Revision: Gerund or Infinitive?
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3.1 Write what each word is followed by: F.I. (full infinitive), B.I. (bare infinitive) or -ing (gerund):

 

1. want + F.I.     6. will + ___  11. expect + ___  16. can + ___

2. dislike + ___   7. make + ___ 12. it's no use + ___ 17. start + ___

3. would love + ___ 8. avoid + ___ 13. hope + ___    18. deny + ___

4. it's worth + ___ 9. see + ___    14. let + ___        19. hate + ___

5. finish + ___    10. promise + ___ 15. shall + ___     20. must + ___

 

3.2 Put the verbs in brackets in the infinitive or the -ing form:

 

1. I don't like singing/to sing in public. (sing)

2. It's no use ______ her. She won't listen. (tell)

3. I'm still too upset ______ about it. (talk)

4. Don't disturb him. He's busy ______ . (work)

5. Stop ______ your nails! (bite)

6. Don't expect him ______ you any money. (lend)

7. I've decided ______ him. (leave)

8. Mum made me ______ my medicine, (take)

9. She agreed ______ him £1,000. (lend)

10. He denied ______ the stolen goods. (receive)

 

NOTE 1: Verbs taking “to-infinitive” or the Gerund without a change in meaning

 

begin, start, continue + to-inf. or the gerund. However, we never have two -ing forms together. e.g. She began dancing/to dance. But: It's beginning to get cold. Not: It's beginning getting cold.
advise, allow, permit, recommend, encourage when followed by an object or in passive form take a to-infinitive. They take the -ing form when not followed by an object. e.g. He doesn't allow us to smoke here. They aren't allowed to smoke here. They don't allow smoking here.
it needs/it requires/it wants + -ing form "It needs" can also be followed by a passive infinitive. e.g. The house needs/requires/wants painting. The car needs repairing/to be repaired.

 

3.3 Put the verb in the right form: -ing or infinitive (with or without “to”):

 

1. She doesn't allow ______ in the house. (smoke)

2. I've never been to Iceland but I'd like ______ there (go)

3. I'm in a difficult position. What do you advise me ______? (do)

4. She said the letter was personal and wouldn't let me ______ it. (read)

5. We were kept at the police station for two hours and then we were allowed ______. (go)

6. Where would you recommend me ______ for my holidays? (go)

7. I wouldn't recommend ______ in that restaurant. The food is awful. (eat)

8. The film was very sad. It made me ______. (cry)

9. Carol's parents always encouraged her ______ hard at school. (study)

 

3.4 Fill in the infinitive or -ing form:

 

The rules in my new school are very strict. The teachers don't allow 1. talking (talk) in class at all. We are only permitted 2. ______ (speak) if they ask us a question. On the first day, the headmaster advised us all 3. ______ (work) very hard. In fact, he recommended 4. ______ (study) for at least four hours every evening! We are not allowed 5. ______ (leave) the school at lunchtime but we are encouraged 6. ______ (join) one of the school clubs. Next week I'm starting chess.

 

NOTE 2: Verbs taking “to-infinitive” or the Gerund with a change in meaning

1. FORGET + to-inf = not remember: e.g. I'm sorry, I forgot to buy milk.

FORGET + ing form = forget a past event: e.g. He'll never forget flying over the Alps.

2. REMEMBER + to-inf = remember to do sth: e.g. Remember to turn off the cooker before leaving.

REMEMBER + -ing form = recall a past event: e.g. I don't remember staying in this hotel before.

3. GO ON + to-inf = finish doing sth and start doing sth else; then: e.g. After finishing the report, she went on to type some letters.

GO ON + -ing form = continue: e.g. She went on talking for hours.

4. MEAN + to-inf = intend to: e.g. He means to find a job abroad.

MEAN + -ing form = involve: e.g. Finding a job means attending many interviews.

5. REGRET + to-inf = be sorry to: e.g. I regret to tell you that there is no money left in your account.

REGRET + -ing form = have second thoughts about sth one has already done: e.g. I regret buying/having bought this dress; it doesn't look nice on me.

