About, of, in, to, after, by, for, on, at, without
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e.g. We talked about going (go) to France for our holiday.


1. I look forward ______ (see) you again next year.

2. She's tired ______ (work) for the company.

3. I'm very happy ______ my parents ______ (come) home.

4. ______ (open) the front door, I walked slowly through it.

5. We got into the house ______ (climb) through a window.

6. I'm looking forward ______ (work) with you.

7. Are you interested ______ (join) the committee?

8. I'm tired ______ (come) to the same place every week.

9. He's very keen ______ (swim) at the moment.

10. I'm worried ______ Jane _____ (get) to the airport on time.

11. I'm not interested ______ (hear) your excuses.

12. She's very good ______ (listen) to what people say.

13. This is used ______ (cut) metal.

14. The car drove off ______ (stop).


1.4 * Complete each sentence using only one word:


1. Our neighbours apologised for making so much noise.

2. I feel lazy. I don't feel like ______ any work.

3. I wanted to go out alone but Joe insisted on ______ with me.

4. I'm fed up with my job. I'm thinking of ______ something else.

5. We have decided against ______ a new car because we can't really afford it.

6. I hope you write to me soon. I'm looking forward to ______ from you.

7. The weather was extremely bad and this prevented us from ______ out.

8. The man who has been arrested is suspected of ______ a false passport.

9. I think you should apologise to Sue for ______ so rude to her.

10. Some parents don't approve of their children ______ a lot of television.

11. I'm sorry I can't come to your party but thank you very much for ______ me.


NOTE 3: preposition + -ing: special cases

We use by ...ing to say how – by what method or means – we do something. We use for ...ing to give the purpose of something – to say what it is used for. On doing something (formal) means 'when / as soon as you do something'.

e.g. You can find out somebody's phone number by looking in the directory. e.g. He made his money by buying and selling houses.

e.g. I've bought some special glue for mending broken glass. e.g. 'What's that funny knife for?' ‘Opening letters.'

e.g. On hearing the fire alarm, go straight to the nearest exit. e.g. On arriving at the office, she noticed that her secretary was absent.


1.5 Find the answers in the box; write them with by ...ing:


look in a dictionary, oil it, play loud music, rob a bank, stroke it, switch on the ignition, take an aspirin, use an extinguisher


1. How do you make a cat happy? – By stroking it.

2. How can you annoy your neighbours?

3. How can you get money fast?

4. How do you stop a door squeaking?

5. How do you find out what a word means?

6. How can you cure a headache?

7. How can you put a fire out?

8. How do you start a car?


NOTE 4: the gerund is used after the following expressions: It’s (no) good, It’s no use, There is no point in, It’s (not) worth, have difficulty, be busy, a waste of money / time, spend / waste time: e.g. It’s no good trying to persuade me. You won’t succeed. For more examples see Appendix 3.


1.6 Complete the sentences on the right:


1. Shall we get a taxi home? – No, it isn't far. It's not worth getting a taxi.

2. If you need help, why don't you ask Tom? – It's no use ____________. He won't be able to help us.

3. I don't really want to go out tonight. – Well, stay at home! There's no point ____________ if you don't want to.

4. Shall I phone Ann now? – No, it's no good _____________. She won't be at home.

5. Are you going to complain about what happened? – No, it's not worth ___________. Nobody will do anything about it.

6. Do you ever read newspapers? – No. I think it's a waste _______________.


1.7 Complete the sentences. Use only one word each time:


1. It's a waste of money buying things you don't need.

2. Every morning I spend about an hour ______ the newspaper.

3. 'What's Carol doing?' 'She's busy ______ letters.'

4. I think you waste too much time ______ television.

5. There's a beautiful view from that hill. It is worth ______ to the top.


NOTE 5: we use go + gerund for a number of activities (especially sports): e.g. I’d like to go skiing.


