NOTE 3: We use “in case” to talk about precautions – things we do to be ready for what might happen. After “in case” we use a present tense to talk about the future
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e.g. I’ve bought a chicken in case your mother stays to lunch.

“In case” is not the same as “if”. Compare:

I'll buy a bottle of wine (now) in case Roger comes (later). I'll buy a bottle of wine (later) if Roger comes (and if he doesn't come I won't).

 

1.8 If or in case?

 

1. I'm taking my umbrella with me _____ it rains.

2. I'll open the umbrella _____ it rains.

3. People phone the fire brigade _____ their houses catch fire.

4. People insure their houses _____ they catch fire.

5. We have a burglar alarm _____ somebody tries to break in.

6. The burglar alarm will go off _____ somebody tries to break in.

7. I'll let you know _____ I need help.

8. I'll take the mobile phone _____ I need to phone you.

 

NOTE 4: We can use “should” in the if-clause when we are less sure about the possibility – problematic condition: e.g. If I should meet her, I’ll ask her. (I may meet her, but I doubt it.)

 



Type Two

 

The sentences of this type express improbable situations in the present or future (UNREAL PRESENT). It is also used to give advice.

 

Main clause If-clause
WOULD / COULD / MIGHT + bare infinitive Past Simple or Past Continuous

If I saw a ghost, I would run away. (not likely to happen)

If I were you, I wouldn’t go out with him. (advice)

 

NOTE 1: “were” is used instead of “was” in all persons.

NOTE 2: We can omit "if". When we omit "if" should, were and had (Past Perfect) come before the subject.

e.g. If he should turn up, tell him to wait for me. → Should he turn up, tell him to wait for me.

If I were you, I would speak to her. → Were I you, I would speak to her.

If he had known, he would have told us. → Had he known, he would have told us.

 

2.1 What would you do in each situation? Write unreal present conditionals, use the ideas below:

Call an ambulance, complain to the manager, run away, try to catch it,

Walk to the nearest garage to get some, ring the police

 

1. You find a fly in your soup.

2. You see a burglar breaking into your house.

3. You see a mouse in your kitchen.

4. Your car runs out of petrol.

5. You see an accident.

6. You see a ghost in your room.

 

2.2 Put in the correct verb forms:

 

1. The kitchen _____ (look) better if we _____ (have) red curtains.

2. I _____ (be) sorry if we _____ (not see) her again.

3. It _____ (be) a pity if Andy ______ (not get) the job.

4. If I _____ (know) his address, I _____ (go) round and see him.

5. What _____ (you do) if you _____ (win) the lottery?

6. It _____ (be) quicker if you _____ (use) a computer.

7. If you _____ (not be) so busy, I _____ (show) you how to play.

8. If we _____ (have) some eggs, I _____ (make) you a cake.

9. If you really _____ (love) me, you _____ (buy) me those diamonds.

10. I'm sure Moira _____ (help) you if you _____ (ask) her.

 

Type Three

 

The sentences of this type express unreal or improbable situations in the past (UNREAL PAST). It is also used to express regrets and criticism.

Main clause If-clause
WOULD / COULD / MIGHT + have + past participle Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous

e.g. If I had locked the car, it wouldn’t have been stolen. (regret; it is a pity I did not lock it.)

e.g. If he had behaved well, the teacher wouldn’t have punished him. (criticism)

 

3.1 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense:

 

If John 1 ____ (oversleep), he 2 ____ (not / be) late for work. If he 3 ____ (not /be) late for work, his boss 4 ____ (not / fire) him. If John 5 ____ (not / lose) his job, he 6 ____ (not / need) money and he 7 ____ (not / rob) the bank. If he 8 ____ (not / rob) the bank, the police 9 ____ (not / arrest) him.

