I Functions of modal verbs with the Simple infinitives
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1. We express ability with:

can (ability in the present or future) – e.g. Can you swim? No, I can't. I can run fast though.

could (general ability in the past) – e.g. She could dance for hours when she was young. (repeated action)

was able to (= managed to) (ability in the past for a single action, achievement) – e.g. He was able to win the race. (single action)

 

Can is the Present Simple form and could is the Past Simple. Can borrows the rest of its tenses from the verb phrase “be able to”. e.g. She hasn't been able to finish it yet. (Present Perfect)

 

1.1 Complete the sentences with can / can't / could / couldn't + one of these verbs:

come eat hear run sleep wait

 

1. I'm afraid I can't come to your party next week.

2. When Tim was 16, he was a fast runner. He _____ ____ 100 metres in 11 seconds.

3. 'Are you in a hurry?' 'No, I've got plenty of time. I _____ ____.'

4. I was feeling sick yesterday. I _____ ____ anything.

5. Can you speak up a bit? I _____ ____ you very well.

6. 'You look tired.' 'Yes, I _____ ____ last night.'

 

1.2 Write these sentences using the correct form of can, could, or be able to:

 

1. I _________ see you tomorrow.

2. It was too expensive – I _________ buy it.

3. _________ I have a word with you, please?

4. I generally leave work at six, but I _________ leave earlier on Fridays.

5. _________ you help me carry this downstairs?

6. (she) _________ come to the office tomorrow?

7. I tried to see her, but I _________ .

8. It was so heavy that I _________ lift it.

9. I _________ come tomorrow, I'm afraid. I'm too busy.

10. (you) _________ contact your parents yesterday?

11. He _________ (not) work since his illness.

 

2. We express possibility / probability with:

 

may = might = could (possibility) – e.g. He may be back before noon. (It's possible.); There might be some cheese in the fridge. (It's possible.); He could still be at home. (It's possible.)

must, can’t (probability) – e.g. They look alike. They must be twins. (I think they are twins.); You have been sleeping all day. You can't be tired. (I don't think it's possible that you are tired.)

can he be? – e.g. Can he still be at work? (is it possible?)

                                     

Although might is the past form of may it can be used for present situations too. May borrows the rest of its tenses from the verb phrase “be allowed to”. e.g. He has not been allowed to enter the building.

 

2.1 Put in must or can't:

 

1. You've been travelling all day. You must be very tired.

2. That restaurant ____ be very good. It's always full of people.

3. That restaurant ____ be very good. It's always empty.

4. You're going on holiday next week. You ____ be looking forward to it.

5. It rained every day during their holiday, so they ____ have had a very nice time.

6. Congratulations on passing your exam. You ____ be very pleased.

7. You got here very quickly. You ____ have walked very fast.

8. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they ____ be short of money.

 

2.2 Rewrite the sentences using must or can’t:

 

1. I’m sure she is at home. – She must be at home .

2. I’m certain you are crazy.

3. I know that isn’t Janet – she’s in America.

4. I’m sure she thinks I’m stupid.

5. I bet I look silly in this coat.

6. They’re always buying new cars – I’m certain they make a lot of money.

7. I’m sure he’s not a teacher – he is too well-dressed.

8. You are an architect? I’m sure that’s an interesting job.

9. I’m sure you are not serious. I know you’re joking.

10. I’m sure he’s got another woman: he keeps coming late.

 

2.3 Write sentences with may or might:

 

1. Where are you going for your holidays? (to Ireland???) I haven't decided yet. I may go to Ireland.

2. What sort of car are you going to buy? (a Mercedes???) I'm not sure yet. I ____.

3. What are you doing this weekend? (go to London???) I haven't decided yet. I ____.     

4. Where are you going to hang that picture? (in the dining room???) I haven't made up my mind yet. I ____.    

5. When is Tom coming to see us? (on Saturday???) I don't know yet. He ____.   

6. What is Julia going to do when she leaves school? (go to university???) She hasn't decided yet. She ____. 

 

3. We express permission with:

 

(asking for permission)

 

can (informal) – e.g. Can I borrow your pen?

could (more polite) – e.g. Could I borrow your car?

may (formal) – e.g. May I use your phone?

might (more formal) – e.g. Might I see your driving licence, please?

(giving / refusing permission)

 

can (informal, giving permission) – e.g. You can have one more if you want.

may (formal, giving permission) – e.g. You may stay a little longer.

mustn't (refusing permission) – e.g. You mustn't park here.

can’t (refusing permission) – e.g. You can't enter this room.        

