Text 4. Ships (water transport)
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Scan the text and find information devoted to cruise ships. Retell it.

A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or under) water. The need for buoyancy unites watercraft, and makes the hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance, and appearance.

English seldom uses the term watercraft to describe any specific individual object (and probably then only as an affectation): rather the term serves to unify the category that ranges from small boats to the largest ships, and also includes the diverse watercraft for which some term even more specific than ship or boat (e.g., canoe, kayak, raft, barge, jet ski) comes to mind first.

Ship transport is the process of moving people, goods, etc. by barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. This is frequently undertaken for purposes of commerce, recreation or military objectives.

Early sea transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, and often, in earlier times with smaller vessels, a combination of the two.

In the 1800s the first steam ships were developed, using a steam engine to drive a paddle wheel or propeller to move the ship. The steam was produced using wood or coal. Now most ships have an engine using a slightly refined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some specialized ships, such as submarines, use nuclear power to produce the steam.

Although relatively slow, modern sea transport is a highly effective method of transporting large quantities of non-perishable goods. Transport by water is significantly less costly than transport by air for trans-continental shipping.

Cruise ships are passenger ships used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions of passengers each year as of 2006. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets such as the Asia-Pacific region are generally serviced by older tonnage displaced by new ships introduced into the high growth areas.

 

Vocabulary

1 to float – плыть

2 buoyancy – плавучесть; способность держаться на поверхности воды

3 hull – основной корпус

4 maintenance – содержание и техническое обслуживание

5 affectation – претенциозность, манерность

6 diverse – иной, отличный от чего-л.

7 recreation – отдых, развлечение

8 vessel – корабль, судно

9 non-perishable – непортящийся

10 amenities – прелести, красоты

 

Text work:

1. Find English equivalents in the text above:

1 плыть по воде / под водой

2 главная часть конструкции

3 иное судно

4 в коммерческих целях

5 в развлекательных или военных целях

6 использовать ветер для движения вперед

7 гребное колесо

8 незначительно очищенный тип топлива

9 увеселительное путешествие

10 быстро развивающиеся области

 

2. Find antonyms to the following words:

1 to stop

2 minor

3 similar, the same

4 seldom

5 greatly

6 fast

7 ineffective

8 cheap

9 decline

10 form time to time

3. Read the description of different kinds of ships and try to match them with their names given below:

 

1. They are cargo ships for the transport of fluids, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas and chemicals, also vegetable oils, wine and other food – this sector comprises one third of the world tonnage.

2. They are passenger ships used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are considered an essential part of the experience.

3. It is a boat used to maneuver, primarily by towing or pushing other vessels in harbours, over the open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to tow barges, disabled ships, or other equipment like towboats.

4. It is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Most of them are not self-propelled and need to be moved by tugboats towing or towboats pushing them.

5. They are cargo ships designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railway carriages. Such vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port.

6. Also known as coasters, they are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. Their shallow hulls mean that they can get through reefs where sea-going ships usually cannot

 

a) Roll-on / roll-off ships

b) Barge

c) Tugboat

d) Cruise ships

e) Tanker

f) Coastal trading vessels

 

4. Look through the description and names of the ships once again and try to match them with the photos given below:

                   

Picture 1.                                                       Picture 2.

 

 

                             

Picture 3.                                                      Picture 4.

 

                    

Picture 5.                                                        Picture 6.

 

Text 5. Bus

Scan the text and make up a scheme of bus transport development. Discuss the main points with your partner.

 

A bus is a large road vehicle designed to carry numerous passengers in addition to the driver and sometimes a conductor. The name is a neologic version of the Latin omnibus, which means "for all. The full name for a bus is an 'Omnibus Vehicle' - meaning a 'vehicle for all'."

In New York, omnibus service began in 1829, when Abraham Brower, an entrepreneur who had organized volunteer fire companies, established a route along Broadway starting at Bowling Green. Other American cities soon followed suit: Philadelphia in 1831, Boston in 1835 and Baltimore in 1844. In most cases, the city governments granted a private company—generally a small stableman already in the livery or freight-hauling business—an exclusive franchise to operate public coaches along a specified route. In return, the company agreed to maintain certain minimum levels of service. In 1831, New Yorker Washington Irving remarked of Britain's Reform Act (finally passed in 1832): "The great reform omnibus moves but slowly."

Nowadays, bus services can fit into several classes. Local transit buses provide public transit within a city or one or more counties, usually for trips of only a few kilometers. Intercity, interstate or interprovincial buses provide transit between cities, towns, rural areas and places usually tens or hundreds of kilometers away. They generally provide fewer bus stops than local bus routes do. Trailways Transportation System is an example of US interstate bus systems. Some local transit systems offer bus lines to nearby cities or towns served by another transit agency. Intercity bus services have become an important travel connection to smaller towns and rural areas that do not have airports or train service.

Some public transit bus systems offer express bus service in addition to local bus lines. Local lines provide frequent stops along a route, sometimes two or more per kilometer, while express lines make fewer stops and more speed along that route. For example, an express bus line may provide speedier service between a local airport and the downtown area of a nearby city.