 

3.2 Match the parts of the sentences:

1. If I hadn’t missed the bus, 2. If she hadn’t fell ill this morning, 3. If the food hadn’t been awful, 4. If he had passed his exams, 5. If the salary had been good, 6. If it hadn’t been my birthday, a) he would have gone to university. b) Chris wouldn’t have given me. c) she would have gone to school. d) I would have accepted the job. e) I wouldn’t have been late for work. f) we would have eaten it.

 

3.3 Put in the correct verb forms:

 

1. If I _____ (know) you were coming, I ________ (invite) some friends in.

2. He ___________ (go) to university if his father __________ (not be) ill.

3. If you _____ (say) you weren't hungry, I __________ (not cook) such a big meal.

4. The team __________ (win) if Jones __________ (play) better.

5. If they _______ (not cut) off the electricity, I _______ (finish) my work.

6. If Bell _____ (not invent) the telephone, somebody else __________ (do) it.

7. If you _____ (not spend) so much time making up, we __________(not be) late.

8. The burglars __________ (not get) in if you _____(remember) to lock the door.

9. If he ______ (not be) a film star, he __________ (not become) President.

10. If she __________ (have) more sense, she __________ (sell) her car years ago.

 

Revision 1

 

4.1 Choose the correct verb forms:

 

1. If she (comes/came) late again, she'll lose her job.

2. I'll let you know if I (find/found) out what's happening.

3. If we (live/lived) in a town, life would be easier.

4. I'm sure he wouldn't mind if we (arrive/arrived) early.

5. (We'll/We'd) phone you if we have time.

6. If I won the lottery, I (will/would) give you half the money.

7. It (will/would) be a pity if she married Fred.

8. If I'm free on Saturday, I (will/would) go to the mountains.

9. She (will/would) have a nervous breakdown if she goes on like this.

10. I know I'll feel better if I (stop/stopped) smoking.

 

4.2 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense:

 

e.g. If she hadn’t broken (not / break) the window, she wouldn't have had to pay for a new one.

 

1. If it _____ _____ (not/be) cold, they wouldn't have lit the fire.

2. If she studied more, she _____ _____ (be) a better student.

3. They _____ (not/see) the Queen if they hadn't visited London on that day.

4. If you should win that competition, you _____ _____ (be) rich.

5. If I lived in France, I _____ _____ (speak) French well.

6. If they _____ _____ (lock) the doors, the burglars wouldn't have got in.

7. We _____ _____ (have) a party if Alan passes his driving test.

8. I ____ _____ (give) John your message if I should see him today.

9. They ____ _____ (not/have) any money if their cousin hadn't lent them some.

10. Those plants _____ _____ (not/grow) if you don't water them.

4.3 Match the parts of the sentences:

 

1. You can see the boss 2. I would have bought it 3. We'll go to the beach tomorrow 4. He would go by plane 5. If she hadn't slept late, 6. If Paul enters the competition, 7. She won't go to work, 8. If he had locked his car, 9. I would buy that vase 10. He wouldn't have missed the meeting a) unless it rains. b) provided that he is not too busy. c) had enough money with me. d) she wouldn't have missed the train. e) if it was cheaper. f) it wouldn't have been stolen. g) if he had been on time. h) unless she's better. i) he'll win. j) if I had enough money.

 

4.4 Complete the following sentences with an appropriate conditional clause:

 

1. If I found a gun in the street, …………………………………………………..………….

2. You wouldn't have been punished ………………………………………..………………

3. If you drink all that juice, ………………………………………………..……………….

4. If you drive so fast, …………………………………………………….…………………

5. If you should see Mark this evening, …………………………………….………………

6. If you had taken my advice, …………………………………………….………………..

7. Unless the weather improves, …………………………………………….………………

8. My father would have bought me a bicycle …………………………….………………..

9. He would have been very angry ……………………………………………..……………

10. If you aren't enjoying the film, ……………………………………………..……………

 