6. TRY + to-inf = do one's best, attempt: e.g. The firemen are trying to put out the fire.

TRY + -ing form = do sth as an experiment: e.g. Why don't you try adding some sugar to the sauce? It might taste better.

7. WANT + to-inf = wish: e.g. I want to spend my holidays in Spain.

WANT + -ing form = need sth done: e.g. This room wants painting again.

8. STOP + to-inf = pause temporarily: e.g. She stopped to get some petrol before continuing on her journey to Leeds.

STOP + -ing form = finish; end: e.g. Stop talking, please!

9. BE SORRY + to-inf = regret: e.g. I'm sorry to hear they fired him.

BE SORRY + -ing form = apologise: e.g. I'm sorry for being/having been unfair to you.

10. BE AFRAID + to-inf (the subject is too frightened to do sth): e.g. I'm afraid to climb up that tree. (I don't want to do it.)

BE AFRAID OF + -ing form (the subject is afraid that what is described by the -ing form may happen): e.g. She won't climb up the tree; she is afraid of falling. (She is afraid because she might fall.)

11. LIKE / DISLIKE / LOVE / HATE + to-inf. = Describes a regular activity: e.g. I like to go for a run before work. (I like it because I think it's a good idea. I may or may not enjoy the activity while I am actually doing it.)

LIKE / DISLIKE / LOVE / HATE + -ing form = e.g. I like going for a run before work. (I enjoy the activity of going for a run before work. I may or may not do it regularly.)

12. HATE + to-inf. = hate what one is about to do: e.g. I hate to interrupt, but I must talk to you.

HATE + -ing form = feel sorry for what one is doing: e.g. I hate making you feel uncomfortable.

13. PREFER

e.g. I don't go out much. I prefer to stay at home in the evenings.

e.g. I don't go out much. I prefer staying at home in the evenings.

(The meaning of these two sentences is very similar.)

e.g. I prefer staying in to going out.            

(We cannot say: I prefer to stay in to go out.)

e.g. I'd prefer to stay in tonight (rather) than go to the party.

(Would prefer is followed by the infinitive and refers to a specific occasion. NOT: I'd prefer staying in tonight.)

3.5 Fill in the gaps with the verbs in brackets in the infinitive or the -ing form:

 

e.g. Remember to go (go) to the bank. You've got to pay the bills.

 

1. I don't remember ______ (see) this film before.

2. When he had written his first book he went on ______ (write) seven more.

3. She went on ______ (talk) even after her friend had fallen asleep.

4. I regret ______ (leave) school at the age of 16.

5. I regret ______ (tell) you that you have failed the test.

6. He means ______ (build) a boat and travel round the world.

7. Doing well on this course means ______ (study) very hard.

8. I've been trying ______ (start) this car for hours.

9. Why don't you try ______ (put) some petrol in the tank?

10. I don't want to drive a car; I'm afraid of ______ (have) an accident.

 

3.6 Put the verb into the correct form, -ing or to-infinitive:

 

1. a) I was very tired. I tried ______ (keep) my eyes open but I couldn't.
b) I rang the doorbell but there was no answer. Then I tried ______ (knock) on the door, but there was still no answer.

c) We tried ______ (put) the fire out but we were unsuccessful. We had to call the fire brigade.

d) Sue needed to borrow some money. She tried ______ (ask) Gerry but he was short of money too.

e) I tried ______ (reach) the shelf but I wasn't tall enough.

f) Please leave me alone. I'm trying ______ (concentrate).

2. a) I need a change. I need ______ (go) away for a while.

b) She isn't able to look after herself. She needs ______ (look) after.

c) The windows are dirty. They need ______ (clean).

d) Why are you leaving now? You don't need ______ (go) yet, do you?

e) You don't need ______ (iron) that shirt. It doesn't need ______ (iron).

3. a) They were talking very loudly. I couldn't help _____ (overhear) them.

b) Can you help me ______ (get) the dinner ready?

c) He looks so funny. Whenever I see him, I can't help ______ (smile).

d) The fine weather helped ______ (make) it a very enjoyable holiday.

 


Present Participle

 

NOTE 1: verbs of perception (see, notice, look at, watch, feel, hear, listen to) can be followed by the –ing form or the bare infinitive. The verb “smell” can only be followed by the –ing form.

