one country.

2. Mass media provides us with fresh news from all the fields.

3. The contribution of mass media in the anti-tobacco and anti-narcotic programs is great.

4. The effects of mass media on the minds of the youth can be only positive.

5. The parents and relatives influence on the young people is always more effective than the mass media effects.

6. Most advertisements which are aimed at the youth generally talk about the dangers of alcohol and preteen sexual relations, importance of exercise and fitness etc.

7. Mass media is used to communicate and interact with people from various walks of life.

8. A particular political party can’t manipulate mass media in its favor.

9. A journalist or an editor can’t give personal preference to an issue.

10. Wrong interpretation of news may create violence in the case of extreme situations.

Exercise 12. Look through the text and find information about a very important role of mass media in shaping the personality of people.

Exercise 13. Order the sentences according to the text.

- Mass media has a compelling effect on the children minds.

- Mass media immediately provides us with the latest information about the things happening around us.

- There are positive as well as negative influences of mass media on the society.

- News can be manipulated to influence the minds of the audiences.

- The Internet is such a medium that it can give many options for the kind of information required.

- Mass media has played an important role in making people understand the meaning of democracy.

Exercise 14. Answer the following questions.

1. What is this text about?

2. What definitions are given at the beginning of the text?

3. What functions of mass media does the author dwell on?

4. What influences of mass media does the author report?

5. How does the author explain mass media influence on youth?

6. What are the advantages of mass media?

7. What are the disadvantages of mass media?

8. What conclusion does the author make?

Summarizing information

Exercise 15. Make a plan of the text.

Exercise 16. Abridge the text by way of shortening each paragraph (leaving out unnecessary sentences and even words).

Exercise 17. Summarize  the text to the others in your group.

Speaking

Exercise 18. Discuss Pros and Cons of Mass Media.

Exercise 19. Speak about Mass Media Influence on Youth.

Writing

Exercise 29.Write a summary of the text. Use the following plan.

1. The text is headlined …

2. The author of the article is …

3. The article is devoted to …

4. The text begins with …

5. Then (after that, further on, next …) the author …

- dwells on …

- explains …

- mentions …

- points out …   

- reports about …

- describes …

- touches upon …

- comments on …

6. According to the text …

7. In conclusion …

8. I find the text

- interesting

- informative

- useful

- too hard to understand …

Personalizing

· What associations do you have when you hear the words new-age media?

· What new-age media do you use?

Before reading

Exercise 1. Find the pronunciation of the following words.

Word Pronunciation
1 entertainment (n)
2 pamphlet (n)
3 aesthetics (n)
4 exaggerate(v)
5 sensationalize (v)
6 trivialize (v)
7 violence (n)  
8 inevitable (adj)
9 coverage (n)
10 promiscuous (adj)
11 employer (n)
12 employee (n)
13 malicious (adj)

Exercise 2. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:

1 mass early ages high-technology print visual electronic new-age mass old school mass     media 2 media television radio newspaper Internet bad media positive media   coverage

 

3      media messages theories elements literacy coverage 4 communicated media pictorial     messages

 

5 general mature target globe ready     audience  

 

Exercise 3. Find the English equivalents in the text to the following Russian words and phrases.

Распространение информации, обоюдоострый меч, листовки и брошюры, через наглядные образы, большинство аудитории, мыльные оперы, высокая технология, глубокое влияние, образ жизни, эстетика, важная сущность, рассматривать аудиторию, если бы не средства массовой информации, временами, преувеличивать, насилие, несчастные случаи, грамотность, крайняя необходимость, освещение в СМИ, решающий фактор, преимущества электронной связи, основная проблема, компьютерный вирус, злонамеренные программы, несмотря на, действующая компания, распределять частоты радиостанциям, неприличный материал. 

 

Exercise 4. Find these highlighted words in the text and decide whether they are nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Then try to guess what they mean.

Word Part of speech Possible meaning
information noun информация
available1    
inseparable2    
instrumental3    
popularly4    
detrimental5    
sensationalize6    
glorification7    
inevitable8    
awareness9    
infotainment10    
transfer11    
promiscuous12    
security13    
employees14    
identically14    
intentionally15    
carrying capacity16    

Exercise 5. Look back at the text to find the definitions of the following words and phrases:

· Mass media · print media · media coverage · newspaper coverage · new-age media · the electronic media · culture · Internet coverage · television coverage · telecommuting · telecommunication · router

 

Exercise 6. Find and list all the words and phrases in the text with a similar meaning to:

· negative influences · using the radio · exchange of messages · advertise products · receiver · unlawful · ruin · viruses · transfer

 

Exercise 7. Find and list all the words and phrases in the text with an opposite meaning to:

· positive effects · sender · useful · employers · create an image · fans

Reading for gist

Exercise 8. Read the text once to get the general idea, try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The story describes

(A) different types and applications of telecommunication.

(B) the history of different types of electronic communication.

(C) different types of mass media, media coverage and electronic communication.

After reading

Exercise 9. Read the article again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Scanning for information

Exercise 11. Look through the text and find what the following dates mean:

1844, 1848, 1982, 1998.

Exercise 12. Look through the text again, find and explain the following abbreviations:

TV-Y, TV-Y7, TV-G, TV-PG, TV-14 and TV-MA.

Reading for detail

Exercise 10. Read the text and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false).

1. Mass media are media, which can be used to communicate and interact with a target audience.

2. The print media have replaced the electronic media.

3. Mobile phones, computers and the Internet are the new-age media.

4. Media is not an influential entity in our culture.

5. Media coverage can influence the audience opinion while giving out the information.

6. Electronic communication is fast, accurate and can be used with ease and comfort.

7. With electronic communication the recipient can read the message anytime, anywhere according to his convenience.

8. The safest way of communication is electronic communication.

9. Telecommunication allows people to interact over short distances.

10. The government has made it illegal to read personal email.

Exercise 13. Order the sentences according to the text.

1. The media has played a major role in positive developments about the world peace.

2. Mass media is an effective medium for communication, dissemination of information, advertising, marketing and expressing views, opinions and ideas.