Shuttle bus services provide transit service between two destinations, such as an airport and city center. Shuttle bus services are often provided by colleges, airports, shopping areas, companies, and amusement destinations.

Tour bus service shows tourists notable sights by bus. City tour buses often simply pass by the sites while a tour guide describes them. Longer distance tour coaches generally allow passengers to disembark at points of interest. Some tourist buses are decorated to resemble pre-PCC streetcars in order to attract tourists or for other appearance purposes. A similar phenomenon is Duck Tours, which uses amphibious DUKWs converted into buses/cruise boats for tours.

School bus service provides transit to and from school for students. Some private schools use school buses only for field trips or sports events. Some school systems, such as the San Francisco public school system, do not operate their own school bus system but instead rely on the local public transit bus system to provide transportation.

Charter bus operators provide buses with properly licensed bus drivers for hire.

 

Vocabulary

1 vehicle – транспортное средство

2 in addition to – в добавление, к тому же, сверх, кроме того

3 omnibus – омнибус; автобус

4 entrepreneur – предприниматель

5 stableman – грум; конюх

6 livery – прокат

7 freight-hauling – транспортировка груза

8 shuttle bus – пригородный автобус

9 to disembark – высаживаться

10 to resemble – напоминать

 

Text work:

1. Agree or disagree with the following statements according to the text:

1 Bus service started in Los Angeles in 1829.

2 In most cases, the city and town government did not grant private livery companies.

3 In 1831 a great reform in omnibus system took place.

4 At present bus transportation is no longer popular.

5 Bus service can be divided into several groups.

6 Local lines provide rare stops along a route.

7 Shuttle bus services organize transportation between shopping center and the city center.

8 Tour bus service takes tourists to picturesque places by bus.

9 School bus service is widely spread in Russia.

10 School buses are used for transportation to sport grounds.

 

2. Look through the text once again and explain to your partner the meaning of the dates and names given below.

1 Abraham Brower

2 1835

3 Washington Irving

4 1832

5 Trailways Transportation System

6 Local lines

7 Shuttle bus

8 Duck Tours

9 School bus

10 the San Francisco public school system

 

3. Work with your partner. Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of traveling by bus. Compare your lists with other pairs of students. How many correspondences have you got?

4. Read the following extract about bus schedule irregularity, analyze the reasons and try to find out the same question in Russia:

Operation of a bus service inevitably varies from the published schedule and timetables due to a range of factors including traffic, weather, passenger loading variations, and operating staff behaviour. Schedules may be focussed on maintaining a headway between each vehicle on a route, rather setting out the exact time a bus will arrive at each bus stop.

Bus crews may behave in ways which affect these headways:

 - 'Scratching' is the colloquial term for the bus being driven slowly, or the crew holding it at a bus stop for no apparent reason.

 - 'Punching-up' is the act of closing the headway with the bus in front, but never overtaking it, in this case two buses arrive at the same time.

 - 'Measuring off' is similar to punching up, except the crew of the second bus keeps a small headway so that all passengers at the bus stops board the bus in front, and they arrive at a bus stop with little chance of needing to service any passengers.

 

5. Analyse the following points of criticism connected with bus service in Melbourne. What points can be related to Russian bus service? Add your own examples. Compare your list with your partner. Discuss it with other students.

The Melbourne bus network is less developed than either the train or tram system. Buses in Melbourne have the (often justified) reputation of being a poorer transport mode and are frequently criticised on many grounds. The main points of such criticism usually include:

- The lack of network-wide planning. New services are often grafted on without changes to existing services. This can lead to wasteful duplication in some areas while other areas go without service.

- Slow and indirect routes. Walking is often faster than waiting for and riding on a bus due to a combination of circuitous routes and poor service frequencies. In addition the bus system is riddled with anomalies such as occasional deviations, early finishing, varying public holiday arrangements and some operators imposing reduced service 'summer timetables'.

- Poor days and hours of operation. The majority of Melbourne bus routes finish at around 7 pm on weekdays, 6 pm Saturdays and do not run at all on Sundays, making them unsuitable for modern travel, working and shopping patterns.

- Poor service frequency. Many bus routes operate at a frequency of 40 minutes or hourly, even during peak hour. As a result passengers must plan trips to avoid long waits, and in some cases poor connections between services make them unavoidable.

- No correlation between service levels and route importance or passenger demand.

- Lack of timetable and service co-ordination. Hence passengers are continually juggling timetables to find a service offering the best connection.

- Missing or out of date passenger information at bus stops. Unlike the tram system, where all stops have current timetables, timetables at bus stops are often either missing, out of date or do not include details for all routes that serve the stop.

 

6. Project work.

Work in groups of three. Invent some travel route and describe all the advantages of the chosen type of transport. Make a presentation of your idea. Compare your presentation with other students’ ideas. Choose the best travel route in your group.

Chapter 9. Catering service

Lead-in

1 What is catering service?

2 What should be included into this notion?

3 Where do people usually prefer to eat while traveling?

4 What do they choose: traditional or exotic food?

5 Can you advise any restaurant in your city?

 

Discussion

Look at the photos and discuss with your partner the facts that make a good restaurant. Enumerate as many points as you can. Can you say that the given restaurants are attractive for visitors? Why or why not?