· The use of the bare infinitive describes the complete action: e.g. I watched her play tennis. (I saw the whole game)

· The use of the –ing form describes the action in progress or incomplete action: e.g. I watched her playing tennis. (I saw the game in progress. I did not see the whole game.)

 

4.1 Put the verbs in brackets into the –ing form or the bare infinitive:

 

Last night I heard car brakes 1. screeching (screech) and people 2. ______ (shout) in the street. When I looked out of the window I saw a crowd of about twenty people 3. ______ (stand) around a young boy 4. ______ (lie) in the street. Next, I saw the driver of the car 5. ______ (approach) the crowd and 6. ______ (kneel down) by the boy, he was 7. ______ (look) very anxious. 8. ______ (watch) the drama from my window, I began 9. ______ (consider) the boy's family. Then a few minutes later, I saw a young woman 10. ______ (run) towards the scene and 11. ______ (push) her way through the crowd. Soon, I heard an ambulance siren 12. ______ (scream) in the distance, 13. ______ (get) closer and closer. Then I saw the ambulance stop in front of my house. I watched the ambulance men 14. ______ (get out) and 15. ______ (run) to the injured boy. Minutes later I saw them 16. ______ (run back) to their ambulance with the boy on a stretcher followed by his mother.

 

4.2 Complete the answers to the questions:

 

1. Did anybody go out? – I don't think so. I didn't see anybody go out.

2. Has Jill arrived yet? – Yes, I think I heard her ____________.

3. How do you know I took the money? – I know because I saw you ______.

4. Did the doorbell ring? – I'm not sure. I didn't hear ________________.

5. Can Tom play the piano? – I've never heard ___________________.

6. Did I lock the door when I went out? – Yes, you did. I saw ___________.

7. How did the woman fall in the river? – I don't know. I didn't see ______.

        

NOTE 2: when two things happen at the same time, you can use ing-clause for one of the verbs. The main clause usually comes first: e.g. I’ve just seen Carol. She is in the bar having a drink. (= she is in the bar and she is having a drink.)

We also use ing-clause for the longer action: e.g. Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis.

When one action happens before another action, we use having done for the first action: e.g. Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.

You can use an ing-clause to explain something: e.g. Feeling tired I went to bed early. (= because I felt tired.)

 

4.3 Join a sentence from A with one from B to make one sentence. Use an ing-clause:

 

A: Carol was in the bar. Emma was sitting in an armchair. Sue got home late. Sarah went out. Linda was in London for two years. Mary walked round the town.

B: She was feeling very tired. She looked at the sights and took photographs. She said she would be back in an hour. She was reading a book. She was having a drink. She worked as a tourist guide.

 

e.g. Carol was in the bar having a drink.

 

4.4 Make one sentence from two using an ing-clause:

 

1. Jim was playing tennis. He hurt his arm. Jim hurt his arm playing tennis.

2. I was watching television. I fell asleep. I ___________________________________. 

3. The man slipped. He was getting off a bus. The man _________________________.  

4. I was walking home in the rain. I got wet. I _________________________________. 

5. Margaret was driving to work yesterday. She had an accident. _____________________

6. Two firemen were overcome by smoke. They were trying to put out the fire. ________________________________

 

4.5 Make sentences beginning Having...:

 

1. She finished her work. Then she went home. Having finished her work, she went home.

2. We bought our tickets. Then we went into the theatre.

3. They continued their journey after they'd had dinner.

4. After Lucy had done all her shopping, she went for a cup of coffee.

 

4.6 Make sentences beginning -ing or Not + -ing. Sometimes you need to begin with Having (done something):

 

1. I felt tired. So I went to bed early. – Feeling tired I went to bed early.

2. I thought they might be hungry. So I offered them something to eat.

3. She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country.

4. I didn't know his address. So I wasn't able to contact him.

5. Sarah has travelled a lot. So she knows a lot about other countries.

6. The man wasn't able to understand English. So he didn't know what I wanted.

7. We had spent nearly all our money. So we couldn't afford to stay in a hotel.

Past Participle

 

NOTE 1: Present Participles describe what something or somebody is: e.g. Ted is an interesting person. (What kind of person? Interesting.)