3. The main issue with electronic communication is security.

4. Telecommunication allows people to interact over long distances.

5. Businessmen started to broadcast radio and generated income by selling advertisements.

6. Email, websites, blogging, Internet TV and many other mass media are booming today.

Exercise 14. Answer the following questions.

1. What is this text about?

2. What definitions of mass media are given at the beginning of the text?

3. What different types of mass media does the author mention?

4. What influences of mass media does the author dwell on?

5. What positive and negative facts about media does the author point out?

6. How can media coverage be defined?

7. What types of media coverage are mentioned?

8. What does the author report about electronic communication?

9. What applications of telecommunication does the author describe?

10. What conclusion does the author make?

Summarizing information

Exercise 15. Make a plan of the text.

Exercise 16. Abridge the text by way of shortening each paragraph (leaving out unnecessary sentences and even words).

Exercise 17. Summarize the text to the others in your group.

Speaking

Exercise 18. Discuss Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Communication.

Exercise 19. Speak about New-age Media.

Writing

Exercise 20.Write a summary of the text. Use the following plan.

1. The title of the text is …

2. The text is written by…

3. The text gives information about …

4. At the beginning of the text the author …

5. Then (after that, further on, next …) the author …

- dwells on …

- explains …

- mentions …

- points out …

- reports about …

- describes …

- touches upon …

- comments on …

6. According to the text …

7. The text ends with…

8. I think the text is…

- important

- informative

- useless

- too hard to understand …


 

Text C. WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC OPINION IN MEDIA


Personalizing

· Have you ever written letters to editors? Why?

· Have you ever taken part in readership polls or questionnaires?

Before reading

Exercise 1. Find the pronunciation of the following words.

Word Pronunciation
1 society (n)
2 journalism (n)
3 content (n)  
4 editor (n)
5 acknowledgment (n)
6 questionnaire (n)
7 exposure (n)
8 measure (v)
9 require (v)  
10 simultaneously (adv)

 

Exercise 2. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:

1   public opinion participation reviews 2   public voting awareness attention
3 public readership polls 4 theory of mass media mass communication
5 according to the theory the needs and requirements      

Exercise 3. Find the English equivalents in the text to the following Russian words and phrases.

Целиком и полностью, слияние новостей и общественного мнения, подтверждение важности общественного мнения, опросы читателей, сотрудничать (писать статьи для газеты \ журнала), рейтинги читателей, вторжение в личную жизнь, повседневная жизнь, распространение информации.

 

Exercise 4. Find these highlighted words in the text and decide whether they are nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Then try to guess what they mean using a dictionary.

Word Part of speech Possible meaning
information noun информация
journalism1    
unaware2    
journalists3    
acknowledgment4    
using5    
participation6    
awareness7    
acknowledge8    
readership9    
requirements10    
simultaneously11    
require12    

Exercise 5. Look back at the text to find the definitions of the following words and phrases:

· newspaper content · citizen journalism · public poll
· World Wide Web · gratification theory · print media

 

Exercise 6. Find and list all the words and phrases in the text with a similar meaning to:

· world · moreover · creating public opinion · example · daily · subject · word-of-mouth channel · audience · significance · reflecting

Exercise 7. Find and list all the words and phrases in the text with an opposite meaning to:

· editor · individual opinion · because of · failure · complicated · partly · as a result · narrow · different

Reading for gist

Exercise 8. Read the text once to get the general idea, try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The story describes

(A) the importance, shaping  and measurement of public opinion.

(B) the importance of shaping up the readership rankings.

(C) the importance of link between government and the people.

After reading

Exercise 9. Read the article again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Reading for details

Exercise 10. Read the text and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). 

1. Media informs people about daily events around the world.

2. The newspaper content is produced by reporters and journalists.

3. Public polls are used by many news channels to measure public opinion.

4. The success of a particular film depends on the public voting.

5. Media doesn’t consider the importance of public opinion.

6. Media takes part in forming the public opinion.

7. According to the gratification theory of mass media the audiences use the media as a form of citizen journalism.

8. People all over the world use media as a source of information and entertainment.

9. Media reports about the opinions and ideas of people as well as their government developments.

10. Media prevents from delivering justice by attracting public attention.

Exercise 11. Find in the text and analyze the sentences with the structure “it is … that…”

Exercise 12. Look through the text and find information about tools of measuring of public opinion.

Exercise 13. Order the sentences according to the text.

1. The newspaper content is the product of reporters and readers.

2. Public polls and voting are important tools to measure public opinion.

3. People are both the audience and the essential part of news.

4. Public participation in the media is a great step towards strengthening the democracy of a nation.

5. The Internet has strengthened the importance of public opinion.

6. The media success depends on the public opinion.

7. Media is a link between the government and the people.

8. Media plays an important role in shaping the public opinion.

9. Media is a great resource of information for people across the world.

Exercise 14. Answer the following questions.

1. What is media?

2. What is the role of people in media?

3. What is citizen journalism?

4. What tools are used to measure public opinion in the news channels (the entertainment channels)?

5. What does the success or failure of a particular movie depend on? 

6. Does the media acknowledge the importance of public opinion? Why?

7. What do many people blame the media for?

8. What decides the success of media popularity and the eventual media success?

9. What are the effects of the media?

10. Why is the media considered to be a link between the government and the people?

Exercise 15. Write a plan of the text.

Exercise 16. Summarize the text to the others in your group.

Speaking

Exercise 17. Discuss the tools to measure public opinion.

Exercise 18. Speak about Media Effects.

Writing

Exercise 19.Write a summary of the text. Use the following plan.

1. The title of the text is …

2. The text is written by…

3. The text gives information about …

4. At the beginning of the text the author …

5. Then (after that, further on, next …) the author …

- dwells on …

- explains …

- mentions …

- points out …

- reports about …

- describes …

- touches upon …

- comments on …

6. According to the text …

7. The text ends with…

8. I think the text is…

- important

- informative

- useless

- too hard to understand …


 


UNIT 3

Text A

Personalizing

· What do you think about advertising and its connection with the popular culture?