 

3.1. Rewrite these sentences using can, could or may:

 

1. I'd like to talk to you for a minute, Bill. (friendly) – Can I talk to you for a minute, Bill?

2. I would like to use your phone. (more polite)

3. I would like to stop work early today. (formal)

4. Take my bike if you want to. (friendly)

5. Are children allowed to go into pubs? (formal)

6. I don't want you to come into my room. (formal)

7. I would like to speak to Jane, if she's there. (polite)

8. I would like to have a beer. (friendly)

9. Are students allowed to use this library? (formal)

10. I would like to pay you tomorrow. (polite)

 

4. We make requests, offers or suggestions with:

can (request) – e.g. Can you help me tidy my room?

could (polite request/suggestion) – e.g. Could I have a little more cake please?

would you like (polite offer) – e.g. Would you like some more lemonade?

Shall l/we (suggestion/offer) – e.g. Shall I post this letter for you? (offer); Shall we buy him a present? (suggestion)                                                   

will (offer/request) – e.g. I'll make you some coffee if you want, (friendly offer); Will you do me a favour (friendly request)                                               

4.1. Fill in: can, would, could, shall or will:

Shop Assistant: 1) Can I help you?

Customer: Yes, I'm looking for a jumper. 2)____ you show me some?

Shop Asst: Yes, of course. What size 3)____ you like?

Customer: Medium, please.

Shop Asst: I 4)____ get some to show you. Is there anything else you 5)____ like to see?

Customer: 6)____ I try on some skirts as well?

Shop Asst: Certainly. Do you like them?

Customer: Yes, I do. I 7)____ take them all.

Shop Asst: 8)____ I wrap them for you?

Customer: Yes, please.

 

4.2 Read the situations and write questions beginning Can... or Could...:

 

1. You're carrying a lot of things. You can't open the door yourself. There's a man standing near the door. You say to him: Could you open the door, please?

2. You phone Ann but somebody else answers. Ann isn't there. You want to leave a message for her. You say: ____

3. You are a tourist. You want to go to the station but you don't know where it is. You ask at your hotel. You say: ____

4. You are in a clothes shop. You see some trousers you like and you want to try them on. You say to the shop assistant: ____

5. You have a car. You have to go to the same place as John, who hasn't got a car. You want to give him a lift. You say to John: ____

 

4.3 What would you say in these situations?

 

1. John has come to see you in your flat. You offer him something to eat.

YOU: ____ 

JOHN: No, thank you. I'm not hungry.

2. You need help to change the film in your camera. You ask Ann.

YOU: Ann, I don't know how to change the film ____

ANN: Sure. It's easy. All you have to do is this.

3. You're on a train. The woman next to you has finished reading her newspaper. Now you want to have a look at it. You ask her.

YOU: Excuse me, ____

WOMAN: Yes, of course. I've finished with it.

4. You're on a bus. You have a seat but an elderly man is standing. You offer him your seat.

YOU: ____

MAN: Oh, that's very kind of you. Thank you very much.

5. You're the passenger in a car. Your friend is driving very fast. You ask her to slow down.

YOU: You're making me very nervous, ____

DRIVER: Oh, I'm sorry. I didn't realise I was going so fast.

6. You've finished your meal in a restaurant and now you want the bill. You ask the waiter:

YOU: ____      

WAITER: Right. I'll get it for you now.

7. A friend of yours is interested in one of your books. You invite him to borrow it.

FRIEND: This book looks very interesting.

YOU: Yes, it's very good. ____

 

5. We express advice with:

Should / ought to – e.g. You should walk more. (general advice; I advise you.)

had better – e.g. You'd better see your dentist, (advice for a specific situation; it is a good idea.)

 

5.1 Fill in: should, ought to or had better:

 

Jill: You 1) should ask someone to paint the house this year.

Laura: Yes. It's beginning to look a bit dirty. I can't really afford it, though. Do you think I 2)_________ try to get a loan?

Jill: No, you 3)_________ not. You might have a problem paying it back.

Laura: I 4)_________ do something about the roof as well. It leaks when it rains hard.

Jill: Really? You 5)_________ take care of it now or the ceiling will fall in!

Laura: Yes, you're right. I 6)_________ ring someone today and ask them to look at it.

 

5.2 Complete the sentences with verbs from the box, using 'd better:

 

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 736.