Past Participles describe how someone feels: e.g. Mary is interested in English literature. (How does she feel about English literature? Interested.)

 

5.1 Fill in the correct participle:

 

Paul: You must be very 1) excited (excite). Paris is a 2) _____ (fascinate) city. There are so many 3) _____ (interest) things to do. You won't be 4) _____ (bore).

Jane: Well, I'm a bit 5) _____ (worry) because I can't speak French very well.

Paul: You should buy a phrase book and then you won't be 6) _____ (embarrass) if someone speaks to you. They won't be 7) _____ (annoy) if you make a mistake, and most people will be 8) _____ (please) if you ask for something in French.

Jane: I'm sure they'll find my accent very 9) _____ (amuse).

Paul: Don't be silly. I'm sure you'll have a very 10) _____ (stimulate) holiday.

 

5.2 Complete the words:

 

1. I was surpris___ to see Ann there.

2. It was surpris___ to see her.

3. I find this work very tir___                  

4. It makes me tir___.           

5. Her exam results were disappoint____.        

6. She was pretty disappoint___.

7. She was excit___ about her new job.

8. It was an excit___ new challenge.        

9. We were shock___ to hear about your brother.

10. The news was really shock___.

 

5.3 What are the people interested in? Make sentences.

 

e.g. An astronomer is interested in the stars.

 

Astronomer, botanist, cook, doctor, explorer, geographer, historian, linguist, mathematician, fashion designer, zoologist Animals, clothes, food, languages, medicine, plants, the past, the stars, travel, numbers, places

 

5.4 Open the brackets using the correct form of the Participle:

 

1. a) Scientists ______ (to deal) with the problems of pollution in­sist on its being exactly assessed. b) The problem of pollution in industrial areas ______ (to deal) with in this paper is one of the most im­portant for modern science.

2. a) People ______ (to use) force when it is not necessary cannot be justified. b) Electronic computers ______ (to use) in the research saved the scientists a lot of time.

3. a) Drought ______ (to follow) by famine had a disastrous effect on the economy of the country. b) The discovery of the synthetic penicillin ______ (to follow) the original discovery by A.Plemming, was аlsо made in Britain.

4. a) ______ (To carry out) numerous experiments and tests, the scientists tried to prove the original hypothesis. b) The experiments ______ (to carry out) by a team of young scientists led to sensational results.

5. a) The architect didn't like this design ______ (to involve) him in a lot of extra work. b)He enjoyed the travelling ______ (to involve) in his new job.

 

NOTE 2: “have something done” is used to describe an action which I arrange but do not do myself:

e.g. Jim arranged for the plumber to fix the tap. Jim had the tap fixed. (He didn’t do it himself – the plumber did it.)

All tenses are possible:

e.g. I’m having my house painted at the moment.

Note the word order. The object goes before the past participle – there is a difference between:

e.g. He had his car cleaned. and He had cleaned his car.

 

5.5 Rewrite these sentences using have + object + past participle and changing some words if necessary:

 

1. Someone delivers the newspapers. (We) We have the newspapers delivered.

2. Someone cleaned the carpets every year. (I) I had the carpets cleaned every year.

3. Their house needs painting. (They're going to) They're going to have their house painted.

4. We ask someone to check the accounts every month. (We)

5. Someone sends the money to my bank account in London. (I)

6. My stereo isn't working properly. It needs cleaning. (I'm going to)

7. My camera's being repaired at the moment. (I'm)

8. He spilt coffee on my jacket so he took it away for cleaning. (He spilt coffee on my jacket so he)

9. I think it's time to service the car. (It's time to)

10. I don't like the office curtains. It's time to change them. (I think I'll)

11. There's something wrong with the typewriter. It needs repairing. (I think I'll)

12. We couldn't go to Jack's flat: it was being painted. (We couldn't go to Jack's flat: he)

13. The computer's no good: we're changing it. (We)

14. I send the films to England: they are processed there. (I)

15. I didn't want to eat in the hotel dining-room, so I asked them to send a meal up to my room. (I didn't want to eat in the hotel dining-room, so I)

