What do you know about verbs?
What do you know about frequency adverbs and time expressions?
1) past action which occurred before another action or before a stated past time
He had left by the time I got there. (or by 8.15)
2) complete past action which had visible results in the past
She was sad because she had failed the test
3) the Past Perfect is the past equivalent of the Present Perfect
(He can't find his watch He has lost it) He couldn't find his watch. He had lost it
Time expressions: for, since, already, after, just, never, yet, before, by, by the time etc.
12.1* Complete the sentence with the past simple or past perfect simple form of the verb in brackets:
1. When I (try) tried to use my laptop, I realized the battery (run) _______ down.
2. I (turn) _______ the computer off, but forgot that I (not save) _______ my work.
3. I only remembered I (not pay) _______ the bill when my Internet connection (stop) _______ working.
4. When I (receive) _______ the e-mail, I couldn't understand who (send) _______ it.
5. When I (check) _______ the instructions, I understood what I (do) _______.
6. I knew I (receive) _______ a virus when I (run) _______ the anti-virus program.
7. As soon as I (download) _______ the document, I knew I (make) _______ a mistake.
8. I could see what (go) _______ wrong as soon as I (look) _______ inside the printer.
9. I knew I (press) _______ the wrong key when nothing (happen) _______.
10. When the screen (go) _______ blank, I couldn't understand how it (happen) _______.
12.2* Choose the correct form. A, B or C, to complete the sentences:
On 26 December 2004, Tilly Smith, a 10-year-old British schoolgirl, 1) was walking on the beach with her family. They 2) ___ Christmas in Thailand. Suddenly Tilly 3) ___ that something was wrong. She could see that the water 4) ___ and waves 5) ___ up the beach. The beach 6) ___ smaller and smaller. She 7) ___ that there had been an earthquake in Sumatra that morning, but she 8) ___ a geography lesson she 9) ___ at school just two weeks before. So she 10) ___ her mother what she 11) ___ about earthquakes and giant waves. Luckily for the Smith family, Tilly's teacher Andrew Kearney 12) ___ the class about earthquakes and 13) ___ them a video of a tsunami in Hawaii. Tilly 14) ___ screaming at her parents to get off the beach. They 15) ___ Tilly back to their hotel, which was not too close to the shore, and 16) ___ the alarm. One of the staff, who was Japanese, 17) ___ the word tsunami, and 18) ___ everyone to leave the beach. From their room on the third floor, the Smiths 19) ___ the terrible effects of the tsunami on the area. Thanks to Tilly, everybody from that beach 20) ___ that terrible day.
|1. walked||had walked||was walking|
|2. spent||had spent||were spending|
|3. felt||had felt||was feeling|
|4. rose||had risen||was rising|
|5. came||had come||were coming|
|6. got||had got||was getting|
|7. did not know||had not known||was not knowing|
|8. suddenly remembered||had remembered suddenly||was suddenly remembering|
|9. had||had had||was having|
|10. told||had told||was telling|
|11. learnt||had learnt||was learning|
|12. taught||had taught||was teaching|
|13. showed||hadshown||was showing|
|14. started||had started||was starting|
|15. took||had taken||were taking|
|16. raised||had raised||were raising|
|17. understood||had understood||was understanding|
|18. ordered||had ordered||was ordering|
|19. watched||had watched||were watching|
|20. survived||had survived||was surviving|
Past Perfect Continuous
1) action continuing over a period up to a specific time in the past
She had been working as a clerk for 10 years before she resigned.
2) past action of certain duration which had visible results in the past
They were wet because they had been walking in the rain.
3) the Past Perfect Cont. is the past equivalent of the Present Perfect Continuous
(She is going to the doctor. Her leg has been aching for two days.) She went to the doctor. Her leg had been aching for two days.
Time expressions: for, since, how long.
13.1 * Read the sentences about two mountain climbers. Then complete the sentence with the past perfect simple or past perfect continuous form of the verb in brackets:
The two climbers stopped to rest. They 1) (climb) had been climbing for hours and were exhausted. Things were not looking good. They were very cold, because it 2) (snow) ____________ heavily since mid-morning, and one of them 3) (hurt) ___________ his ankle. They 4) (look) ___________ for shelter for the past two hours, because they realized that the weather was going to get worse. They 5) (already phone) ___________ the rescue centre for help. They 6) (also leave) ___________ details of their planned route at the village where they stayed the night. They were experienced climbers and they 7) (prepare) ___________ carefully for their trip. They knew there was a cave halfway up the mountain. They spent a long time searching for the cave before they realized that they 8) (head) ___________ in the wrong direction. Then the snow stopped, and they could see the dark entrance of the cave nearby. Luckily they 9) (bring) ___________ warm clothes and plenty of food with them, and they waited safely in the cave.