1.8 Complete these sentences with one of the following (with the verb in the correct form): go skiing, go shopping, go swimming, go sailing, go riding:


1. Barry lives by the sea and he's got a boat, so he often goes sailing.

2. There's plenty of snow in the mountains so we'll be able to ____________.

3. It was a very hot day, so we _________________ in the river.

4. Margaret has got two horses. She often ___________________.

5. The shops are shut now. It's too late to ____________________.


NOTE 6: do not confuse I am used to doing (be/get used to) and I used to do. They are different in structure and meaning: e.g. I’m used to driving on the left because I’ve lived in Britain for a long time. (It isn’t strange or new for me.) e.g. I used to drive to work every day, but these days I usually go by bike. (I did something regularly in the past but no longer do it.)


1.9 Read the situations and complete the sentences. Use (be/get) used to as in the example:


1. Jane is American. She came to Britain and at first she found driving on the left difficult. – When she arrived in Britain, she wasn’t used to driving on the left, but she soon got used to it. Now she has no problems. She is used to driving on the left.

2. Juan is Spanish and came to live in England. In Spain he always had dinner late in the evening, but in England dinner was at 6 o'clock. This was very early for him. – When Juan first came to England, he ______________ dinner so early, but after some time he ____________ it. Now he finds it quite normal. He ________________ at six o'clock.

3. Julia is a nurse. A year ago she started working nights. At first she found it hard. – At first Julia didn't like it. She ______________ nights and it took her a few months to _____________ it. Now, after a year, she's quite happy.
She ________________ nights.


1.10 * Complete the sentences using only one word each time:


1. Jane had to get used to driving on the left.

2. We used to live in a small village but now we live in London.

3. Tom used to ______ a lot of coffee. Now he prefers tea.

4. I feel very full after that meal. I'm not used to ______ so much.

5. I wouldn't like to share an office. I'm used to ______ my own office.

6. I used to ______ a car but I sold it a few months ago.

7. When we were children, we used to ______ swimming every day.

8. There used to ______ a cinema here but it was knocked down a few years ago.

9. I'm the boss here! I'm not used to ______ told what to do.


NOTE 7: the gerund can be the subject of the sentence: e.g. Walking is a good exercise.


1.11 Rewrite these sentences, starting with a gerund. You may need to change some words:


e.g. A good way of keeping fit is to swim every day. – Swimming every day is a good way of keeping fit.


1. It takes a long time to learn a foreign language.

2. Clean the machine more often – that will solve your problems.

3. Grow your own food. It's less expensive.

4. Give up smoking: it will make you feel better.

5. It is cheaper to go by rail than by air.

6. You are not allowed to smoke here.

7. It's not very pleasant to be in hospital.

8. It's very difficult to windsurf properly.

9. It's more difficult to speak a foreign language than to read it.

10. It is forbidden to walk on the grass.


NOTE 8: In formal English, possessive + gerund can be used: e.g. I have no objection to your arriving late. In conversational English, the possessive is not used: the object form is used instead: e.g. I don’t mind him coming late.


1.12 Write both the possessive and object form of the words provided:


e.g. I don't like your / you asking him to stay. (you)


1. Do you mind ______ smoking? (I)

2. The shareholders agreed to ______ closing down the factory. (we)

3. They don't understand ______ leaving home when he did. (John)

4. I'm worried about ______ taking so much money, (she)

5. I didn't like ______ lending the car to him. (you)

6. The board objected to ______ resigning. (Mr Maslin)

7. I'm bored with ______ complaining. (they)

8. Do you know the reason for ______ stopping work? (they)

9. Who told you about ______ being sacked? (he)

10. What do you think of ______ leaving the country like that? (they)



Active Passive
Simple To telephone To be telephoned
Continuous To be telephoning _________
Perfect To have telephoned To have been telephoned
Perfect Continuous To have been telephoning _________



NOTE 1: the to-infinitive is used after certain verbs: offer, agree, refuse, decide, plan, arrange, hope, aim, learn, deserve, afford, forget, attempt, manage, fail, promise, threaten, etc (Appendix 4).


2.1 Complete the sentences, using a verb from the box. Use each verb once:


help, stay, find, speak, look after, telephone, buy, go, go out, get on


e.g. We decided to go to Spain for our holidays.