· What associations do you have when you hear the word “advertising”?

Before reading

Exercise 1. Find the pronunciation of the following words.

Word Pronunciation
1 persuade (v)  
2 purchase (v)  
3 advertisement (n)  
4 populace (n)  
5 proprietor (n)  
6 predecessor (n)  
7 prevalent (adj)  
8 frontier (n)  
9 content (n)  

 

Exercise 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Russian:

1 to persuade the customers (para1)    
2 to generate consumption (para2)    
3 to deliver the messages(para2)    
4 on behalf (of para2)    
5 household (para 10)    
6 to follow suit (para11)    
7 to exercise control (para 13)    
8 to usher in (the era) (para14)    
9 unobtrusive ads (para 16)    
10 sophisticated advertising (para21)    

Exercise 3. Find these words in the text and decide whether they are nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Then find out what they mean using a dictionary.

Word Part of speech Meaning
1 rise (para1)    
2 sales (para5)    
3 need (para7)    
4 lower (para9)    
5 tame (para10)    
6 broadcasts (para11)    
7 dates (para14)    
8 causes (para18)    
9 air (para22)    

 

Exercise 4. Find the English equivalents to the following Russian words and phrases.

1. увеличенное потребление (para2)    
2. социальная реклама (para 3)    
3. простой народ (para 6)  
4. шарлатанская реклама (para 7)    
5. на рубеже века (para 10)    
6. привлекательный в глазах потребителя (para 14)  
7. побочный продукт (para 15)    
8. партизанский маркетинг(para 18)    
9. методы маркетинговых коммуникаций (para 21)  
10. чтобы удовлетворить требования (para 22)  

 

Exercise 5. Look back at the text and match the word/phrase to its definition:

1 consume (v) para1 a. a typical example of something, or the original model of something from which others are copied
2 mind (n) para2 b. large amounts of money received by a company
3 item (n) para3 c. belonging to or shared by two or more people or things
4 common (adj) para5 d. to appear from somewhere  
5 expand (v) para7 e.  to use something such as a product, energy, or fuel  
6 retailer (n) para11 f. example  
7 instance (n) para13 g. someone's memory or their ability to think  
8 archetype (n) para14 h. increase in size or amount  
9 emerge (v) para15 i. a single thing in a set or on a list  
10 revenue (n) para16 j. someone who sells products to the public  

Exercise 6. Find the meaning of the following abbreviations:

1 BBC

2 BC   

3 GDP

4 FCC 

5 HIV 

6 AIDS

Exercise 7. Find some information in the Internet about the famous people, places and organizations mentioned in the text:

1 Pompeii

2 Volney Palmer

3 N.W. Ayer & Son

4 British Broadcasting Company

5 William Bernbach

Reading for gist

Exercise 8. Read the text once to get the general idea, try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The passage describes

    (A) the history of advertising from Egyptian time to most recent advertising innovations including the Internet.

    (B) mainly the use of advertising techniques for non-commercial purposes, such as public service announcements.

    (C) different types of advertising and media approaches to it.

Text A

(1)Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade its viewers, readers or listeners to take some action. It usually includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume that particular brand. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

(2)Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail. Advertising may be placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

(3)Organizations that spend money on advertising promoting items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.

(4)Money spent on advertising has declined in recent years. In 2007, spending on advertising was estimated at more than $150 billion in the United States and $385 billion worldwide, and the latter to exceed $450 billion by 2010.

History

(5)Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. History tells us that out-of-home advertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising.

(6)As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general populace was unable to read, signs that today would say cobbler, miller, tailor or blacksmith would use an image associated with their trade such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers (town criers) to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of the customers.

(7)As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing, developed advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.

(8)As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.

(9)In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney Palmer established a predecessor to advertising agencies in Boston. Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in 1869, and was located in Philadelphia.

(10)At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. Although tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a couple with the message "The skin you love to touch".

(11)In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularized, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. However, radio station owners soon realized they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.

(12)This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialize the radio and people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons – to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC, originally a private company, the British Broadcasting Company, but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model, creating the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. However, in the United States, the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 which created the Federal Communications Commission.7 To placate the socialists, the U.S. Congress did require commercial broadcasters to operate in the "public interest, convenience, and necessity". Public broadcasting now exists in the United States due to the 1967 Public Broadcasting Act which led to the Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio.

(13)In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began the modern trend of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. This eventually became the standard for the commercial television industry in the United States. However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows, such as The United States Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show - up to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now, a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame.

(14)The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity was allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to consumers' eyes. The Volkswagen ad campaign—featuring such headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" (which were used to describe the appearance of the car)—ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a "position" or "unique selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with a specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind. This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution and its archetype was William Bernbach who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. Some of the most creative and long-standing American advertising dates to this period.

(15)The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message, rather than it being a by-product or afterthought. As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and ShopTV Canada.

(16)Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites including the search engine Google, started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than inundate, users. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising.

(17)The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. For example, in the U.S. in 1925, the main advertising media were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By 1998, television and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2.4 percent.

(18)A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing", which involve unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasing more popular with a lot of companies. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which causes consumers to buy the product or idea. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages, and various innovations utilizing social network services such as My Space.

Public service advertising

(19)The same advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues, such as HIV/AIDS, political ideology, energy conservation and deforestation.

(20)Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and motivating large audiences. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest – it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes." – Attributed to Howard Gossage by David Ogilvy.

(21)Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public interest advertising, cause marketing, and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial enterprise) on behalf of non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives.

(22)In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet these requirements, many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required public service announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers.

(23)Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I and II under the direction of several governments.

(10 000)

After reading

Exercise 9.Read the article again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Scanning for information

Exercise 11. What do the following figures and dates mean?

1 $150 billion

2 4000 BC

3 June 1836

4 1869

5 1960

6 2.4

Exercise 12. Order the sentences according to the text.

1 Wall or rock painting is for commercial advertising is the most ancient advertising form.

2 Advertising is a means of conveying information to consumers about a product or service that exists in many different media.