13.2 * Underline the correct form:
1. When the police stopped / were stopping Smith's car for a routine check, they realized that he was the man who robbed / had robbed the bank.
2. I woke up in the middle of the night and turned on / was turning on the light. Someone or something climbed / was climbing in my window!
3. Unfortunately Jan arrived / was arriving at the station at 3.25, and found that she missed / had missed the train.
4. The doctors tried / had been trying their best, but while they were performing the operation, the patient died / was dying.
5. We'd been watching the film for half an hour before we realized that we were making / had made a terrible mistake. We went / had gone into the wrong cinema!
6. On the morning of the accident, Mr Davis just finished / had just finished a night shift at a local factory, and didn't have / hadn't had any sleep for 24 hours.
7. I’m sorry I didn't answer / wasn't answering the phone earlier, but I was painting / had been painting the ceiling in my bedroom.
8. The office Marlowe was visiting was on the 15th floor, and unfortunately the lift wasn't working / hadn't been working, so by the time he arrived at the top of the stairs, he was / had been out of breath.
9. On Christmas morning when they woke up / were waking up, the children looked eagerly out of the window. It snowed / had been snowing, and the garden was covered in a thick white carpet.
10. After the two film stars landed / were landing at the small airport, they left quickly in a van that was waiting / had been waiting for them since the early morning.
14.1 * Complete the sentence with the past simple or present perfect form of the verb in brackets:
1. I (leave) left my bag on the train this morning.
2. Helen (complete) _______ the test half an hour before the end.
3. The match can't begin yet because the other team (not arrive) _______.
4. We (not play) _______ chess for ages. Do you feel like a game?
5. I (like) _______ their last album, but I’m not keen on the new one.
6. When (you go) _______ to the cinema last?
7. Sam (not take) _______ a day off since last April.
8. (you see) _______ my wallet? I’m sure I left it here on the desk.
9. When (you realize) _______ that you wanted to be a musician?
10. I (have) _______ an idea! Why don't we go skating tomorrow?
14.2 * Complete the text with the past simple, past continuous or past perfect simple form of the verbs in brackets:
Mozart was born in 1756, the son of a professional musician. His father soon 1) (give up) gave up composing when he recognized his son's musical talent. By the age of three, the young Mozart 2) (learn) _______ to play several pieces of music. While he and his father 3) (travel) _______ round Europe, Mozart met many famous musicians and composers. Before he was 17, he 4) (compose) _______ several operas. While he 5) (visit) _______ the Vatican in Rome, he 6) (listen) _______ to a piece of music which, up to this point, the Vatican authorities 7) (keep) _______ secret. No one 8) (publish) _______ a copy of the piece before, but Mozart 9) (manage) _______ to write it down from memory after he 10) (listen) _______ to it once. By the age of 30 he 11) (become) _______ one of the most famous composers in Europe, and 12) (have) _______ a large apartment in Vienna, which is now a tourist attraction. It was here that he 13) (write) _______ his famous opera The Marriage of Figaro. In 1791, while he 14) (work) _______ on his Requiem, he 15) (fall) _______ ill and died at the age of 35.