1. She learnt _________________________ Arabic when she was a child.

2. I tried ____________________________ you but there was no answer.

3. They refused ______________________________________ the plane.

4. She hopes ________________________________________ a job soon.

5. Did you forget _____________________________________ the bread?

6. I'm tired: I don't want __________________________________ tonight.

7. They offered ________________________ the children for the evening.

8. They're planning ________________________ with us for the weekend.

9. He agreed ________________________________ us with our problem.


2.2 * Complete each sentence with a suitable verb:


1. Don't forget to post the letter I gave you.

2. There was a lot of traffic but we managed ______ to the airport in time.

3. Jill has decided not ______ a car.

4. We've got a new computer in our office. I haven't learnt ______ it yet.

5. I wonder where Sue is. She promised not ______ late.

6. We were all too afraid to speak. Nobody dared ______ anything.


NOTE 2: “to-infinitive” is used to express purpose: e.g. I came here to see you. “in order to + infinitive” and “so as to + infinitive” are also used to express purpose, but:

· “in order to + infinitive” is more formal than “to-infinitive”

· “in order to + infinitive” and “so as to + infinitive” are more common than “to-infinitive” before verbs like be, have, know: e.g. I got up early so as to be ready for John’s phone call.

· “in order not to + infinitive” and “so as not to + infinitive” are more common than “not to-infinitive” to express a negative purpose: e.g. He opened the door quietly so as not to disturb the baby.


2.3 Express each question and answer as one sentence, using to + infinitive. Note that you will need to change some words.


e.g. Q: Why do you go to the beach every weekend?
A: Because I like swimming. – She goes to the beach every weekend to swim.


1. Q: Why did you move to London?

A: I wanted to find work. – He _____

2. Q: Why are you leaving home?

A: I'm going to university in Birmingham. – She _____

3. Q: Why are you having a party?

A: It's my thirtieth birthday, and I want to celebrate it. – He _____

4. Q: Why do you get up at six every morning?

A: I do my training then. – She _____

5. Q: Why are you going out?

A: I want to post a card to my mother. – He _____

6. Q: Why are you saving money?

A: We want to buy a car. – They _____

7. Q: Why are you going to Egypt?

A: We want to visit Ali's parents. – They _____

8. Q: Why did you buy a new suit?

A: I want to wear it at the office party. – He _____

9. Q: Why did you buy a DVD recorder?

A: We want to record the World Cup Final. – They _____


NOTE 3: “to-infinitive” can be used after certain adjectives: e.g. I’m glad to see you. If an infinitive needs its own subject, this is introduced by “for”. Compare: e.g. Ann will be happy to help you. Ann will be happy for the children to help you.


2.4 Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown:


1. It's difficult to understand him. – He is difficult to understand.

2. It's quite easy to use this machine. – This machine is ________________.

3. It was very difficult to open the window. – The window ______________.

4. It's impossible to translate some words. – Some words _______________.

5. It's not safe to stand on that chair. – That chair _____________________.

6. It's expensive to maintain a car. – A ______________________________.


2.5 Rewrite these sentences using the structure with “ for... to ...”:


e.g. She can't come. – It's impossible for her to come.


1. The meeting needn't start before eight. (There's no need for the ...)

2. The postman ought to come, fit's time for...)

3. He's not usually late. (It's unusual for ...)

4. I want the children to go to a good school. (I'm anxious for ...)

5. John shouldn't go to Australia. (It's a bad idea...)

6. Sue shouldn't change her job just now. (It would be a mistake ...)

7. Can Paul come to the meeting? (Is it possible ...?)

8. The car really should have regular services. (It's important...)

9. He normally stays up late on Saturdays. (It's normal...)

10. I'd be happy if you took a holiday. (I'd be happy for ...)


NOTE 4: “to-infinitive” can be used after certain nouns and pronouns, to show what is to be done with them or how they are to be used: e.g. I’ve got some homework to do.


2.6 Complete the second sentence using the adjective in brackets. Use a/an + adjective + noun + to-infinitive (as in the example):


1. I couldn't answer the question. (difficult) – It was a difficult question to answer.

2. Everybody makes that mistake. (easy) – It's an ___________________.

3. I like living in this place. (nice) – It's a _________________________.

4. We enjoyed watching the game. (good) – It was __________________.

2.7 Put the words in the correct order to make sentences, making one verb an infinitive and writing the other in the present simple:


e.g. plane catch she a have. – She has a plane to catch.

lot of a housework there be do. – There is a lot of housework to do.