3 Volney Palmer established the first advertising agency in Boston.

4 Advertising serves to persuade and inform a consumers in order to influence them and their purchasing power.

5 Handbills appeared in the 17th century when the general public was able to read.

6 Guerilla marketing reflects an increasing trend of interactive and embedded ads.

7 Du Mont Television Network started selling small blocks of advertising time to multiple sponsors.

8 There are cable Tv channels devoted exclusively to advertising.

9 Radio became the advertising medium, selling program sponsorship.

10 William Bernbach created a revolutionary Volkswagen ad.

Exercise 13. Answer the following questions.

1 What is the main purpose of commercial advertising?

2 What other items besides consumer products or service could be promoted through advertising?

3 What are the oldest forms of advertising?

4 What did early print advertisements promote?

5 What appeared as the result of “quack” advertising?

6 Who was the first to establish a kind of advertising agency?

7 Why could women make a career in advertising even at the turn of the 20th century?

8 Is BBC a private company or a public body?

9 What approach to advertising was characteristic in 1960s?

10 What is Unique Selling Proposition?

11 What does “guerilla marketing” involve?

12 Why do many broadcast stations in the US air the required public announcements during the late night or early morning?

Summarizing information

Speaking

Writing

The skin you love to touch

Remember: This is the ad for a soap product using a sex sell (paragraph 10).

Think small

Remember: This is the Volkswagen ad campaign of 1960s, using a unique selling proposal. (paragraph 14) Be ready to explain your choice.

Text B

Personalizing

· What types of advertising do you know?

· What types of advertising are the most effective/ the least effective in your opinion?

· What types of advertising have you seen today/yesterday?

Before reading

Exercise 1. Find the pronunciation of the following words.

Word Pronunciation
1 virtually  
2 receipt  
3 purchase  
4 proponent  
5 vehicle  
6 aisle  
7 digital  
8 controversy  

 

Exercise 2. Look at some terms you’ll come across in the text and match the terms to their definitions.

1 A rack card a. is a form of online advertising on the World Wide Web intended to attract web traffic.
2 A flyer or flier, also called handbill or leaflet b. is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web delivered by an ad server. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser
3 Pop-up ad or pop-up (всплывающее окно ) c. is an officer of the court who makes public pronouncements as required by the court, can also make public announcements in the streets. They are often dressed elaborately, in a red and gold robe, white breeches, black boots and a tricorne hat.
4 A web banner or banner ad d. is a document used for commercial advertising, placed on a special rack frequently in convenience stores, hotels, landmarks, restaurants, rest areas and other locations that enjoy significant foot traffic.
5 A town crier e. is a short tune used in advertising and for other commercial uses. It contains meaning that explicitly promotes the product being advertised, usually through the use of one or more advertising slogans. It is a form of sound branding.
6 A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark f. is a form of paper advertisement intended for wide distribution and typically posted or distributed in a public place or through the mail.
7 A jingle g. is a trademark or brand name that has become the common name for, or synonymous with, a general class of products or service, represents a form of metonymy
8 Classified ad   h. (of newspaper or magazine advertisements) organized in categories according to what is being advertised  

 

Exercise 3. . Give Russian equivalents of the following words/word combinations .

Word/word combination Translation
1 average (para2)  
2 annual (para 2)  
3 event ticket (para1)  
4 insert (para 4)  
5 blank backdrops (para4)  
6 toll-free (para5)  
7 receive (para7)  
8 deliver a message (para9)  
9 spotlights (para11)  
10 retail (para13)  
11 embed (para14)  
12 digital (para19)  
13 pervasive (para21)  

Exercise 4. Find these highlighted words in the text and decide whether they are nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Then decide what they mean and check in a dictionary.

Word Part of speech Possible meaning
1 charge (para2)    
2 feature (para5)    
3 convention (para12)    
4 strewn (para11)    
5 covert (para14)    
6 share (para15)    
7 advances (19)    

 

Exercise 5. Find and list all the words and phrases in the text with a similar meaning to:

1 include (para8)  
2 objective or result(para12)  
3 A large shop(para12)  
4 the negative aspect of something (para16)  
5 become greater or more successful than (para17)  
6 Dispute, disagreement (para21)  
7 Excitement, expectations (para22)  

Exercise 6. Find the English equivalents to the following Russian words and phrases.

1 отраслевые журналы (para8)  
2 знаменитость (para15)  
3 продвигать (para15)  
4 неблагоприятный (para16)  
5 цифровые вывески (para19)  
6 точность (para 19)  
7 ракета-носитель (21)  
8 подсознательный (para21)  

 

Exercise 7. Look back at the text and match the word/phrase to its definition:

1 testimonial (para5) a. a passage between rows of seats in a building such as a church or theater, an airplane, or a train
2 fee (para8) b. irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users
3 spam (para9) c. a payment made to a professional person or to a professional or public body in exchange for advice or services
4 dedicated (para11) d. a formal statement testifying to someone's character and qualifications
5 aisle (para1) e. not requested or invited  
6 endorse (para16) f. declare one's public approval or support of
7 unsolicited (para20) g. the most successful point; the culmination
8 pinnacle (para21) h. exclusively allocated to or intended for a particular purpose

Exercise 8. Find some information in the Internet about the following:

1. What do the brands mentioned in the text produce?

· VAIO,

· Kellogg’s

2. How are the following film names translated into Russian?

· Minority Report

· Spaceballs

· Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer"

· Blade Runner

Reading for gist

Exercise 9. Read the text once to get the general idea and try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The passage describes

    (A) the history of advertising from ancient times to most recent advertising innovations including the Internet.

    (B) covert advertising and celebrity endorsement.

    (C) different types of advertising and advertising media.

Text B

Types of advertising

(1)Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bathroom stalls, stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.

Television

(2)The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009).

(3)The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product.

(4)Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. Virtual product placement is also possible.

Infomercials

(5)An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.

Radio advertising

(6)Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio.

(7)Radio advertisements are broadcasted as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the obvious limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage.