14.3 * Read the story of Archimedes and his bath. Then complete the text with the correct form of the verb in brackets (Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect):
Archimedes, the Greek mathematician, is probably most famous for the story of King Hieron II of Syracuse and the gold crown. The king 1) (want) wanted to give a gold crown as a gift to the gods, and 2) (give) _______ a carefully weighed amount of gold to a goldsmith. The man 3) (produce) _______ a beautiful crown, but the king was worried that the craftsman 4) (not use) _______ all the gold to make the crown. Dishonest craftsmen often 5) (mix) _______ gold with silver, which was cheaper, but the king could not find a way of proving that the man 6) (do) _______ this. He 7) (ask) _______ Archimedes to solve the problem. Archimedes 8) (know) _______ that gold and silver have different densities. The problem was that nobody could calculate the mass of an object like a crown. While Archimedes 9) (think) _______ about this problem, he decided to go to the public baths to relax. While he 10) (climb) _______ into the bath, he 11) (notice) _______ some water on the floor. It 12) (spill) _______ over the side of the bath, and he 13) (realize) _______ that he 14) (solve) _______ the problem by accident. The total amount of water that 15) (spill) _______ out of the bath must be the same as the volume of his body He could use a piece of pure gold and calculate its volume, and then test the crown and see if it was the same. According to the story, he 16) (jump) _______ straight out of the bath and 17) (run) _______ down the street calling 'Eureka – I’ve found it.' The goldsmith soon 18) (admit) _______ that he 19) (cheat) _______ the king, and was punished. Archimedes 20) (discover) _______ a principle of buoyancy.
Test yourself: Tenses
A. Choose the correct form, A, B, C or D, to complete the sentence:
1. I ___ this computer for more than ten years, so I’m thinking of getting a new one.
2. You're half an hour late! I ___ here for ages!
3. I ___ these black trousers better than those blue ones.
4. Can I borrow a pen? I ___ mine.
5. I’d like to dance with you, but I ___ for my friend.
6. Kate ___ in Poland since last October. She's really enjoying it.
7. Carol’s great, isn't she? ___ her long?
8. Paul ___ in all day today, so now he feels like going out.
9. You'd better borrow this umbrella ___ really hard.
10. I ___ on my project all morning, and I need a break.
1. a) have had b) have heen having c) have d) am having
2. a) have waited b) have been waiting c) wait d) am waiting
3. a) have liked b) have been liking c) like d) am liking
4. a) have lost b) have been losing c) lose d) am losing
5. a) have waited b) have been waiting c) wait d) am waiting
6. a) has taught b) has been teaching c) teaches d) is teaching
7. a) Have you known b)Have you been knowing c) Do you know
d) Are you knowing
8. a) has stayed b) has been staying c) stays d) is staying
9. a) It has rained b) It has been raining c) It rains d) It is raining
10. a) have worked b) have been working c) work d) am working
B. Underline the correct form:
How 11) do you get on / are you getting on in Paris? Sorry 12) I haven't written / I’m not writing before but 13) I train / I’ve been training hard for my basketball team. We 14) played / have played in a tournament last week – we 15) come / came third! I really 16) enjoy / enjoyed taking part, but 17) I haven't done / I wasn't doing anything else for the past month.
Unfortunately, when Sarah's big day 18) arrived / was arriving, things 19) have gone / went disastrously wrong at first. For a start, it 20) was raining / has been raining and as the traffic was so heavy, she 21) arrived / was arriving nearly ten minutes late for her interview. Then while she 22) was crossing / has crossed the road, a passing bus 23) splashed / was splashing her with water. But inside the building her luck 24) changed / has changed. 'Mr Fortescue 25) is expecting / has expected me,' she 26) was telling / told the receptionist. 'He 27) hasn't arrived / doesn't arrive yet,' she was told. 'Just take a seat.' Perhaps everything would be all right after all!
An art historian 28) has discovered / is discovering two missing paintings by Fra Angelico (c 1395-1455) in the home of a pensioner from Oxford who 29) has died / died earlier this year. Jean Preston 30) bought / has bought the paintings when she 31) was working / has been working in America in the 1960s. Shortly before her death, a friend 32) recognized / has recognized them as part of a group of six small paintings which Angelico 33) painted / has painted in 1439. Miss Preston 34) paid / was paying about Ј200 for the pair, but experts 35) say / said they are now worth around £1 million.
1. “Say” and “tell”
Reported Speech is the exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words. Note the difference between “say” and “tell” in Reported Speech: we say something and tell somebody:
e.g. “I can fix it,” he said. → He said that he could fix it.
e.g. “I can do it,” he said to me. → He told me that he could do it.
There are set expressions with “say” and “tell”:
|Say good morning/evening, say one’s prayers, say a few words, say so, say no more, say for certain||Tell the truth, tell a lie, tell smbd the time, tell smbd one’s name, tell a story, tell a secret, tell smbd the way, tell one from another, tell smbd’s fortune, tell smbd so, tell the difference|
1.1 Use the correct form of “say” or “tell” in these sentences:
1. She ____ me she didn't agree.
2. 'I think I've met you before,' he ____.