 

5.6 * Rewrite the words underlined using have + object + past participle:

 

1. There's a photographer over there. Why don't we ask her to take our
picture
? – Why don't we have our picture taken?

2. I've finally decided to arrange for someone to pierce my nose. – I've finally decided to have my nose pierced.

3. There's a leak in the roof. We should arrange for someone to repair it.

4. What time is it? I'm afraid someone hasn't repaired my watch yet.

5. Someone is going to redecorate the kitchen for us next month.

6. If I were you, I'd ask someone to fell that tree. It shuts out all the light.

7. I'm having a bit of trouble with my eyes at the moment so someone's going to test them next week.

8. I love someone massaging my shoulders.

9. The dentist hasn't checked my teeth this year.

10. The baby was crying because someone was washing her hair.

11. He looks much younger. I think someone's dyed his hair.

12. I don't know if I've passed the course because the tutors haven't marked all my work yet.

13. That wasps' nest is dangerous. You must ask someone to remove it.

 

NOTE 3: “the Absolute Participial” construction.

Pay attention to how such construction is translated into Russian:

e.g. His speech finished, the audience applauded. – Когда его речь была закончена, аудитория зааплодировала.

e.g. The speaker having finished, the audience applauded. – Когда оратор закончил речь, аудитория зааплодировала.

e.g. His speech being very interesting, the audience listened attentively. – Так как его речь была интересна, аудитория слушала внимательно.

e.g. He continued speaking, his colleagues listening attentively. – Он продолжал говорить, а коллеги внимательно его слушали.

 

5.7 Translate the following sentences into Russian:

 

1. Her proposal having been accepted, she took her seat.

2. Nobo­dy having anything more to say, the meeting was closed.

3. The crisis having passed, they could think about the future.

4. Her courage fai­ling, the girl rushed back.

5. It being a scientific matter, we had to call in specialists.

6. The standard of living having improved af­ter the First World War, the working сlаss families could afford spen­ding more money on foodstuffs.

7. He died in 1908, his tasks accom­plished.

8. His outlook uninfluenced by science, he committed a num­ber of serious errors in his judgments.

9. Curbing the dynamics of industrial development being highly unrealistic, we should turn tech­nology to the construction of healthy environment.

10. Both scien­tists and scholars carry out research, the difference between the two being that the former are engaged in exact and natural sciences, while the latter work in the field of the humanities.

11. Silver being very expensive, we only rarely use it as a conduc­tor.

12. Radioactivity discovered, we made great progress in atomic physics.

13. Acids react with oxides of all the metals, a salt and wa­ter being formed.

14. The speed of light being extremely great, we cannot measure it by ordinary methods.

15. Other liquids being too light, a barometer uses mercury.

 

5.8 Join each of the following pairs of sentences using Past Parti­ciple:

 

e.g. The speaker refused to continue. He w а s infuriated by the interruptions. – Infuriated by the interruptions, the spea­ker refused to continue.

 

1. He decided to have some rest. He was exhausted by hard work. – ________________________________________

2. We decided to go home. We were depressed by the news. – _______________________________________

3. Jack ga­ve up his studies. He was denied his opportunity to carry out expe­riments. – ____________________________________________

4. Art students fail to understand the importance of scien­ce. They are inclined to regard science only as the power behind mass production. – ________________________________________________________

5. We changed the lines of our research. We were disappointed by the results. – ________________________________________________


Test yourself: non-finites

 

Circle the correct answer.

1. I would like see / to see you again.

2. Can you help / to help me?

3. Is it necessary buy / to buy a ticket now?

4. I hope go / to go to America in July.

5. Try not to / to not forget your keys.

Put in the correct form of the verb.

6. I promise ______ you every day. (phone)

7. She suggested ______ a doctor. (see)

8. We agreed ______ together. (work)

9. I didn't expect ______ John there. (see)

10. I'm really going to stop ______. (smoke)

11. I can't keep ______ – I'm too tired. (drive)

12. Ann has decided ______ a car. (buy)

13. The boss refused ______ to me. (talk)

14. I thought of ______ you a birthday card, but I forgot. (send)

15. They still haven't finished ______. (talk)

16. Bill doesn't want ______ with us. (come)

17. Your English is good, but you must practise ______. (speak)

Circle the correct answer.