Press advertising

(8)Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service.

Online advertising

(9)Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.

Billboard advertising

(10)Billboards are large structures located in public places, which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums.

In-store advertising

(13)In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters, eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays.

Covert advertising

(14)Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard.

Celebrities

(15)This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products.

(16)The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated, as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana.

While reading

Exercise 10.Read the article again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Exercise 11:. Read the explanation of the term portmanteau:

A portmanteau [pɔrtˈmæntoʊ, pɔrtmænˈtoʊ]; or portmanteau word is a combination of two (or more) words or morphemes, and their definitions, into one new word. The English is derived from French portemanteau (portmanteau luggage which has two compartments). A portmanteau word fuses both the sounds and the meanings of its components, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog .

While reading the text, find 4 examples of such words.

Scanning for information

Exercise 12. What do the following figures and dates mean?

1 $3 million

2 2008

3 Finland, 2000

4 $2.2 billion

5 83%

Reading for detail

Exercise 13. Order the sentences according to the text.

1 Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal.

2 The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format .

3 In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store.

4 Any place advertisers pay for to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.

5 Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers.

6 Infomercials describe, display, and demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.

7 Billboards are large structures located in public places that display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists.

8 Radio has the obvious limitation of being restricted to sound. However, proponents of radio advertising often say this is an advantage.

9 Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens.

10 Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media.

Exercise 14. Answer the following questions.

1 What is the most effective mass-market advertising format?

2 How can you prove that the annual Super Bowl football game is the most prominent advertising event on television?

3 What is a portmanteau word? Give examples.

4 What is classified advertising? Give examples.

5 What are the examples of online advertising?

6 What is spam?

7 Where is the billboard advertising most often located?

8 Are billboard displays always static?

9 What is in-store advertising? Give some examples.

10 What are the downsides of celebrity endorsement?

Exercise 15. Read the text and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false)

1 In the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo.

2 In the film I, Robot, the main character played by Will Smith mentions his Reebok shoes several times, calling them "classics,"

3 The movie The Matrix Reloaded contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used.

4 In James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale, one can see product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars.

5 Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a Pepsi-Cola billboard.

Exercise 16Choose the correct option:

1. The other media are replacing television, radio and newspapers for advertising

a. because people more and more use the Internet for news and entertainment.

b. because people are tired of traditional media.

2. Digital signage is becoming a major mass media

a. because it is interactive.

b. because it can reach many people for less money.

3. If a brand is equated with a common noun (e.g. Xerox= photocopier)

a. it is always a positive development.

b. it is not always positive because a brand looses legal protection.

4. The first mobile phone advertising was launched

a. in Finland in 2000.

b. in the US in 1998.

5. Social network advertising

a. is not very promising because it is still immature.

b. is developing rapidly as people can send relevant advertisements to each other through social network service.

Summarizing information

Speaking

Exercise 20.

1 Study the first paragraph – what advertising media do you think to be unusual? Can you add anything to this list?

2 Speak about traditional advertising media – newspapers, radio, television. Give some positive and negative aspects of placing an advertisement within the traditional media.

3 Speak about types of billboard advertising.

4 Speak about electronic advertising and its perspectives.

5 Give your opinion about covert advertising.

6 Speak about positive and negative aspects of celebrity endorsement.

Writing

Exercise21. Write an ad about a product – use pictures, slogans and text to make it as interesting as possible !

The following points should be included:

· what is good about the product

· why people should buy it

· why it is better than a different product

· the price.

Text C

CURRENT TRENDS

Personalizing

· What in your opinion are the current trends in advertising? Try to think of 2 or 3 trends.

· What is the most interesting advertising you have recently seen/heard?

· What is the worst/least successful advertising you have seen/heard?

Before reading

Exercise 1. Find the pronunciation of the following words.

Word Translation
1 dawn (para1)  
2 message (para2)  
3 controversial (para5)  
4 execution (para7)  
5 insight (para8)  
6 unaware (para11_  
7 justice (para15)  
8 obesity (para16)  
9 gauge (para20)  

 

Exercise 2. . Give Russian equivalents of the following words, mind the context:

Word Russian equivalent
1 commonplace (para1)  
2 competition (para4)  
3 domestic (para6)  
4 destination (para12)  
5 mitigate (para13)  
6 blight (para14)  
7 exacerbate (para16)  
8 consent (para18)  
9 offense (para18)  
10 bypass (para19)  
11 entail (para20)  
12 advance (para21)  

Exercise 3. Find the following words in the text and decide whether they are nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Give Russian equivalents. Use the dictionary where necessary.

Word Part of speech Meaning
1 blanket (para2)    
2 causes (para3)    
3 counter (para9)    
4 ban (para15)    
5 fine (para 18)    
6 advance (para21)    

 

Exercise 4. Find the English equivalents in the text to the following Russian words and phrases.

Russian word English equivalent
1 вызванный (para2)  
2 смениться, уступить место (para4)  
3 долгосрочный (para5)  
4 реализация (para6)  
5 выбирать, предпочитать (para9)  
6 преднамеренный (para12)  
7 поддерживать (para17)  
8 опасность для здоровья (para19)  

 

Exercise 5. Look back at the text to find the definitions of the following words and phrases:

Word Definition
1 outsourcing (para4) a. intuitive understanding and insight  
2 rank (para4) b. spoken communication as a means of transmitting information
3 word-of-mouth (para5) c. a sudden large increase  
4 economies of scale (para6) d. to warn  
5 evidence (para10) e. the practice of buying goods and services from outside suppliers, rather than producing them within a firm.
6 perception (para12) f. the financial advantages that a company gains when it produces large quantities of products
7 decent (para17) g. a strong effect or influence  
8 to caution (para19) h. anything that you see, experience, read, or are told that causes you to believe that something is true or has really happened.
9 impact ((para19) i. not likely to shock or embarrass others
10 surge (para21) j. a position within the hierarchy of an organization or society  

 

Exercise 6. Find some information in the Internet about the following items, mentioned in the text.