           

Taco Bell's current restaurant design            Tom's Restaurant, a restaurant in New York

Text 1. Catering service

Study the text and find the answers to the given questions:

1 What is food service industry?

2 Who is a caterer?

3 How is the food cooked?

4 What are the responsibilities of an event caterer?

5 Does nicely prepared food influence our feelings? How?

 

Vocabulary

1 catering – поставка, снабжение

2 remote – далекий, отдаленный

3 buffet – "шведский стол"

4 on site – на месте

5 to set up – подготавливать

6 hors d'oeuvre – закуска

7 to take charge of – взять на себя заботу; осуществлять контроль

8 memorable – запоминающийся

9 ambiance – окружение; обстановка, среда

10 flat price – единая цена

11 long hours – удлиненный рабочий день

12 comprehensive – полный

13 rental pickup – сбор арендной платы

14 vegan – строгий вегетарианец

15 verbiage – формулировка

 

Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site. Event ranges from box-lunch drop-off to full-service catering. Caterers and their staff are part of the food service industry. When most people refer to a "caterer", they are referring to an event caterer who serves food with waiting staff at dining tables or sets up a self-serve buffet. The food may be prepared on site, i.e., made completely at the event, or the caterer may choose to bring prepared food and put the finishing touches on once it arrives. The event caterer staff are not responsible for preparing the food but often help set up the dining area. This service is typically provided at banquets, conventions, and weddings. Any event where all who attend are provided with food and drinks or sometimes only hors d'oeuvres is often called a catered event.

Many events require working with an entire theme or color scheme. A catering company or specialist is expected to know how to prepare food and to make it attractive. As such, certain catering companies have moved toward a full-service business model commonly associated with event planners. They take charge of not only food preparation but also decorations, such as table settings and lighting. The trend is towards satisfying all the clients senses with food as a focal point. With the correct atmosphere, professional event caterers with experience can make an event special and memorable. Beautifully prepared food alone can appeal to the senses of taste, smell, and sight - perhaps even touch, but the decorations and ambiance can play a significant part in a successfully catered event.

Catering is often sold on a per-person basis, meaning that there is a flat price for each additional person. However, things like lighting and fire permits are not scaled with the guest count, so per-person pricing is not always appropriate. It is necessary to keep the cost of the food and supplies below a price margin in order to make a profit on the catering. As many others in the food service industry, caterers and their staff work long hours. It is not uncommon for them to work on holidays or 7 days a week during holiday event seasons.

A comprehensive, formal full-service catering proposal is likely to include the following elements:

 - Time-line matters: rental arrival time, staff arrival time, bar open time, meal serve time, bar close time, rental pickup, out-of-venue time. Each of these factors affects the catering price. For example, a rental quote for an "anytime" weekday delivery is usually much more economical than an "exact-time" delivery.

 - General menu considerations: Clients may have specific dietary or religious needs to consider. These include Halal, Kosher, Vegetarian, Vegan and food allergy requests. Increasingly clients are interested in food sustainability and food safety.

 - Hors d'oeuvres: it should be clear if these are passed or stationary. Most caterers agree that three or four passed items are appropriate for the one-hour period prior to a meal.

 - Meal.

 - Rentals: May include tables, chairs, dance floor, plants, tabletop (china, flatware, glassware, linens, chargers), bar glassware, serving equipment, salt/peppers, etc. It should be clear whether table and chair setup and take-down is included. Most rental companies do not automatically include setup and take-down in the rental charges.

 - Labor: Verbiage varies from caterer to caterer, but generally speaking, an event will have a Lead/Captain/Event Manager, a Chef, perhaps a Sous Chef or Kitchen Assistant, Wait staff and Bartenders. The labor on a plated dinner is generally much higher than the labor on a buffet, because a plated dinner involves double the china, and usually a minimum of three served courses, plus served coffee. Simply put, there's a lot more to do. To do it properly requires roughly 10 to 20% more staff. On a large event, this can be substantial, especially if overtime or doubletime applies.

 - Service Charge

 - Sales Tax

Some quotes will include lighting, fire permits, draping, florals, valet and coat check.

 

Text work:

1. Find the equivalents in the text:

1 обед фабричного изготовления в упаковке

2 система полного обслуживания (“все включено”)

3 ресторанчик, работающий по системе "шведский стол"

4 выполнить завершающие “штрихи”

5 подготовить обеденную зону

6 сервировка столов и освещение

7 стоимость, рассчитанная на каждую персону

8 регламент по времени проведения мероприятия

9 особый рацион питания

10 стеклянная посуда

 

2. Give synonyms to the following words:

1 to provide

2 event

3 convention

4 ambiance

5 appropriate

6 profit

7 setup

8 Bartender

9 labor

10 substantial

 

3. Find antonyms to the following words:

1 full-service catering

2 prepared food

3 focal point

4 "exact-time" delivery

5 to include

 

4. Match the given words with definitions:

1 staff          a) when there is no harmful effect for health from things that

                        people eat or drink

2 buffet        b) a medical condition that causes certain people to react badly or