NOTE: “as long as”, “providing (that)”, “provided (that)”, “in case”, “on condition (that)”, “but for (= without)”, “otherwise”, “or else”, “what if”, “supposing”, “even if”, “only if”, “if only”, “assuming(that)” can be used instead of “if” :

e.g. You will get a seat providing/provided (that)/as long as/only if you reserve a ticket.

e.g. Only if you reserve a ticket, will you get a seat. (When we begin the sentence with "only if", we invert the subject and the verb of the result clause.)

e. g. Reserve a ticket, otherwise/or else you won't get a seat.

e. g. What if it rains, will you still go for a picnic with him?

e. g. Supposing it rains, will you still go for a picnic with him?

e. g. Will you still go for a picnic with him even if it rains?

e. g. But for him, I wouldn't have been able to survive. (If it hadn't been for him - without his help)

 

4.5 Rewrite the sentences replacing if with the most appropriate conjunction:

e.g. Mr Davidson says he'll come and give a talk at the conference if we pay him a reasonable fee. (supposing that / unless / on condition that) – Mr Davidson says he'll come and give a talk at the conference on condition that we pay him a reasonable fee.

1. If your company went bankrupt, what would you do?' (just suppose, on condition, as long as)

2. 'If you had to live in another country, where would you go?' (on condition, unless, imagine)

3. 'We'll let him out of prison if he reports to the police station every day. (supposing, as long as, unless)

4. I'll take them to court if they don't pay me what they owe.' (imagine, provided that, unless)

5. 'If you won a million pounds - what would you do with it?' (providing, as long as, unless, imagine)

6. 'If they keep to the agreement, I'll give them the money.' (what if, imagine, so long as)

7. 'You'll be alright if you take some travellers' cheques.' (provided that, imagine, what if)

8. 'I'll complain to the manager if you don't give me a different room.' (as long as, unless, imagine)

9. 'If all the hotels were full, were would we stay?' (provided that, as long as, suppose)

10. I won't help him if he doesn't ask me properly. (provided / unless / as long as)

11. If I could get a job, life here would be perfect. (what if / even if / if only)

4.6 * Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form (first, second or zero conditional):

 

e.g. Oh dear, I think we're a bit late. If the concert's already started, we won’t be allowed (not be allowed) to go in.

 

1. He wouldn't be coming here if he _____ (not want) to.

2. If you were planning to leave your husband, I _____ (advise) you against it.

3. He could be earning lots of money now if he really _____ (want) to, but I don't think that's what he wants.

4. You can stay here tonight if you _____ (not have) anywhere else to stay.

5. If I could have phoned you, I _____ (tell) you what was happening.

6. If you _____ (have) any problems, give me a ring.

7. If you _____ (get) here at about 8 o'clock, I'll be waiting for you.

8. We could have got there in time if you _____ (phone) us earlier.

9. If this should happen again, _____ (come) and _____ (tell) me about it immediately.

10. You can't expect kindness and support from your family if you _____ (not give) the same to them.

 

4.7 Circle the correct answer to the questions below:

 

1. 'If Mary found out what was happening, she'd be very angry. – Is Mary going to find out what's happening?

A Maybe                        B Probably not

2. 'If Mary finds out what's happening, she'll be very angry.' – Is Mary going to find out what's happening?

A Maybe                         B Probably not

3. 'If they sacked him, the factory would go on strike.' – Are they going to sack him?

A Maybe                         B Probably not

4. 'If they sack him, the factory will go on strike.' – Are they going to sack him?

A Maybe                         B Probably not

5. 'What would you do if someone told us to leave? – Is someone going to tell us to leave?

A Maybe                         B Probably not

6. 'What will you do if someone tells us to leave?' – Is someone going to tell us to leave?

A Maybe                         B Probably not

7. 'If they don't agree with me, I'll go to the director.' – Are they going to agree with me?

A Maybe                         B Probably not

8. 'If they didn't agree with me, I'd go to the director.' – Do they usually agree with me?

A Maybe B Yes C No

9. 'If I don't like your ideas, I'll say so.' – Am I going to like your ideas?