1 pop-up, pop-under;

2 the theory of Long Tail

3 SUV

4 AdU Network

Reading for gist

Exercise 7. Read the text once, try not to spend more than 10 minutes.

This reading passage describes

A. some new advertising techniques

B. advertising industry regulations

C. research techniques and advertising education

D. all of the above

Text C

Rise in new media

(1)With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Popup, Flash, banner, Popunder, advergaming, and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace. Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. In general, the advertising community has not yet made this easy, although some have used the Internet to distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them. In 2009, mobile and internet advertising grew by 18.1% and 9.2% respectively. Older media advertising saw declines: −10.1% (TV), −11.7% (radio), −14.8% (magazines) and −18.7% (newspapers).

Niche marketing

(2)Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of the niche market using niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of The Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass-market audience possible.

(3)However, the use of tracking, customer profiles and the growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything - from blogs to social networking sites - provide advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined. This leads to ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing products. Among others, Comcast Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in their video on demand menus. These advertisements are targeted to a specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice at any time, right from their home. This causes the viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements they want to view.

Crowdsourcing

(4)Crowdsoursing means the practice of outsourcing a job or task that is traditionally performed by employees or a contracted company to a non-organized, usually large group of people, generally in the form of an open call or competition. The concept of crowdsourcing has given way to the trend of user-generated advertisements. User-generated ads are created by consumers as opposed to an advertising agency or the company themselves, most often they are a result of brand sponsored advertising competitions. For the 2007 Super Bowl, the Frito-Lays division of PepsiCo held the Crash the Super Bowl contest, allowing consumers to create their own Doritos commercial. Chevrolet held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs. Due to the success of the Doritos user-generated ads in the 2007 Super Bowl, Frito-Lays re-launched the competition for the 2009 and 2010 Super Bowl. The resulting ads were among the most-watched and most-liked Super Bowl ads. In fact, the winning ad that aired in the 2009 Super Bowl was ranked by the USA Today Super Bowl Ad Meter as the top ad for the year while the winning ads that aired in the 2010 Super Bowl were found by Nielsen's BuzzMetrics to be the "most buzzed-about".

(5)This trend has given rise to several online platforms that host user-generated advertising competitions on behalf of a company. Founded in 2007, Zooppa has launched ad competitions for brands such as Google, Nike, Hershey’s, General Mills, Microsoft, NBC Universal, and Mini Cooper. Crowdsourced advertisements have gained popularity in part due to its cost effective nature, high consumer engagement, and ability to generate word-of-mouth. However, it remains controversial, as the long-term impact on the advertising industry is still unclear.

Global advertising

(6)Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic, export, international, multi-national, and global. For global advertisers, there are four, potentially competing, business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising:

· building a brand while speaking with one voice,

· developing economies of scale (эффект масштаба ; повышение эффективности от роста масштабов производства) in the creative process,

· maximizing local effectiveness of ads, and

· increasing the company’s speed of implementation.

(7)Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions:

· exporting executions,

· producing local executions, and

· importing ideas that travel.

(8)Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how economies of scale are maximized. Once one knows what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. Market research measures, such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Emotion and Branding Moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual, not verbal, elements of the ad.

New technology

(9)The ability to record shows on digital video recorders allow users to record the programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward through commercials. Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded box sets of television programs are offered for sale, fewer people watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that these sets are sold, means the company will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets. To counter this effect, many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV shows like Survivor.

Evidence-based advertising

(10)Evidence-based advertising refers to advertising principles, which have been proven through experimental studies. They can be applied to an advertising campaign with high confidence of increasing persuasiveness regardless of time and place. Principles are usually accompanied with various conditions, which must be taken into consideration when applying them. According to Professor J. Scott Armstrong from The Wharton School, evidence-based principles “draw upon typical practice, expert opinion, factual evidence and empirical evidence.”

Foreign public messaging

(11)Foreign governments, particularly those that own marketable commercial products or services, often promote their interests and positions through the advertising of those goods. The target audience is largely unaware foreign messaging, It is willing to receive the message while in a mental state of absorbing information from advertisements during television commercial breaks, while reading a periodical, or while passing by billboards in public spaces. A prime example of this messaging technique is advertising campaigns to promote international travel.

(12)While advertising foreign destinations and services may stem from the typical goal of increasing revenue by drawing more tourism, some travel campaigns carry the additional or alternative intended purpose of promoting good sentiments or improving existing ones among the target audience towards a given nation or region. It is common for advertising promoting foreign countries to be produced and distributed by the tourism ministries of those countries, so these ads often carry political statements and/or depictions of the foreign government's desired international public perception.

(13)Additionally, a wide range of foreign airlines and travel-related services which advertise separately from the destinations, themselves, are owned by their respective governments; examples include, though are not limited to, the Emirates airline (Dubai), Singapore Airlines (Singapore),Qatar Airways, China Airlines(Taiwan Republic of China), and Air China (People's Republic of China). By depicting their destinations, airlines, and other services in a favorable and pleasant light, countries market themselves to populations abroad in a manner that could mitigate prior public impressions.

Regulation

(14)In the US many communities believe that many forms of outdoor advertising blight the public realm. As long ago as the 1960s in the US there were attempts to ban billboard advertising in the open countryside. Cities such as São Paulo have introduced an outright ban with London also having specific legislation to control unlawful displays.

(15)There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and the influence of advertising. Some examples are: the ban on television of tobacco advertising imposed in many countries, and the total ban of advertising to children under 12 imposed by the Swedish government in 1991. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating within the country, it has been weakened by the European Court of Justice, which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming, including those from neighboring countries or via satellite. Greece’s regulations are of a similar nature, “banning advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm and a total ban on advertisement for war toys".

(16)In Europe and elsewhere, there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to children should be regulated. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested fast food advertising that targets children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States.

(17)In New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and many European countries, the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation. Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal, decent, honest and truthful'. Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry, but remain independent, with the intent of upholding the standards or codes like the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK.