                         feel ill when they eat or come into contact with particular

                         substances

3 lighting     с) all the workers employed in a business, considered as a group

4 allergy      d) a meal at which guests serve themselves from a number of

                        dishes; the food provided for that

5 food safety e) illumination

 

5. Read and translate the following groups of words derived from a common root:

1 industry – industrious – industrialist – industrialization

2 prepare – prepared – preparation – preparing

3 satisfy – satisfying – satisfied – satisfaction

4 decorate – decorating – decorative – decoration

5 consider – considered – consideration – considerable – considerably

 

6. Answer the questions:

1 What is catering?

2 What are the main constituents of food service industry?

3 How can the food be cooked?

4 What is a catered event?

5 How is catering usually sold?

6 What does a formal full-service catering proposal include?

7 How can terms of delivery differ?

8 How is specific dietary or religious needs taken into account?

9 How many hors d'oeuvres are usually served for the one-hour period?

10 Is the labor on a plated dinner worse than the labor on a buffet?

 

7. Express your opinion on the following statements:

1 Most of people prefer full-service catering.

2 Such things as table settings and lighting are not important for clients.

3 Per-person pricing is not always appropriate.

 

 

Text 2. Restaurants

Scan the text and find the answers to the following questions:

1 What customers were the first restaurants made for?

2 How are different cuisines reflected in the menus?

3 Is there any dress code to visit restaurants?

A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers. Service is generally for eating on premises, though the term has been used to describe take-out establishments and food delivery services. The term covers many types of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service.

A restaurant owner is called a restaurateur; both words derive from the French verb restaurer, meaning to restore.

Restaurants catered to different styles of cuisine, price brackets, and religious requirements. Even within a single restaurant much choice was available, and people ordered what entree they wanted from written menus.

In the West, while inns and taverns were known from antiquity, these were establishments aimed at travellers, and in general locals would rarely eat there. Restaurants, as businesses dedicated to the serving of food, and where specific dishes are ordered by the guest and generally prepared according to this order, emerged only in the 18th century.

Restaurants became commonplace in France after the French Revolution broke up catering guilds and forced the aristocracy to flee, leaving a retinue of servants with the skills to cook excellent food; whilst at the same time numerous provincials arrived in Paris with no family to cook for them. Restaurants were the means by which these two could be brought together — and the French tradition of dining out was born.

Restaurants range from unpretentious lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with simple food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers usually wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal, or even in rare cases formal wear.

Typically, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready, and the customers pay the bill before leaving. In finer restaurants there will be a host or hostess or even a maître d’hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them. Other staff waiting on customers include busboys and sommeliers.

Restaurants often specialize in certain types of food or present a certain unifying, and often entertaining, theme. For example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling “local” food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese restaurant and a French restaurant.

Depending on local customs and the establishment, restaurants may or may not serve alcohol. Restaurants are often prohibited from selling alcohol without a meal by alcohol sale laws; such sale is considered to be activity for bars, which are meant to have more severe restrictions. Some restaurants are licensed to serve alcohol (“fully licensed”), and/or permit customers to “bring your own” alcohol (BYO / BYOB). In some places restaurant licenses may restrict service to beer, or wine and beer.

Nearly all major American newspapers employ restaurant critics and publish online dining guides for the cities they serve. A few papers maintain a reputation for thorough and thoughtful review of restaurants to the standard of the good published guides, but others provide more of a listings service.

More recently Internet sites have started up that publish both food critic reviews and popular reviews by the general public. This is a growing area and the market is still immature with no sites yet gaining dominant public or critical support. Several are gaining traction including, Zagot.com and Fodors.com. Their major competition comes from bloggers and search engines since search engines often favor active bloggers over large somewhat static websites.

 

Vocabulary

1 premises – помещение

2 venue – место

3 price bracket – ценновой диапазон, ценовая категория, ценовые рамки

4 entrée – главное блюдо

5 to dedicate to – посвящать (чему-либо)

6 to flee – убегать; исчезать

7 retinue – свита, эскорт

8 unpretentious – скромный, простой

9 sommelier – служащий ресторана, ведающий спиртными напитками

10 immature – незрелый

 

Text work:

1. Give Russian equivalents:

1 generally for eating on premises

2 food delivery services

3 a diversity of styles of cuisine

4 known from antiquity

5 skills to cook excellent food

6 expensive establishments serving refined food and wines

7 pay the bill before leaving

8 a certain unifying theme

9 ethnic restaurants

10 online dining guides

 

2. Fill in the table with words with common root:

Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
retail      
  dedication    
    dependent  
      accordingly
restrict      

 

3. Decide whether the statements are true or false:

1 One restaurant can serve only one type of cuisine.

2 Restaurants became widely spread in England after the French Revolution.

3 All restaurants have semi-formal style of wear.

4 Only the waiters can serve the customers of restaurants.

5 People can find some information about this or that restaurant only from the advertisements.

 

4. Scan the text once again and find the extract about sources of information about different restaurants. Retell it to your partner.

5. Discuss with your partner the main sources of information about restaurants in your own city.

6. Read the following text and make up a list of factors which help people to rank the restaurants according to their “stars”. What system is used in our country?