A Maybe not                                   B Probably

10. 'If I didn't like your ideas, I'd say so.' – Do I usually like your ideas?

A Maybe B Yes C No

Mixed conditionals

 

All types of conditionals can be mixed. Any tense combination is possible if the context permits it.

 

Type 2 If they were playing all day, they will be tired out now. Type 1
Type 2 If I were you, I would have invited her. Type 3
Type 3 If she had saved the money, She would go on holiday. Type 2

5.1 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets:

Yesterday the famous bank robber, Fingers Smith, robbed an­other bank in the centre of town. As usual, he only stole £10. If he 1) ___________ (leave) any clues, he 2) ___________ (be) in prison now, but he's much too clever. He disconnected the security cameras; if he 3) ___________ (not/do) that, the police 4) ___________ (have) him on film now. The strange thing is, Fingers doesn't seem to be interested in the money; if he 5) ___________ (be), he 6) ___________ (can/steal) thousands of pounds by now. The police are deter­mined to catch him, and the Chief is confident that they will. He says that if he 7) ___________ (think) they weren't going to arrest Fingers eventually, he 8) ___________ (leave) the police force long ago.

 

5.2 The students in two teams read the text and in turn make Conditionals. Each correct sentence gets 1 point:

 

One night Paul was bored so he decided to go to the cinema. But the cinema was full because the film was very popular. Paul's friend lives near the cinema so he went to visit him. When he arrived, he heard his friend shouting for help. The door was open so Paul was able to get into the house. His friend had been painting and had fallen off the step-ladder. His leg was broken so he couldn't move. It was lucky that the cinema was full and Paul called round on him.

 

e.g. If Paul hadn’t been bored, he wouldn’t have decided to go to the cinema.

 

5.3 * Rewrite the following as mixed conditional sentences as in the example:

e.g. She isn't at the meeting because she wasn't told about it. – She would be at the meeting if she had been told about it.

 

1. I didn't apply for the job. I don't want to work there.

2. He didn't take his job seriously. He's unemployed now.

3. He didn't train every day. He won't win the race.

4. I didn't book seats. We can't go to the concert tonight.

5. You didn't warn me. Now I'm in a difficult situation.

6. I don't know him very well so I didn't give him any advice.

5.4 * Match the clauses and write the mixed conditional sentences:

 

e.g. 1F - If you had told me about this problem earlier, everything would be all right now.

1. If you had told me about this problem earlier, 2. If you were a more sensitive person, 3. If they don't contact you soon, 4. If he hadn't died so young, 5. If he didn't work so hard all the time, 6. If the train hadn't been delayed, 7. If he was feeling ill this morning, 8. If you're coming with us, 9. If I really wanted to have children, 10.If you had worked harder last month, 11. If he was happy, 12. If you hadn't lost your job, 13. If she didn't lose her temper so quickly, 14. If she doesn't do her work,           15. Can I borrow your pen, 16. If the machine stopped,    17. You wouldn't be so hungry          18. Whistle      19. If I study here for another month, 20. If it's raining, A he probably won't be at the meeting. B you could always ring them up. C his wife would never have left him. D you wouldn't have said that to her. E I would have had them by now. F everything would be all right now. G would you hurry up and get ready? H you wouldn't be so busy this month. I we would be there by now. J I'm sure he'd be a famous musician by now. K we stopped. L she wouldn't have got into that fight. M I wouldn't go out for a walk. N I'll have been here for a year. O I was happy. P send her home. Q if you'd eaten a proper breakfast. R we wouldn't be living here. S if you see the police coming. T if you've finished using it?