3. I ____ them I wasn't happy with their work.
4. She ____ me a story about her parents.
5. He ____ , 'Are you feeling OK?'
6. She smiled, and ____ to me, 'I'm very pleased to meet you.'
7. I didn't hear: what did she ____ ?
8. Could you ____ me the time, please?
9. They ____ me they were going to a meeting.
10. I ____ the policeman my address.
11. I ____ I wanted to buy a magazine.
12. He ____ he wasn't interested in politics.
13. Could you ____ me your name again, please?
14. Do you think he's ____ the truth?
15. Would you ____ them to come early tomorrow?
1.2 Circle the correct verb, “ say” or “tell”, in each sentence:
1. They (say / tell) that they're going to London to see Frank.
2. Mark (said / told) us all about his holiday in Jamaica.
3. Did you (say / tell) Sally is coming with us?
4. The teacher (said / told) the class a funny story.
5. 'Don't (say / tell) lies!' (said / told) James angrily.
6. How old were you when you learned to (say / tell) the time?
7. I can't understand what they're (saying / telling) to each other.
8. I hate speaking in public. I never know what to (say/tell).
9. Jane always (says / tells) me her secrets.
10. 'Do you think anyone saw us?' she (said / told) nervously.
2. Reported statements
We can report statements, questions and commands. Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the context:
e.g. “I will show you my new dress,” she said. → She said that she would show me her new dress.
2.1 Write these sentences in Reported Speech, using the words given. Remember to change the pronouns where necessary:
1. 'I haven't done my homework.' (she says) – She says she hasn't done her homework.
2. 'I haven't got any money.' (He'll tell you) – He'll tell you he hasn't got any money.
3. 'I've seen the film before.' (she says)
4. 'I want to go home.' (he's already told you)
5. 'I haven't seen my mother for years.' (he says)
6. 'I don't know how much it costs.' (she says)
7. 'I don't like going to parties.' (she's told me)
8. 'We've never been to Berlin.' (they say)
9. 'I need the money to visit my parents.' (he'll say)
10. We can't come on Tuesday.' (they've told me)
Certain words change as follows:
|Direct Speech||Reported Speech|
|This These Here Come||That Those There Go|
Time words change as follows:
|Direct Speech||Reported Speech|
|Now Today Tonight This week / month / year Tomorrow Next week / month / year Yesterday Last week / month / year Two days ago||Then That day That night That week / month / year The day after The following week / month / year The day before The previous week / month / year Two days before|
2.2 Imagine these sentences were reported in another place a month later. Change the time words:
1. 'I'll see you tomorrow.' She said she'd see me the next day.
2. 'I'll phone you this evening.' He said he'd phone ____.
3. 'Do you like it here?' She asked if I liked it ____.
4. 'My uncle died last week.' He told me his uncle had died ____.
5. 'This meat tastes funny.' She said ____ meat tasted funny.
6. 'I'm leaving now.' He told us he was leaving ____.
7. “I overslept this morning.” She told him she'd overslept ____.
8. 'The train leaves at 11.00 tonight.' I was told the train left at 11.00 ____.
9. 'Pete phoned me yesterday.' He said Pete had phoned him ____.
10. 'My brother's arriving here today.' She said her brother was arriving ____.
If the reporting verb (say, tell or ask) is in the present or future, the tenses that follow are usually the same as those used in the original spoken statement.
e.g. “The station is far from here,” he says. → He says (that) the station is far from here.
When the reporting verb is in the past, we should change the tenses into a past form:
|Direct Speech||Reported Speech|
|Present Simple → “I work hard,” he said.||Past Simple He said (that) he worked hard.|
|Present Continuous → “I am working hard,” he said.||Past Continuous He said (that) he was working hard.|
|Present Perfect → “I have worked hard,” he said.||Past Perfect He said (that) he had worked hard.|
|Present Perfect Continuous → “I have been working hard,” he said.||Past Perfect Continuous He said (that) he had been working hard.|
|Past Simple → “I worked hard,” he said.||Past Perfect He said (that) he had worked hard.|
|Future → “I will work hard,” he said.||Would He said (that) he would work hard.|
The Past Perfect, the Past Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous remain the same:
e.g. “I was watching TV at six p.m. yesterday, ” he said. → He said (that) he was watching TV at six p.m. the day before.