18. We need ______ tickets. A) to get B) getting

19. It is important ______ 'No' sometimes. A) to say B) say C) saying

20. ______ to work takes a lot of time. A) To drive B) Drive C) Driving

21. You can't live without ______. A) to eat. B) eat. C) eating.

22. I came here ______ my sister. A) to see B) for see C) for seeing

23. After ______ work, I went home. A) finish; B) to finish; C) finished; D) finishing

Rewrite the sentences with infinitives.

e.g. I saw Mary. I was happy. I was happy to see Mary.

24. I found a cat in my bed. I was surprised.     

25. I didn't have time to phone you. I was sorry.       

26. You can easily remember my phone number. My phone number is ______.

Circle the correct answer.

27. Can you lend me something __ A) to read? B) for read? C) for reading?   

28. I can't come out - I've got a lot of letters __ A) to write. B) writing. C) for writing.

Rewrite the sentences with too or enough.

29. It's very heavy. Nobody can lift it. (too) It's too ___________________. 

30. He's 18, so he can vote. (enough) He's __________________________. 

31. I'm very tired. I can't drive. (too) ______________________________.

Write sentences with want or would like.

32. Boss: Mary, can you answer the phone? (want) The boss ___________.

33. Ann: Pat, could you look after the children? (would like) ___________.

 

 



Appendix 1

 

Active Voice: Formation

 

  Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Present V, V(es)   e.g. She studies at this university. am/is/are + P1 e.g. She is studying English now. have/has+ PP e.g. He has repaired her car. have/has been + P1 e.g. He has been waiting for her for 10 minutes.
Past V-ed, V2   e.g. She studied at this university. was/were + P1 e.g. She was studying English when I came. had + PP   e.g. He had repaired her car by the time she came. had been + P1 e.g. He had been waiting for her for 10 minutes yesterday.
Future will + V   e.g. She will study at this university. will be + P1   e.g. She will be studying English at this time tomorrow.   will have + PP e.g. He will have repaired her car by Monday. will have been + P1 e.g. He will have been waiting for her for 10 minutes by the time she gets home

 

Note: V = verb

V2 = the second column of the Irregular Verbs Table

P1 = Participle One (verb + ing)

PP = Participle Two or Past Participle (regular verbs + -ed; irregular verb – see the third column of the table)

 

Now check your answers (tenses):

Part A: 1. A, 2. B, 3. C, 4. A, 5. D, 6. B, 7. A, 8. A, 9. D, 10. B.

Part B: 12. I haven't written, 13. I’ve been training, 14. played, 15. came, 16. enjoyed, 17. I haven't done, 18. arrived, 19. went, 20. was raining, 21. arrived, 22. was crossing, 23. splashed, 24. changed, 25. is expecting, 26. told, 27. hasn't arrived, 28. has discovered, 29. died, 30. bought, 31. was working, 32. recognized, 33. painted, 34. paid, 35. say.

 

Appendix 2

Passive Voice: Formation

 

  Simple Continuous Perfect
Present am/is/are+PP e.g. Cars are repaired. am/is/are+being+PP e.g. The car is being repaired. have/has+been+PP e.g. The car has been repaired.
Past was/were+PP   e.g. The car was repaired. was/were+being+PP e.g. The car was being repaired. had been + PP   e.g. The car had been repaired.
Future will be + PP e.g. The car will be repaired.   — will have been + PP e.g. The car will have been repaired.

 

Now check your answers (reported speech):

1.1 ____ she didn’t understand his work.

1.2 ____ this word means.

1.3 ۷

1.4 ۷

1.5 ____ lived.

2.1 Had been, 2.2 told, 2.3 was having, 2.4 was doing, 2.5 had had, 2.6 the … previous, 2.7 would, 2.8 said, 2.9 had, 2.10 had lost, 2.11 to buy, 2.12 if/whether, 2.13 was, 2.14 was, 2.15 would, 2.16 was living, 2.17 had spent, 2.18 to send, 2.19 to give, 2.20 told, 2.21 hadn’t heard, 2.22 where, 2.23 was living, 2.24 if/whether, 25. wanted.