5.5 Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the correct tense:

 

1. If you'd stayed at home, there _____ (not be) any trouble.

2. What would you do if he _____ (resign) tomorrow?

3. It's a pity John didn't come to the football. He _____ (liked) it.

4. I'll do it if he _____ (ask) me.

5. I wouldn't have been so upset if Judy _____ (write) to me earlier.

6. If we offered him more money, __________ (he stay) here?

7. If she's gone out, we _____ (ask) Peter to do it for us.

8. I _____ (look after) the bags if you carry the children.

9. We would have missed the train if we _____ (be) two minutes later.

10. It's a pity Terry wasn't at the party. He _____ (love) it.

Wishes

 

  Form Use
I wish (wish/regret about the present) + Past Simple   Wish/regret about a present situation we want to be different

e.g. I wish you worked more efficiently. (It’s a pity you don’t work more efficiently)

e.g. I wish I could drive a car. (But I can’t)

I wish (regret about the past) + Past Perfect Regret that something happened or didn’t happen in the past

e.g. I wish I had attended the seminar last Monday. (But I didn’t. it’s a pity I didn’t attend it.)

I wish (impossible wish for a future change)   + subject + would + bare infinitive   (wish and would should have different subjects) Wish for a future change unlikely to happen or wish to express dissatisfaction; polite request implying dissatisfaction or lack of hope

e.g. I wish he would drive more carefully. (But I don’t think he will. – wish for a future change unlikely to happen); e.g. I wish the children would be more cooperative. (The children have refused to cooperate. – dissatisfaction)

 

NOTE 1: In wishes we go one tense back – we use the Past Simple in the present and the Past Perfect in the past.

NOTE 2: We can use were instead of was in all persons.

NOTE 3: if only means the same as I wish but it is more dramatic: e.g. If only I were richer!

 

6.1 Rewrite these sentences using I wish + past simple:

e.g. I'd love to live in Australia. – Iwish I lived in Australia.

e.g. I hate having to go to school on Saturdays. – Iwish I didn't have to go to school on Saturdays.

1. Why don't we go away more often?

2. I'd love to be a film star.

3. Why don't we have a bigger house?

4. I'd love to speak more languages.

5. I'd love to be able to cook.

6. Why is the school so expensive?

7. I never have enough money: it would be nice to have more.

8. I hate having to do homework every night.

9. He smokes.

10. I don’t speak Russian.

 

6.2 Rewrite these sentences using I wish + past perfect:

e.g. I decided to work in London. – Iwish I hadn't decided to work in London.

e.g. We didn't go to Alan's party. – I wish we'd gone to Alan's party.

1. We went to live with my parents in Surrey.

2. I decided to stop working as a bus driver.

3. We put our money into a grocery shop.

4. We borrowed £3,000 to start the business.

5. We didn't realise that a supermarket was opening nearby.

6. The grocery shop closed down.

7. We lost all our money.

8. It was a mistake to leave Manchester.

 

6.3 Mr and Mrs Reynolds are worried about their children. Write what they want them to do, using I wish + would:

 

e.g. John never comes home before twelve o'clock. – Iwish John would come home before twelve o'clock.

e.g. Sheila isn't very polite to her grandparents. – Iwish Sheila would be more polite to her grandparents.

 

1. Peter doesn't wash very often.

2. Susan isn't working very hard for her exams.

3. John doesn't help with the housework.

4. I'd like Peter to give up smoking.

5. Sheila takes too many days off work.

6. I don't like John playing football all the time.

7. Sheila and Susan are very unkind to Peter.

8. John doesn't wear a tie very often.

 

6.6 Answer 'Yes' or 'No' and circle (A) or (B):

 

1. I wish I had a big car. – Do I have a big car?

Am I talking about (A) the present? (B) the past?

2. I wish I'd gone to university. – Did I go to university?        

Am I talking about (A) the present? (B) the past?

3. If only she'd take the new job. – Has she agreed to take the new job?    

Am I talking about (A) the past? (B) the present/future?

4. I wish they hadn't phoned the police. – Did they phone the police?       

Am I talking about (A) the past? (B) the present/future?

5. I wish she spoke French. – Can she speak French? Did she speak French?

Are we talking about (A) the past? (ii) the present?

