Чтение. 1. Прочтите текст и переведите его в письменной форме

                       The Russian Federation

The largest nation in the world is the Russian Federation. It has an area of 17,075,400 square kilometres, almost twice that of the second largest country Canada.

A train 10,000 km trip between Moscow in the west and Vladivostok in the east takes seven days and passes through eight time zones, including that of Moscow.

Also called Russia, it consists of 20 autonomous (self-governing) republics and more than 50 other regions. It covers one tenth of the earth's land area - one third of Asia, and two fifths of Europe.

Russia has a very varied climate and landscape that ranges from mountains in the south and east to vast lowlands, and rivers in the north and west. The population is varied too, although most of the 149 million people are of Russian origin and speak the Russian language.

The Russian Federation came into being in 1991 after the break up of the Soviet Union, or USSR. After 1991, the Russian people experienced greater political freedom but also economic hardship as their country changed from a state-planned to a free-market economy.

The Russian Federation has vast agricultural resources. It is also rich in minerals and has considerable industry. In the early 1990s, the Russian government sought international investment to help overcome its economic problems.

The Russian Federation stretches from Eastern Europe in the west across the entire width of Asia to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to Central Asia in the south. Moscow is the capital and largest city of Russia. St. Petersburg, on the coast of the Baltic Sea, is Russia's chief seaport.

At present, the political and economic situation in the country is rather complicated. There are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian Federation. The industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt.

 But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world. I'm sure that we, the younger generation, can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.

Задание 2 . Составьте 3 вопроса к тексту.

Грамматика

1. Поставьте глагол в скобках в правильную форму Passive Voice , перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1. Russia (to wash) by 12 seas and 3 oceans.

2. Moscow (to found) in 1147 by prince Yuri Dolgoruky.

3. Many new factories (to build) in our country in the nearest future.

2. Употребите глагол-сказуемое в прошедшем времени, используя эквиваленты модальных глаголов, перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1. I can speak English.

2. You must take a taxi to get to the museum.

3. They may not smoke in the room.

3. Употребите нужное по смыслу местоимение. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1. Do you remember (some, any, no) facts from the geography of Great Britain?

2. There are (some, any, no) high mountains in Russia.

3. I have  (some, any, no) English books at home, only Russian.   

4. Перепишите предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на причастие:

1. Living in Moscow you can meet people of almost of all nationalities.

2. Millions of emigrants cross the ocean, hoping to find a better life in the USA.

The exhibition opened in St.Petersburg last week attracted a lot of people.

Устная речь. Выучите устную тему № 2 и № 3 (см. раздел  Устная речь)

Вариант 2

Чтение. 1. Перепишите текст и переведите его в письменной форме.

Great Britain

1. The official name of the country we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The U. K. is situated on the group of islands located just off the mainland of north-western Europe. The British Isles include Great Britain proper, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The southern part of Ireland is the Republic of Eire. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the narrower part of which is called the Strait of Dover. The British Isles are surrounded by the shallow waters of the Irish Sea and the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Channel and the Atlantic Ocean.

 2. Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a country, in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found. The rivers of the region are short and of no great importance as waterways. The longest of them is the "Father of London", the Thames, which is a little over 200 miles. Britain's principal ports are London, Liverpool, Manchester, Hull, Glasgow. They have splendid harbours, for the coast line is very indented. Owing to the shape of the country, any point in Great Britain is no more than 70 miles from the sea.

3. The warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. The winters are not severely cold, while summers are rarely hot. The British Isles are well - watered throughout the year. The cloudiness is rather dense, well over half the days of the year are overcast - fogs along the coast frequently hide the sun. Rivers in Great Britain are seldom frozen and generally ice-free. The grass remains green all the year round. Thanks to climatic conditions, Britain in truth looks like one great well-ordered park with its old trees, green meadows and hedges.

Грамматика

1. Поставьте глагол в правильную форму перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1. Great Britain (to situate) on the British Isles.

2. Scotland (to know) by its beautiful lakes.

3. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of London.

2. Употребите глагол-сказуемое в прошедшем времени, используя эквиваленты модальных глаголов, перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1. We must take the 8.30 train to arrive in time.

2. The children may go to the Zoo.

3. We can go to the park together.

3. Употребите нужное по смыслу местоимение. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1. There are  (some, any, no) deep rivers in Great Britain.

2. Can you speak   (some, any, no) foreign language?

3. I have (some , any, no) interesting information about England.

4. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на причастие:

1. Speaking loudly they approached the Trafalgar Square.

2. Westminster Abbey built by Sir Christopher Wren is one of the best examples of early English architecture.

3. London destroyed by the Great Fire was reconstructed by its citizens.

Устная речь

 Выучите устную тему № 2 и № 3 (см. приложение Устная речь)

                          Контрольная работа № 3

Таблица 16

Лексическая тема Грамматическая тема Устная тема
Famous People 1. Famous People of Russia` 2. Nobel   1.Функции инфинитива 2. Gerund (Герундий)   1. Edison 2. My Future Speciality

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить задание № 3, необходимо знать следующие грамматические темы:

Gerund (Герундий)

Образование: основа глагола + ing = reading

Таблица 17

Функция                    Пример Перевод
1.Подлежащее Reading is useful Чтение (читать) полезно
2.Именная часть сказуемого His hobby is reading Его любимое занятие (хобби) – чтение
3а.Прямое дополнение He likes reading Он любит читать (чтение)
3б.Предложное дополнение He knows of my reading English books Он знает о том, что я читаю английские книги
4.Определение There are many ways of translating this sentence Существует много способов перевода этого предложения
5.Обстоятельство He can translate this text without using a dictionary Он может перевести этот текст, не пользуясь словарем

 

Функции инфинитива

Таблица 18

Функция Перевод
1. Подлежащие: To read English book is usefull 2. Дополнение I like to read English books in the original 3. Часть составного сказуемого: Our aim is to master the English language   Читать английские книги полезно   Я люблю читать английские книги в подлиннике   Наша цель – овладеть английским языком
Функция Перевод
 4. Определение: Here is a book to be read as soon as possible 5. Обстоятельство цели: He worked hard to master the English language   Вот книга, которую нужно прочитать как можно быстрее   Он усердно занимался для того, чтобы овладеть английским

Complex Subject
(Сложное подлежащее)

Структура предложения и перевод:

подлежащее падеже или местоимение
сказуемое в пассивном залоге
инфинитив
второстепенные члены предложения
1                          2                3                       4

              +                         +                      +

 

He is said to know everything about this matter.

 Говорят, что он знает всё об этом деле.

He is supposed to be in his office now.
    Предполагается, что он сейчас в офисе.



Complex Object.

                              ( Сложное дополнение )

Конструкция употребляется с ограниченным числом глаголов: to believe, to consider, to know, to report, to say, to suppose, to think и др.

инфинитив
существительное в общем падеже или местоимение в объектном падеже.


+

 

We consider him to be our greatest poet.
Мы считаем его нашим величайшим поэтом (что он является нашим величайшим поэтом).



Вариант 1

Дата: 2019-05-28, просмотров: 155.