 

Now check your answers (passive voice):

1. Posted, 2. weren’t paid, 3. speaks, 4. isn’t pronounced, 5. will be built, 6. is being cleaned, 7. have been invited

8. Is made, 9. were killed, 10. will be done, 11. is spoken

12. A, 13. B, 14. B, 15. A

16. Are being followed, 17. has been stolen, 18. is being repaired, 19. have been moved, 20. have been sent, 21. are … being interviewed

22. Meal tickets were given to all the passengers. 23. Ellen has been shown the plans for the new building. 24. A week’s holiday has been promised to all the office workers. 25. Laura was sent a bill for the repairs.

 

Appendix 3

 

The -ing form is used :

 

1. as a noun:

e.g. Eating vegetables is good for your health.

 

2. after certain verbs

(admit (to), avoid, consider, continue, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, keep (= continue), look forward to, mention, mind, miss, object to, postpone, practise, prevent, report, resist, risk, save, stand, suggest, understand etc)

e.g. He admitted (to) stealing the painting.

 

3. after love, like, dislike, hate, enjoy, prefer (to express general preference)

e.g. He likes cooking (in general).

Note: like + to-inf = it's a good idea; it's useful

e.g. I like to eat a healthy breakfast.(specific

preference)

 

4. after I'm busy, it's no use, it's (no) good, it's (not) worth, what's the use of, can't help, there's no point (in), can't stand, be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, have difficulty (in)

e.g. It's no use complaining.

 

5. after "go" for physical activities:

e.g. They go skiing every winter.

 

6. after spend/waste time

e.g. He wasted his time playing video games.

 

7. after prepositions

e.g. He entered without knocking at the door.

 

8. after see, hear, listen, watch to express an incomplete action, an action in progress or a long action:

e.g. I saw Kate painting the kitchen. (I saw Kate in the middle of painting. I saw part of the action in progress. I didn't wait until she had finished.)

BUT: see, hear, listen, watch + infinitive without to express a complete action, something that one saw or heard from beginning to end:

e.g. I watched Kate paint the kitchen. It took her two hours. (I saw the whole action from beginning to end.)

Appendix 4

The to-infinitive is used:

 

1. to express purpose:

e.g. She went out to buy some milk.

 

2. after certain verbs (advise, agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, promise, refuse etc):

e.g. He promised to be back at 10 o'clock.

 

3. after certain adjectives (angry, happy, glad etc):

e.g. She was glad to see him.

 

4. after question words (where, how, what, who, which, but not after "why"):

e.g. Has she told you where to meet them? BUT: I don't know why he left so early.

 

5. after would like/would love/would prefer (to express specific preference):

e.g. I'd love to go for a walk.

 

6. after nouns

e.g. It's a pleasure to work with you.

 

7. after too/enough constructions

e.g. He's too short to reach the top shelf. He isn't tall enough to reach the top shelf.

 

8. with it + be + adjective (+ of + object):

e.g. It was nice of him to remember my birthday.

 

9. with "only" to express unsatisfactory result:

e.g. He called me only to say that he would be late.

 

Appendix 5

 

The infinitive without “to” is used:

 

1. after modal verbs (must, can, will etc):

e.g. You must be back at 12 o'clock.

 

2. after had better/would rather:

e.g. I'd rather have stayed in last night.

 

3. after make/let/see/hear/feel + object

e.g. Mum let me watch TV. I made him apologise.

BUT: in the passive form: be made/be heard/be seen + to –infinitive:

e.g. He was made to apologise.

Note: “help” is followed by a to-infinitive or an infinitive without to: e.g. She helped me (to) wash the dishes.

Note: If two infinitives are joined by "and", the "to" of the second infinitive can be omitted: e.g. I want to eat something and have a rest.

Now check your answers (modal verbs) :

1. – (auxiliaries are not used with the modal verbs); 2. – (we do not use particle “to” after modal verbs); 3. – (“must” is not used in the past context); 4. +; 5. +; 6. – (absence of necessity is not expressed by “must”)

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 2569.