Restaurant guides review restaurants, often ranking them or providing information for consumer decisions (type of food, handicap accessibility, facilities, etc). In 12th century Hanzhou (mentioned as the location of the first restaurant,) signs could often be found posted in the city square listing the restaurants in the area and local customer's opinions of the quality of their food. This was an occasion for bribery and even violence. Today, restaurant review is carried out in a more civilized manner. One of the most famous contemporary guides, in Western Europe, is the Michelin series of guides which accord from 1 to 3 stars to restaurants they perceive to be of high culinary merit. Restaurants with stars in the Michelin guide are formal, expensive establishments; in general the more stars awarded, the higher the prices. In the United States, the Mobil Travel Guides and the AAA rate restaurants on a similar 1 to 5 star (Mobil) or diamond (AAA) scale. Three, four, and five star/diamond ratings are roughly equivalent to the Michelin one, two, and three star ratings while one and two star ratings typically indicate more casual places to eat. In 2005, Michelin released a New York City guide, its first for the United States. The popular Zagat Survey compiles individuals' comments about restaurants but does not pass an "official" critical assessment. The Good Food Guide, published by the Fairfax Newspaper Group in Australia, is the Australian guide listing the best places to eat. Chefs Hats are awarded for outstanding restaurants and range from one hat through three hats.

 

7. Look through the Internet sites with advertisements of different restaurants. Compare the factors taken into consideration. Make up your own dining guide (or presentation) of a restaurant you like most of all. Present it to your groupmates.

8. Look through the photos. Try to rank these restaurants. Explain your choice of the best restaurant and the worst one.

Picture 1.                                                     Picture 2.

                               

Restaurant in Bath, Somerset.                                       Restaurant in Moscow (1916)

 

 

Picture 3.                                                     Picture 4.

      

Restaurants in Greek islands are often situated        A Co-branded Taco Bell and KFC

right on the beach. This is an example from

Astipalea.

 

 

Text 3. Coffeehouse

Scan the text and make up a scheme of coffeehouse spreading worldwide.

A coffeehouse (French/Spanish/Portuguese: café; Italian: caffè, German: café or Kaffeehaus, Turkish: Kahvehane) shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant, but it is different from a cafeteria. As the name suggests, coffeehouses focus on providing coffee and tea as well as light snacks. This differs from a café, which is an informal restaurant, offering a range of hot meals, and possibly being licensed to serve alcohol. Many coffee houses in the Muslim world, and in Muslim districts in the West, offer shisha, powdered tobacco smoked through a hookah. In establishments where it is tolerated - which may be found notably in the Netherlands, especially in Amsterdam - cannabis may be smoked as well.

From a cultural standpoint, coffeehouses largely serve as centers of social interaction: the coffeehouse provides social members with a place to congregate, talk, write, read, entertain one another, or pass the time, whether individually or in small groups.

Since the 15th century, the coffeehouse has served as a social gathering place in Middle Eastern countries where men assemble to drink coffee (usually Arabic coffee) or tea, listen to music, read books, play chess and backgammon, and perhaps hear a recitation from the works of Antar or from Shahnameh. In 1457 the first coffeehouse, Kiva Han, was opened in Istanbul, just four years after its conquest by the Ottomans. Coffeehouses in Mecca soon became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams who banned them, and the drink, for Muslims between 1512 and 1524. In 1530 the first coffee house was opened in Damascus, and not long after there were many coffee houses in Cairo.

In the 17th century, coffee appeared for the first time in Europe outside the Ottoman Empire, and coffeehouses were established and quickly became popular. The first coffeehouses in Western Europe appeared in Venice. The first coffeehouse in England was set up in Oxford in 1650 by a Jewish man named Jacob. Oxford's Queen's Lane Coffee House, established in 1654, is still in existence today. The first coffeehouse in London was opened in 1652 in St Michael's Alley, Cornhill.

Cafes, on warmer days, or in locations where smoking indoors is forbidden, may have an outdoor section (terrace, pavement or sidewalk cafe) with seats, tables and parasols. This is especially the case with European cafes. Cafes offer a more open public space compared to many of the traditional pubs they have replaced, which were more male dominated with a focus on drinking alcohol.

American coffee shops are also often connected with indie, jazz and acoustic music, and will often have them playing either live or recorded in their shops. Coffeehouses are often gathering places for underage youths who cannot go to bars.

In the United Kingdom, traditional coffeehouses as gathering places for youths fell out of favour after the 1960s, but the concept has been revived since the 1990s by chains such as Starbucks, Coffee Republic, Costa Coffee, and Caffè Nero as places for professional workers to meet and eat out or simply to buy beverages and snack foods on their way to and from the workplace.

In France, a cafe certainly serves alcoholic beverages. French cafes also often serve simple snacks such as sandwiches. They may or may not have a restaurant section. A brasserie is a cafe that serves meals, generally single dishes, in a more relaxed setting than a restaurant. A bistro is a cafe / restaurant, especially in Paris. Bistro food is supposed to be cheap, but in recent years bistros, especially in Paris, have become increasingly expensive.