If the speaker expresses something true, the tenses do not change, but if the information is false, they should be changed:
e.g. “Water boils at 100°C,” she said. (true) → She said (that) water boils at 100°C.
e.g. “Canada is a poor country,” he said. (false) → He said (that) Canada was a poor country.
2.3 Complete the reported sentences with the correct tenses:
1. 'I'm tired.' She said she ____ tired.
2. 'You play very well.' He told me I ____ very well.
3. 'We're leaving.' They told us they ____.
4. 'She hasn't brushed her hair.' I noticed that she ____ her hair.
5. 'John's had an accident.' Pam rang to say that John ____ an accident.
6. 'I left school at fifteen.' Her letter said that she ____ school at fifteen.
7. 'She won't say anything.' I knew she ____ anything.
8. 'Nobody will know.' I thought nobody ____.
9. 'This letter has been opened.' I could see that the letter ____.
2.4 * Change theses sentences into Reported Speech:
1. 'I see the children quite often,' he said.
2. 'I'm having a bath,' she said.
3. 'I've already met their parents,' he said.
4. 'I stayed in a hotel for a few weeks,' she said.
5. 'I must go home to make the dinner,' he said.
6. 'I haven't been waiting long,' she said.
7. 'I'm listening to the radio,' he said.
8. 'I'll tell them the news on Saturday,' she said.
9. 'I like swimming, dancing and playing tennis,' he said.
10. 'I can drive,' she said.
2.5 First state whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F), then turn them from Direct speech into Reported speech:
1. "Ostriches can fly," he said. – (false) – He said (that) ostriches could fly.
2. "The Amazon is the widest river in the world," she said.
3. "The Earth is the largest planet in the universe," he said.
4. "Penguins live in the desert," she said.
5. "It's hot at the South Pole," he said.
6. "Luxembourg has the best football team in the world," he said.
7. "Dolphins are mammals," he said.
8. 'The Sahara desert is the largest desert in the world," he said.
9. "British weather is always wonderful," she said.
10. "The Mediterranean is the deepest sea," he said.
Note: past tenses are changed to past perfect only if this is necessary in order to make the time relations clear. Compare:
e.g. I saw Penny a couple of days ago. – In his letter, he said he had seen Penny a couple of days before.
e.g. Dinosaurs were around for 250 million years. – This guy on TV said dinosaurs were around for 250 million years.
2.6 Change these to indirect speech:
1. I saw him once before in London. (I knew)
2. Shakespeare didn't speak French. (The professor said)
3. He died two years ago. (When I got there, I found out)
4. Three thousand years ago there were tigers in England. (It said on this TV programme)
5. Somebody threw a bomb at the Prime Minister. (It said on this morning's news)
6. The ancient Romans suffered from lead poisoning. (I read in a magazine)
3. Reported Questions
In reported questions we use the affirmative word order and the question mark changes into a full stop. Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions etc. change as in statements.
e.g. He asked me, “What time is it?” → He asked me what time it was.
e.g. He asked me, “Did you phone her?” → He asked me if / whether I had phone her.
3.1 Turn these into indirect questions, beginning I asked:
1. What's Peter's address?
2. When's the new manager coming?
3. How does she know my name?
4. Why are all the windows open?
5. How many books does he want?
6. Does my hair look funny?
7. Has the postman been?
8. Do they speak English?
9. Am I doing the right thing?
10. Is the meeting on Tuesday or Wednesday?
3.2 * Write these sentences as reported questions, using the words given:
1. 'What's your name?' he asked. (wanted to know) – He wanted to know what my name was.
2. 'How old are you?' she said. (asked) – She asked how old I was.
3. 'When does the train leave?' I asked. (asked)
4. 'How are you?' he said. (asked)
5. 'Who did you see at the meeting?' my mother said. (wanted to know)
6. 'Why did you take my wallet?' he asked. (wanted to know)
7. 'How did you get to school?' she said. (asked)
8. 'Where do you live?' the boy asked. (wanted to know)
9. 'Why wasn't Judy at the party?' she asked. (asked)
10. 'Why didn't you telephone?' my father asked. (wanted to know)
Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 1432.