(18)In the UK most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning system. Currently the display of an advertisement without consent from the Planning Authority is a criminal offense liable to a fine of £2,500 per offence. All of the major outdoor billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this nature.

(19)Naturally, many advertisers view governmental regulation or even self-regulation as intrusion of their freedom of speech or a necessary evil. Therefore, they employ a wide-variety of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g. printing English words in bold and French translations in fine print to deal with the Article 120 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the use of English in French advertising). The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms are subject to government regulation in many countries. For instance, the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements.

Advertising Research

(20)Advertising research is a specialized form of research that works to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising. It entails numerous forms of research that employ different methodologies. Advertising research includes pre-testing (also known as copy testing) and post-testing of ads and/or campaigns—pre-testing is done before an ad airs to gauge how well it will perform and post-testing is done after an ad airs to determine the in-market impact of the ad or campaign on the consumer. Continuous ad tracking and the Communicus System are competing examples of post-testing advertising research types.

Advertising education

(21)Advertising education has become widely popular with bachelor, master and doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis. A surge in advertising interest is typically attributed to the strong relationship advertising plays in cultural and technological changes, such as the advance of online social networking. A unique model for teaching advertising is the student-run advertising agency, where advertising students create campaigns for real companies. Organizations such as American Advertising Federation and AdU Network partner established companies with students to create these campaigns.

(10500)

While reading

Exercise 7.Read the article again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Exercise 8 Find two examples of portmanteau words See part B, exercise 11.

Scanning for information

Exercise 9. What do the following figures and dates mean?

1 2007

2 1960s

3 1991, 12

4 7am – 10pm

5 2,500

6 120, 1994

Reading for detail

Exercise 10. Answer the following questions.

1 What new advertising techniques does the Internet produce?

2 Why do some people may wish to sent an ad to a friend? Have you ever done this?

3 What makes niche advertising possible?

4 Is the task of niche ads to cover the largest audience possible?

5 What is crowdsourcing?

6 What was the aim of the Crash the Super Bowl contest held PepsiCo in 2007?

7 Was the resulting ad successful? What makes you think so?

8 Why do crowdsourced ads gain popularity? Is this a positive development?

9 What market research measures, such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Emotion and Branding Moments are used for?

10 Why do many advertisers choose to have product placement in such shows like Survivor?

Exercise 11. .Choose the correct option:

1. Foreign governments, particularly those that own marketable commercial products or services, often promote their interests and positions

a. through the advertising of those goods.

b. through political debates.

2. The main example of such messaging technique is advertising campaigns

a. to promote international travel.

b. to caution consumers about the health hazards of their products.

3. Some travel campaigns carry the additional purpose of

a. developing economies of scale.

b. promoting good sentiments towards a given nation or region.

4. Advertising promoting foreign countries is produced by

a. the tourism ministries of those countries.

b. global advertisers.

5. Countries market themselves to the people abroad in a manner that could mitigate unfavorable public impressions by

a. market research measures.

b. depicting their destinations, airlines, and other services in a favorable and pleasant light.

Exercise 12 Are the following statements true or false?

1 The efforts to regulate the content of advertising are made to protect the public interest.

2 The total ban of advertising to children under 12 was imposed by the Greek government in 1991.

3 Sweden bans advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm and there is a total ban on advertisement for war toys".

4 Fast food advertising that targets children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States.

5 The Advertising Standards Authority in the UK is funded by the UK advertising industry.

6 Many advertisers view governmental regulation as the manifestation of their freedom of speech.

Summarizing information

Speaking

Writing

Exercise 17. Get back to paragraph 1 from the text. Write a short paragraph (150words).

In 2009, mobile and internet advertising grew by 18.1% and 9.2% respectively. Older media advertising saw declines: −10.1% (TV), −11.7% (radio), −14.8% (magazines) and −18.7% (newspapers).

· What ad media showed the biggest growth?

· What media showed the largest decline?

· Explain the tendency.

 

 


ИСТОЧНИКИ :

1. Public Relations History Compiled by Ron Smith (Updated Fall 2004)

http://faculty.buffalostate.edu/smithrd

2. Effects of Mass Media on Society By Charlie S (Last Updated: 9/28/2011)

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/mass-media-effects.html

3. Advertising and Culture by Timothy R. V. Foster

http://onlinebusinessmarketing.webs.com/

 

 


 




ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2

Glossary

Место в общем курсе изучения английского языка, цели и задачи домашнего чтения

Курс домашнего чтения на английском языке должен дополнять основной курс английского языка, выполняя ряд функций.

Первостепенные задачи (реализующиеся в рамках курса чтения)

1. Формирование интереса к чтению на английском языке. Работая с аутентичными текстами для чтения разных жанров под руководством преподавателя, студенты приобретут большую уверенность в своих силах, научатся преодолевать языковые трудности, почувствуют вкус к чтению литературы по специальности.

2. Углубление знаний в области культуры стран изучаемого языка. Данные материалы позволят студентам познакомиться с образцами современных материалов зарубежных авторов, связанных со средствами массовой информации, рекламой и связями с общественностью.

3. Обучение началам литературного анализа. Выполняя задания по прочитанным материалам, студенты научатся излагать основное содержание, составлять информацию, познакомятся с некоторыми особенностями научно-популярной литературы в области лексики, грамматики и стиля.

4. Формирование прописанного в ФГОС умения «использовать иностранный язык как средство для получения информации из иноязычных источников в образовательных целях». Пособие включает в себя научно-популярную литературу и отрывки из монографий по следующим темам: Public Relations History, Mass Media, Advertising and Culture). Пособие, таким образом, стимулирует  познавательную активность студентов, расширят их кругозор и укрепляет межпредметные связи.

Вспомогательные задачи (решающиеся совместно с основным курсом)

1. Расширение словарного запаса студентов за счет лексических единиц текстов пособия и, что особенно важно, устойчивых словосочетаний.

2. Дальнейшее развитие устной монологической и диалогической речи при помощи пересказов разных видов, обсуждения прочитанного, дискуссий и докладов.

4. Формирование навыков академического письма через выполнение специальных заданий, таких, как составление рефератов, аннотаций и описания статистических тенденций.