 

Vocabulary

1 to be licensed – имееть разрешение, право

2 hookah – кальян

3 to tolerate – допускать; дозволять, позволять, разрешать

4 to congregate – собирать(ся)

5 backgammon – нарды (игра)

6 recitation – повествование; публичное чтение

7 imam – имам

8 to ban – налагать запрет

9 to be in existence – существовать

10 parasol – балдахин, тент (от солнца); небольшой зонтик (от солнца)

 

Text work:

1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1 A coffeehouse has some features of a cafeteria and of a pub.

2 Coffeehouses serve only alcoholic beverages and main dishes.

3 Nowadays you will never see people smoking hookah in coffeehouses.

4 People are not allowed to congregate for a long time there.

5 In Middle Eastern countries men gather in coffeehouses and play checkers.

6 In 1457 the first coffeehouse opened in Turkey.

7 In Europe first coffeehouses appeared in the 17th century.

8 A Jewish man named Jacob established the first coffeehouse in Scotkand.

9 When the weather is warm people can sit in the outdoor section of a coffeehouse.

10 Such chains as Starbucks, Coffee Republic, etc. brought back the idea of coffeehouses.

 

2. Look through the text once again and explain to your partner the meaning of the dates and names given below.

1 the 15th century

2 Istanbul

3 between 1512 and 1524

4 1530

5 the 17th century

6 Jacob

7 St Michael's Alley

8 1960s

9 Caffè Nero

10 brasserie

 

3. Work with your partner. Make a list of the main characteristics of a coffeehouse. Compare it with your partner. How many correspondences have you got? What are the main features of coffeehouses in Russian?

 

4. Look at the pictures of different coffeehouses given below. Are there any common features? Which seems to be more attractive for you? Why? Discuss these questions with your partner.

                          

Traditional Café Central in Vienna,                    Coffeehouse in Damascus

Austria

                               

"A Cafe in Paris"                                                 Coffeehouses in the United States often sell

                                                                             pastries or other food items

 

5. Translate the following phrases:

1 it is different from a cafeteria

2 focus on providing coffee and tea

3 a range of hot meals

4 licensed to serve alcohol

5 from a cultural standpoint

6 centers of social interaction

7 smoking indoors is forbidden

8 which were more male dominated

9 fell out of favour

10 on the way to and from the workplace

 

6. Imagine that you are going to open your own coffeehouse. Think of some features in design, location, cuisine, music, etc. Discuss it with your partner. Do you have any correspondences?

Text 4. Pubs

Scan the text and point out the main features of a traditional pub.

The inhabitants of the UK have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Romans and the establishment of the Roman road network that the first inns, in which the traveller could obtain refreshment, began to appear. By the time the Romans left, the beginnings of the modern pub had been established. They became so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village.

A public house, usually known as a pub, is an establishment which serves alcoholic drinks — especially beer — for consumption on the premises, usually in a comfortable setting. Pubs originated in English-speaking countries, particularly in the United Kingdom and Ireland and are now found globally.

In North America, drinking establishments with a British or Irish name or theme are called pubs as well. Although the terms may have different connotations, there is no definitive difference between pubs, bars, taverns and lounges where alcohol is served commercially.

One of the most common form of pub around the world is the Irish Pub, highlighted by its association with Guinness Stout and renowned for its 'Craic' (Irish for Fun).

There are approximately 60,000 public houses in the United Kingdom, with one in almost every city, town and village. In many places, especially in villages, a pub can be the focal point of the community, playing a similar role to the local church in this respect.

Public houses are culturally and socially different from places such as cafés, bars, bierkellers and brewpubs.

Pubs are social places based on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and most public houses offer a range of beers, wines, spirits, alcopops and soft drinks. Many pubs are controlled by breweries, so beer is often better value than wines and spirits, whilst soft drinks can be almost as expensive. Beer served in a pub may be cask ale or keg beer. All pubs also have a range of non-alcoholic beverages available. Traditionally the windows of town pubs are of smoked or frosted glass so that the clientèle is obscured from the street. In the last twenty years in the UK and other countries there has been a move away from frosted glass towards clear glass, a trend which fits in with brighter interior décors.

The owner, tenant or manager (licensee) of a public house is known as the publican or landlord. Each pub generally has regulars; people who drink there regularly. The pub that people visit most often is called their local. In many cases, this will be the pub nearest to their home, but some people choose their local for other reasons: proximity to work, a traditional venue for their friends, the availability of a particular cask ale, non-smoking or formerly as a place to smoke freely, or maybe a darts team or pool table.

Until the 1970s most of the larger public houses also featured an off-sales counter or attached shop for the sales of beers, wines and spirits for home consumption. In the 1970s the newly built supermarkets and high street chain stores or off-licences undercut the pub prices to such a degree that within ten short years all but a handful of pubs had closed their off-sale counters.

A society with a particular interest in the traditional British beers, ales and the preservation of the 'integrity' of the public house is Campaign for Real Ale, (CAMRA).

In July 2007, a law was introduced to forbid smoking in all enclosed public places in England and Wales. The most striking result of this legislation has been the end of the smokey atmosphere that has characterised the public house.