6. I wish she would speak French. – Can she speak French? Is she speaking French?

Are we talking about (i) the past? (B) the present/future?

7. I wish I could agree with you. – Do I agree with you? Am I going to change my mind?

Am I talking about (A) the past? (B) the present?

8. If only he'd agreed with us. – Did he agree with us?        

Am I talking about (A) the present? (B) the past?

 

7. It’s time…

 

In clauses after “it's time” and “would rather”, a past tense has a present or future meaning.

e.g. It's time he went to bed.

It's time you washed those trousers.

'Shall I open a window?' I'd rather you didn't.'

Don't come today. We'd rather you came tomorrow.

 

7.1 Write sentences using It's time you/he/etc:

 

e.g. You ought to clean that car. – It's time you cleaned that car.

 

1. She should get her hair cut.

2. We ought to have a holiday.

3. You need to cut the grass.

4. You should wash that sweater.

5. You ought to stop smoking.

6. He ought to grow up.

7. We ought to paint the kitchen.

8. He needs a new car.

9. That team hasn't won a match for ages.

 

7.2 Rewrite the second sentence in each conversation, starting with I'd rather we/you/etc:

 

e.g. 'You'd better phone Judy.' 'No, you phone her.' –

I'd rather you phoned her.

1. 'Let's talk things over.' 'No, let's talk tomorrow.'

2. 'Shall I come at nine?' 'Ten would be better.'

3. 'I'll phone Sue.' 'No, don't.'

4. 'Can she work with you?' 'Why doesn't she work with Maggie?'

5. 'I'll cook tomorrow.' 'Tonight would be better.'

6. 'Ask that policeman.' 'You ask him.'

7. 'Mark wants to go out.' 'I'd prefer him to stay in.'

8. 'Can they use our sheets?' 'It would be more convenient if they brought their own.'

9. 'The government wants to cut taxes.' 'It would be better if they did something about the homeless.'

Revision 2

 

8.1 Using the bold type in the sentences, write wishes as in the example:

 

You are leaving for the airport. You can't find your passport.

You say: “I wish I could find my passport.”

You live in the suburbs. You prefer the city centre.

You say:

You argued with your mother yesterday. Today she is upset.

You say:

You didn't clean your bedroom and your mother is angry.

You say:

You want to go on holiday but you can't afford it.

You say:

8.2 Write sentences as in the example:

 

e.g. You want to visit your friend but you've got too much work to do. – I wish I didn’t have so much work to do. If I didn’t have so much work to do,

I could visit my friend.

1. You went to bed late and didn't wake up in time for work.

2. You want to go to the safari park with Michael, but you're afraid of lions.

3. You would like to write a letter to Fred but you don't have his address.

4. You went skiing and broke your leg.

5. You didn't go to the concert because you didn't know about it.

6. You have to stay in bed because you've got the flu.

7. You are lost in London because you don't have a map.

8. You wanted to go to the theatre but you couldn't find any tickets anywhere.

9. You wanted to ring Kelly but you lost her phone number.

10. You want to make a coffee but you've run out.

8.3 * Rewrite the sentences using I wish + past simple, past perfect or would:

 

1. I haven't got a car. I would very much like to have one. – I wish I had a car.

2. I went to bed late last night. I regret it now. – I wish I hadn't gone to bed late last night.

3. We don't live in a nice big flat. I would like us to.

4. I didn't buy that dress. I regret it now.

5. He won't stop shouting. I would like him to.

6. I lost my temper. I regret it now.

7. You didn't tell me the truth. I am very sorry that you didn't.

8. You're playing that music. I would like you to stop playing it but I don't expect that you will.

9. I didn't go to that concert. I regret it now.

10. I don't have an interesting job. I would like my job to be more interesting.

8.4 * Complete the following sentences using the words in bold:

1. She would have stayed longer, but the babysitter needed to leave at 9.00.

Not – If the babysitter had not needed to leave at 9.00, she would have stayed longer.