1. who something eat want?

2. come expect Jane I.  

3. delighted hear I be the news.

4. have books some I read.

5. illness surprised hear I be his of.

6. nothing children the have do.

7. letters I write some have.

8. shopping some he do have.

9. nothing say have I.

10. lovely see it again you be.

NOTE5: “to-infinitive” is used in the constructions with “too” and “enough”:

e.g. She is too tired to go out. (too + adjective/adverb – negative meaning) e.g. He is rich enough to afford a yacht. (adjective/adverb + enough – positive meaning) e.g. He’s got enough patience to be a teacher. (enough + noun)

2.8 Complete the text using " too" or "enough":


Gary is leaving school this year but he doesn't know what he wants to do. He isn't motivated 1) enough to go to university. He'd quite like to be an engineer but he thinks it would be 2) _____ difficult. His father wants him to work in the family shop but that's not exciting 3) _____ for Gary. He hasn't got 4) _____ patience to sit in a shop all day. He wants to travel, so the navy seems to be a good idea, although the rules are a bit 5) _____ strict. Someone suggested driving a taxi but the hours are 6) _____ long and he wouldn't earn 7) _____ money. There really is nothing that interests him 8) _____.


NOTE 6: “to-infinitive” is used after question words (what, how, where, etc.) except why: e.g. Have you decided where to go for your holidays?


2.9 Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs:

Do get go ride say use

1. Do you know how to get to John’s house?

2. Can you show me ______ ______ this washing machine?

3. Would you know ______ ______ if there was a fire in the building?

4. You'll never forget ______ ______ a bicycle once you have learned.

5. I was really astonished. I didn't know ______ ______.

6. I've been invited to the party but I don't know ______ ______ or not.


NOTE 7: “to-infinitive” is used after the first / the second / the third, etc. and also after the next, the last, the only: e.g. Everybody was late except me. I was the only one to arrive on time.


2.10 Complete the second sentence using the words in brackets + to-infinitive:


1. Nobody left before me. (the first) I was the first person to leave.

2. Everybody else arrived before Paul. (the last) Paul was the __________.   

3. Fiona passed the exam. All the other students failed. (the only) Fiona was ________________.    

4. I complained to the restaurant manager about the service. Another customer had already complained before me. (the second) I was ________________.

5. Neil Armstrong walked on the moon in 1969. Nobody had done this before him. (the first) Neil Armstrong was ________________________________.


NOTE 8: the infinitive without “to” is used:

· After modal verbs: e.g. You must be back at 12 o’clock.

· After had better / would rather: e.g. I’d rather go to the theatre.

· After make / let / see / hear / feel + object in the active voice: e.g. Mum let me watch TV. I made him apologise. But in the passive form “to-infinitive” is used: e.g. He was made to apologise.

· After “Why not…?”: e.g. Why not phone me tomorrow?


2.11 Rewrite the sentences, using the words given:


e.g. He arrived early. (I saw) – I saw him arrive early.


1. I didn't want to stay at home. (They made me)

2. She got out of the car. (We watched)

3. They allowed me to telephone my lawyer. (They let)

4. They left at eleven o'clock. (I heard)

5. The policeman told me to empty my pockets. (The policeman made)

6. The dog jumped through the window. (I saw)

7. Maybe the school will ask me to pay extra. (Do you think the school will make)

8. The animal moved. I felt it. (I felt the)

9. I want to leave the country. (Do you think the government will let)


2.12 Change the sentences as shown using either full or bare infinitives:


e.g. I couldn't understand the timetable. (wasn't able) – I wasn't able to understand the timetable.