 

Vocabulary

1 inhabitant – житель, обитатель

2 refreshment – восстановление сил; отдых

3 to decree – выносить постановление, распоряжение

4 alehouse – бар; пивная

5 to highlight – выделять, подчеркивать

6 Guinness Stout – Гиннес (крепкий ирландский портер)

7 bierkeller – пивной погребок

8 cask ale – бочковое пиво, эль

9 to obscure – скрывать, прятать

10 to undercut – сбивать цены; продавать по более низким ценам

 

Text work:

1. Find English equivalents in the text above:

1 с приходом римлян

2 получить отдых

3 не более одной пивной на одну деревню

4 разное значение

5 нет четкого различия между

6 фокусная точка общества

7 дымчатое стекло или матированное стекло

8 традиционное место встречи друзей

9 сбивать цену до такой величины

10 закрытые (не на улице) общественные места

 

2. Read the following information about the most common categories of pub names. Which of them seems the most unusual to you. Why? Discuss it with your partner. Suggest your own system of classification.

Pubs often have traditional names. Here is a list of categories:

 - relating to its location: The Three Arrows, The Cross, The Railway, The Church

 - reflecting local trades or related to the pub's clientele: The Mason's Arms, The Foresters, The Square and Compass

 - ironic descriptions of the pub itself: the smallest pub in Britain is called The Nutshell

 - local sporting activities: The Cricketers, The Fox and Hounds, The Fighting Cocks

 - a noted individual: The Marquis of Granby, The Earl of Derby, The Emma Hamilton

 - a historic event: The Trafalgar, The Royal Oak

 - often incorporating the word 'Head'; The King's Head, The Queen's Head, The Sultan's Head

 - alluding amusingly to everyday phrases: The Nowhere Inn Particular, The Dewdrop Inn, The Drift Inn, Down The Hatch, The Occasional Half

 - with a royal or aristocratic association: The Royal Standard, The King's Arms, The King's Head, The Queen Victoria, The Duke of Cambridge

- with the names of two objects that may or may not be complementary: The George and Dragon, The Goat and Compasses (humorous corruption of the puritan phrase "God encompass" of the 1600s in England), The Rose and Crown, The Dog and Handgun, The Elephant and Castle, The Crow and Gate.

 - The surname of its landlord, particularly in Ireland: O'Neill's, Tí hAnraí (Henry's house).

 - with names of tools or products of trades: The Harrow, The Propeller,The Plow, The Wheatsheaf

 - with names of items, particularly animals, that may be part of a coat of arms (heraldic charges): The Red Lion, The Unicorn, The White Bear.

 - with reference to history of the local area, for example The Strugglers in Lincoln refers to how people being publicly executed by hanging would struggle for air. Ironically the famous executioner Albert Pierrepoint was landlord of the Help the Poor Struggler at Hollinwood, near Oldham, for several years after World War II, and had to hang one of his own regulars, James Corbitt. Also Ye olde Trip to Jerusalem, (Nottingham, 1189), refers to its role as a resting place for the knights of King Richard I on their way to the Third Crusade.

 

3. Look at the pictures and compare the given pubs with the ones in your own city. What are the similarities and what are the differences? Do the pubs in your city follow any original pub traditions? What are they?

              

The Albert, London                            A thatched pub (The Williams Arms), near Braunton,

                                                           North Devon, England

 

            

A pub in Edinburgh, Scotland.         Ye Olde Fighting Cocks in St. Albans, Hertfordshire,

                                                         which holds the Guinness World Record for the oldest

                                                         pub in England.

 

4. Look at the signs of some famous pubs and try to guess about their culture, music, themes, food, etc. Discuss with your partner.

                            

Black Bull in Wetherby, West Yorkshire,              A modern PubCo

a former beer house now a full public house

 

                                 

The pub sign of The George, Southwark              "Quo sursum volo videre" - "I wish to see 

 depicting St George slaying a Dragon                  what is above". A (corrupted) Latin pub

                                                                               inscription

 

5. Read the following passage about taverns and point out the main characteristics. Does it differ from a pub? What are the main differences?

A tavern is, loosely, a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and, more than likely, also be served food, though not licenced to put up guests. The word derives from the Latin taberna and the Greek ταβέρνα/taverna, whose original meaning was a shed or workshop. The distinction of a tavern from an inn, bar or pub varies by location, in some places being identical and in others being distinguished by traditions or by legal license.

By the 19th century the word tavern had developed an archaic flavour in Britain, the current term being public house (pub), though they remain a popular convention in fantasy tales and games. However, the term is still sometimes used in North America.

 

Text 5. Bars

Scan the text and try to make a conclusion on the main differences from a restaurant, a pub, a coffeehouse and a tavern.

A bar (also called a pub or tavern) is a business that serves drinks, especially alcoholic beverages such as beer, liquor, and mixed drinks, for consumption on the premises. Bars provide stools or chairs for the patrons along tables or raised counters. Some bars have entertainment on a stage, such as a live band, comedians, go-go dancers, a floor show or strippers. Bars that are part of hotels are sometimes called long bars or hotel lounges.