2. We stopped at the service station. Otherwise, we would have run out of petrol.

Not – If __________ at the service station, we would have run out of petrol.

3. Tim couldn't have found the treasure without the map.

For – But ______________________, Tim couldn't have found the treasure.

4. I would have bought you a present but I didn't know that it was your birthday.

Wish – I ___________ it was your birthday; I would have bought you a present.

5. I grabbed his hand. Otherwise, he might have run into the road.

Case – I grabbed his hand ____________________________ into the road.

6. It's a pity I didn't read that book.

wish – I _____________________________________________ that book.

7. Ann can organise the concert but somebody must help her.

Helps – Only if somebody ______________________________ the concert.

8. Helen would have lent you the money but you didn't ask her.

Asked – If ______________________ she would have lent you the money.

9. I didn't finish my assignment because I came down with a terrible cold.

Would – If I hadn't come down with a terrible cold, ____________ my assignment.

10. I learnt to swim because you encouraged me.

Never – I _______________________ to swim if you hadn't encouraged me.

11. Lee didn't drive me to the airport and as a result I missed my flight.

Wish – I ____________ me to the airport; I wouldn't have missed my flight.

12. Kate will move to London but she must find a job first.

Finds – Only if Kate ___________________________ move to London.

13. You can't lose weight without doing some exercise.

Not – Unless you do some exercise, ______________________ weight.



Test yourself: conditionals

 

Supply the correct forms of the missing verbs:

e.g. If it is (be) fine tomorrow, we will go (go) for a picnic.

1. If I _____ (have) time tonight, I _____ (finish) the novel I'm reading.

2. If it _____ (rain) next weekend, we _____ (not able to) plant the vegetables.

3. If he _____ (be leaving) at 6 o'clock, I _____ (ask) him to give me a lift.

4. If she _____ (have drive) all that way since this morning, she _____ (be) tired and hungry.

5. If John _____ (be picked) for the team, he _____ (be boasting) about it for weeks!

Write Type 2 conditionals to match these situations:

e.g. I don't have a spare ticket. I can't take you to the concert. – If I had a spare ticket, I would take you to the concert.

6. She drinks too much coffee. She doesn't feel calm.

7. He can't type. He isn't able to operate a computer.

8. They don't understand the problem. They won't find a solution.

9. He sits around too much. He isn't fit.

10. She is not in your position. She isn't able to advise you.

Comment on the following situations:

e.g. John ate too much birthday cake, so he was sick. – If John hadn’t eaten too much, he wouldn’t have been sick.

11. We came home from our holiday early because we ran out of money.

12. The house didn't burn down because the fire brigade came immediately.

13. The men were wearing protective clothing, so they were all quite safe.

14. I had an accident because I wasn't watching the road.

15. I was sweating because it was so hot.

Supply “if not” or “unless” in these sentences. Note where you could use either:

e.g. Unless you tell/ If you don’t tell (you/tell) me the whole story, I won't be able to help you.

16. He would be happier and healthier _______ (he/have) so many worries.

17. We couldn't have caught the plane – __________ (we/break) the speed limit getting to the airport.

18. ____________ (management and unions/become) more flexible, there'll be a lot more strikes.

19. I'll be there by 7 o'clock ____________ (I/get held up) in the traffic.

20. ________________ (we/have) more rain soon, the plants will all die.

Use mixed tenses in these sentences:

e.g. If I were (be) you, I would have checked (check) my facts before I wrote that letter.

21. If you _____ (be) so hungry, you _____ (not miss) breakfast.

22. If he _____ (not catch) the 5.30 train, he _____ (not arrive) for another two hours.

23. He _____ (feel) very tired today if he _____ (play) rugby yesterday.

24. If the snake bite _____ (be) poisonous, you _____ (feel) very ill now.

25. If I _____ (be) in your position, I _____ (answer) his letter by now.


Module 4

 


Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 1465.