1. It's important to eat enough. (You should)

2. I'd like to go sailing this summer. (I might)

3. She will probably get married in June. (She expects)

4. I said I would help her. (I agreed)

5. It's necessary to make careful plans. (We must)

6. Perhaps he's ill. (He seems)

7. I want to change my job. (I wish I could)

8. I may come and see you next week. (I hope)

9. You don't need to apologise. (You needn't)

10. They will open a new branch in North London. (They have decided)


NOTE 6: the perfect infinitive is used:

· In the third type of the conditional sentences: e.g. If he had phoned, I would have met him at the airport.

· With the modal verbs in the past: e.g. Who could have told him the news?

· After verbs such as want, expect, hope as a future perfect: e.g. I hope to have finished this by Christmas.

· After certain adjectives, as a past: e.g. I was disappointed to have missed him.

2.13 Rewrite these sentences using perfect infinitives:


e.g. I'm glad I've met you. – I’m glad to have met you.


1. I was sorry I had disturbed him.

2. I expect I'll have passed all my exams by June.

3. It seems that you made a mistake. (You seem ...)

4. I'm happy that I've had a chance to talk to you.

5. I was disappointed that I had missed the party.

6. It seems that she's got lost.

7. She was pleased that she had found the house.


2.14 Rewrite the sentences as shown:


e.g. She didn't marry a friend of her parents (was to) – She was to have married a friend of her parents.


1. I didn't see his face when he realised what had happened. (would like to)

2. He didn't finish all his work by three o'clock. (mean)

3. We didn't spend a week skiing. (were to)

4. It wasn't the happiest week of my life. (was to)

5. She didn't say goodbye to everybody before she left. (mean)

6. I didn't live in the seventeenth century. (would like)

7. He didn't play in the Cup Final. (was to)


NOTE 7: we can use “to” for the infinitive of a repeated verb if the meaning is clear: e.g. “Are you moving?” “We hope to.” (= We hope to move.) “Come and dance!” “I don’t want to.”


2.15 Put the beginnings and ends together:


1. 'Ann really upset Granny.' 2. 'Are you enjoying your new job?’ 3. 'Can I see you home?' 4. 'Can you mend this by Tuesday?' 5. 'Did you get my coat from the cleaner's?' 6. 'Do you collect stamps?' 7. 'Do you think he knows what he's doing?' 8. 'Do you want to come out with us tonight?' 9. 'Does she think she'll win?' 10. 'How would you and Sue like to spend the weekend with us?' 11. 'I think you ought to see the police about the people next door.' 12. 'Shall we go swimming?' 13. 'Should we book seats in advance?' 14. We'd like to move to a bigger house, a) but we can't afford to. b) 'He seems to.' c) 'I don't really want to - it's too cold.' d) 'I intend to. They can't go on keeping the whole street awake every night.' e) 'I'd like to, but I'm working late.' f) I’ll try to, but I can't promise.' g) 'I'm sure she didn't mean to.' h) 'If you'd like to.'  i) 'No, but I used to.'  j) 'Sorry, I forgot to.' k) 'We don't need to - there's always plenty of room.' l) 'We'd love to.'    m) 'Well, I m starting to. n) 'Yes, she expects to.'  


NOTE 8: the subject of the infinitive or of the –ing form is omitted when it is the same as the subject of the main verb: e.g. They want to buy a new house.

When the subject of the infinitive or of the –ing form is different from the subject of the main verb, then an object pronoun (me, him, her, us) or a noun is place before the non-finite form: e.g. I want him to leave now.


2.16 Rephrase the following as in the example:


e.g. I must go to the gym to keep fit. – I want to go to the gym to keep fit.


1. He must eat less. – I want ______

2. They must tell her the truth. – I want ______

3. You must change your clothes. They're wet. – I want ______

4. She must get up early. – I want ______

5. I must learn to type. – He wants ______        

6. She mustn't speak rudely. – I don't want  ______

7. She must stay in bed for a week. – The doctor wants ______

8. They must leave early. – They want ______

9. They must apologise. – I want ______


NOTE 9: the “Subject-with-the Infinitive” construction:

The verbs believe, expect, feel, hope, know, report, say, think etc can be used in the following passive pattern:

e.g. People say she is rich. → Subject (person) + passive + to-infinitive → She is said to be rich. (see Passive Structures, page 53)


Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 679.