The term "bar" is derived from the specialized counter on which drinks are served and is applied to the whole of the drinking establishment. The "back bar" or "gantry" is a set of shelves of glasses and bottles behind that counter. In some bars, the gantry is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass, mirrors, and lights. When food is served elsewhere in the establishment, it may also be ordered and eaten at the bar.

There are many types of bars, which can be categorized according to the types of entertainment provided at the bar and by their clientèle.

Bars categorized by the type of entertainment or activities offered at the bar include: Topless bars, where topless female employees serve drinks or dance; sports bars, where sports fans watch games on large-screen televisions; salsa bars, where patrons dance to Latin salsa music; and dance bars, which have a modest-sized dance floor where patrons dance to recorded music. However, if a dance bar has a large dance floor and hires well-known professional DJs, it is usually considered to be nightclub or discothèque.

Bars categorized by the clientele who come to the bar include: biker bars, which are bars frequented by motorcycle enthusiasts, and in some regions, motorcycle gang members; gay bars, where gay men or women dance and socialize; cop bars, where off-duty law enforcement agents gather; and singles bars where (mostly) unmarried people of both genders can socialize and meet. There are also retro bars and lounge bars.

By early 2000, wine bars became very popular and started popping up in many metropolitan neighborhoods across the country. Wine bars now rival the local hangouts such as coffee shops and local bars. The wine bar phenomenon offers the taste before you buy philosophy. Wine is offered by the glass or in sample size portions. The method of pay as you go paired with sample size portions makes wine drinking more affordable and therefore appealing to a larger group of consumers. These bars expose people to different and interesting wines they would either not know existed or be too intimidated to inquire about.

Modern wine bars have begun to incorporate a larger variety of food choices. Traditionally associated with cheeses and desserts, wine bars are looking to combine wine with appetizer-sized gourmet selections to enhance the palate. The concept brings the tastes of fancy restaurants to a dressed-down setting. Restaurant owners and chefs take the opposite approach and use wine bars as an opportunity for expansion.

 

Vocabulary

1 patron – постоянный покупатель, клиент

2 go-go dancer – танцовщица в дискотеке

3 floor show – представление среди публики (в ночном клубе, ресторане, кабаре и т. п.)

4 elaborately – тщательно, детально разработанный

5 to hire – нанимать

6 to frequent – часто посещать

7 off-duty – не при исполнении служебных обязанностей

8 to pop up – неожиданно возникнуть

9 hangout – постоянное место сборищ/встреч (for)

10 gourmet – гастроном, гурман

 

 Text work:

1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1 A bar is never called a pub or a tavern.

2 You can find only arm-chairs and sofas in a bar.

3 Sometimes the visitors can watch some entertainment programmes in a bar.

4 Bars can be differentiated by the type of entertainment and customers.

5 If you go to a salsa bar you’ll see there sport fans watching matches on large-screen tellies.

6 Bikers are not allowed to visit bars.

7 Wine in bars is usually suggested by glasses.

8 Only cheap wine is served in bars.

9 The menu of dishes is very poor in the bars.

10 Restaurant owners and chefs use wine bars as an opportunity for expansion.

 

2. Look through the text once again and tell your partner as much as you can about the given notions:

1 hotel lounges

2 entertainment on a stage

3 "gantry"

4 sports bars

5 discothèque

6 cop bars

7 singles bars

8 different and interesting wines

9 cheeses and desserts

10 dressed-down setting

 

3. Study the following extract and point out the main features of a cafeteria. Compare with your partner.

A cafeteria is a restaurant serving mostly ready-cooked food arranged behind a food-serving counter. There is little or no table service. Typically, a patron takes a tray and pushes it along a track in front of the counter. Depending on the establishment, servings may be ordered from attendants, selected as ready-made portions already on plates, or self-serve their own portions. In some establishments a few items, such as steaks, may be ordered specially prepared from the attendants. The patron waits for those items to be prepared or is given a number and they are brought to the table. Beverages may be filled from self-service dispensers or ordered from the attendants. At the end of the line a cashier rings up the purchases. At some self-service cafeterias, purchases are priced by weight, rather than by individual item.

The trays are taken to a table to eat. Institutional cafeterias may have common tables, but upscale cafeterias provide individual tables as in sit-down restaurants. Upscale cafeterias have traditional cutlery and crockery, and some have servers to carry the trays from the line to the patrons' tables, and/or bus the empty trays and used dishes.

A cafeteria differs from a "fast food" restaurant in that it will have a wider variety of prepared foods. For example, it may have a variety of roasts (beef, ham, turkey) ready for carving by a server, as well as other cooked entrées, rather than simply an offering of hamburgers or fried chicken.

4. Work with a partner. Make up a summary table of the main examples of catering business.

 

Type of a restaurant Definition Date of appearance Atmosphere Main dishes Main beverages Clientele
Restaurant            
Pub            
Coffeehouse            
Bar            
Tavern            
Cafeteria            

 

5. Project work.

What other types of restaurants do you know? Which of them are widely spread in your country (city)? Do you have your favourite one? What is special about it? Discuss these question with your partner. Make a presentation of your favourite restaurant.

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