 

Результаты освоения курса

Личностные результаты:

·  повышение учебной мотивации путем формирования интереса к чтению;

· расширение кругозора учащихся и стимулирование познавательной деятельности;

· воспитание толерантности и уважения к чужой культуре;

· повышение учебной автономности студентов: от чтения под руководством преподавателя до самостоятельного внеаудиторного  чтения на иностранном языке.

Метапредметные результаты:

· формирование умения работать с книгой как источником информации;

· воспитать «грамотного читателя», умеющего выбирать материалы для чтения в соответствии со своими целями и задачами, работать со справочными источниками, анализировать прочитанное;

· дальнейшее развитие умения вести дискуссию, аргументировать свою точку зрения.

Предметные результаты:

Пособие может внести заметный вклад в формирование коммуникативной иноязычной компетенции учащихся:

· в области речевой компетенции: способствует формированию умений в основных видах речевой деятельности (чтение, говорение и письмо);

· в сфере лингвистической компетенции: позволяет овладеть новыми языковыми средствами, как лексическими, так и грамматическими;

· в области социокультурной компетенции: приобщает студентов к культуре, традициям, реалиям стран изучаемого языка.

 

Содержание и учебно-методическое обеспечение

Пособие построено на работе с текстами из различных современных источников по следующим темам: Public Relations History, Mass Media, Advertising and Culture. В ходе работы над текстами студенты:

· знакомятся с содержанием, развивая при этом навыки чтения;

· знакомятся с историческими фактами и особенностями описываемых событий, а также с современными тенденциями в развитии СМИ, связей с общественностью и рекламы;

· выполняют разнообразные задания на проверку понимания;

· анализируют прочитанное, обсуждают ситуации и поступки;

· учатся пересказывать текст подробно и кратко (выбирая основное содержание);

· расширяют свой словарный запас и овладевают новыми грамматическими структурами;

· овладевают навыками академического письма;

 

Задания включают в себя

(1) дотекстовые задания, направленные на:

    пробуждение интереса к данной теме путем установления связей с предыдущим опытом студента (Personalizing);

     снятие лексических трудностей при чтении текстов, как произносительных, так и связанных с пониманием лексического значения многозначных слов и установления соответствия между терминологией в русском и английском языках (Pre-reading) ;

(2) задания, связанные с пониманием прочитанного:

    чтение с извлечением основного содержания (Reading for Gist/Skimming);

    чтение с полным извлечением информации  или с поиском конкретных деталей (Reading for Detail/ Scanning) В случае необходимости и в целях более полного понимания материала, студенту предлагается осуществить поиск дополнительной фоновой информации в Интернете;

(3) задания, связанные с содержанием материалов и интерпретацией/оценкой прочитанного

    анализ содержания;

    составление плана прочитанного, резюме и аннотации;

    учебная дискуссия.

 (4) Пособие также включает методические указания для студентов, объясняющие, как работать с текстами, а также приложение, состоящее из двух частей:

  1. Клише, используемые при реферировании текста или статьи;

  2 Глоссарий (Определения наиболее часто встречающихся терминов из области PR и рекламы).

 

Методическая новизна данного учебно-методического комплекса

    отбор аутентичного материала, по темам, представляющим интерес для специалиста по связям с общественностью и рекламе;

    студенто-центрированный подход: основной акцент делается на организации самостоятельной деятельности студентов. Данное пособие позволяет организовать самостоятельную работу студента и способствует личностному развитию студента как будущего специалиста в сфере связей с общественностью и рекламы.

    обучение творческому и критическому отношению к содержанию учебного материала (критическое осмысление, логическое обоснование, отстаивания своей точки зрения и т. д.).

    одновременного развития чтения, говорения и письма что обуславливается их взаимосвязанностью в процессе реального профессионального общения.

Авторы надеются, что данное пособие позволит достичь высокой мотивированности в изучении как иностранного языка, так и специальных предметов, что способствует повышению интереса к занятиям, позволяет совершенствовать личностные качества студента и позволит им получить доступ к самым современным материалам, связанным с профессиональной деятельностью.


 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТА

Особенностью овладения иностранного языка является то, что объем самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений должен значительно превышать объем практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем. Таким образом, каждому аудиторному двухчасовому занятию должно предшествовать около двух часов самостоятельной работы студента.

· Для того чтобы добиться успеха, необходимо заниматься систематически. Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка охватывает: заучивание слов английского языка;

· уяснение действия правил словообразования;

· грамматические правила;

· чтение тестов на английском языке вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения; понимание текстов, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).

Для того чтобы достигнуть указанного в целевой установке уровня владения языком, следует систематически тренировать память заучиванием иноязычных слов, отрывков текстов. Надо помнить, что способности развиваются в процессе работы, что осмысленный материал запоминается легче, чем неосмысленный, что навык вырабатывается путем многократно повторения выполняемого действия.


Работа над текстом

Поскольку основной целевой установкой обучения иностранному языку является получение информации из иноязычного источника, особое внимание следует уделить чтению текстов. Понимание текста достигается при осуществлении двух видов чтения:

1) чтения с общим охватом содержания;

2) изучающего чтения.

Читая текст, предназначенный для понимания общего содержания, необходимо, не обращаясь к словарю, понять основной смысл прочитанного.

Точное и полное понимание текста осуществляется путем изучающего чтения, которое предполагает умение самостоятельно проводить лексико-грамматический анализ текста. Итогом изучающего чтения является адекватный перевод текста на родной язык с помощью словаря. При этом следует развивать навыки пользования отраслевыми терминологическими словарями и словарями сокращений.

Оба вида чтения складываются из следующих умений:

· а) догадываться о значении незнакомых слов на основе словообразовательных признаков и контекста;

· б) видеть интернациональные слова и определять их значение;

· в) находить знакомые грамматические формы и конструкции и устанавливать их эквиваленты в русском языке;

· г) применять знания по специальным, предметам в качестве основы смысловой и языковой догадки.

Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 179.