I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

To devote one’s life to, modern Olympic movement, to be made of heavy cotton, to grab on to the opponent’s collar, to take place on a mat, to bow to each other, to show respect to each other, to get good enough to earn a black belt, to award the points, a defensive art of self defense, a body protector, to protect the head from damage, to punch the body, according to weight.

II .Give English equivalents to the following words and phrases:

Современное олимпийское движение, быть сделанным из грубого хлопка, показывать свое уважение, заслужить черный пояс, присуждать очки, искусство самозащиты, защищать голову от удара, в соответствии с весом, налокотники, схватить за воротник, стать олимпийским видом спорта, снаряжение.

III. Is it true or false?

1) Jigoro Kano introduced judo to Japan in 1885.

2) Kano was a member of the London Committee.

3) The outfits for judo are made of heavy cotton.

4) Beginners wear red belts.

5) Judo takes place on a mat about 26 feet by 26 feet.

6) Judo is a defensive art of self defense.

IV. Insert the missing words without using the text above:

The (1) for judo is called judogi. These (2) are made of heavy (3) to allow athletes (4) to their opponent’s collar, chest, and (5). The colour of your belt tells how good you are at the sport. Beginners wear (6) belts and they work their way up to yellow, orange, green, blue, brown, black, red and white (or black), and red (or black).

Words: outfits, cotton, uniform, white, to grab on, belt


1_________

2__________

3__________

4__________

5__________

6__________


V. Complete the sentences:

1) Jigoro Kano devoted his life to promoting the sport and ______________.

2) Kano was a member of the International Olympic Committee and an associate of_________________.

3) The uniform for judo _____________________.

4) Competitors bow to each other at the beginning and the end of the contest ________.

5) Taekwondo came from ________________________.

6) In the Olympics the contestants must wear ___________________________.

7) In the Olympics the competitions are divided up according ______________.

VI. Make the following sentences 1) interrogative 2) negative:

1) Jigoro Kano introduced judo to Japan in 1882.

2) The colour of your belt tells how good you are at the sport.

3) Women's judo became an Olympic event in 1992.

4) It is a defensive art of self defense.

5) In the Olympics the contestants must wear body protector, forearm protection, shin guards and tooth brace that protects your mouth from getting hit.

VII. Give three degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and adverbs. Translate them into Russian:

Positive Comparative Superlative
heavy
good
many
new
bed
far
difficult
big
short

VIII. Give the Past Participle of the following verbs. Translate them:

To devote, to promote, to train, to add, to bow, to tell, to become, to take place, to show, to win, to award, to score, to wear, to fight, to kick, to divide.

IX. Answer the following questions:

1) Who introduced judo to Japan in 1882?

2) What does the colour of your belt show your opponent?

3) When was men's judo added to the Olympic Games?

4) Where does judo take place?

5) What clothes must the contestants wear in the Olympics?

6) When did taekwondo come from Korea?

7) How many weight categories are there for men and for women in the Olympics?

8) In Taekwondo you can kick your opponent in face or body but you can only punch the body, can’t you?



X. Ask questions to the underlined words.

Taekwondo came from Korea about 2000 years ago.

Text 5

Rowing & Sailing

Baron Pierre de Coubertin was really fond of Rowing and included it as an Olympic sport in 1896 at the first modern Olympic Games. The weather was bad and those events had to be cancelled. The first rowing events were actually held for men in 1900 but women were not included until 1976.

Rowing boats used to be made of wood. Today they are made of plastic or fiberglass. They can be 23.5 cm to 24.5 cm wide and 9 yards to 21 yards long. The boats weight between 39 and 211 pounds.

Rowers are also divided into categories by weight. There are two categories of boats in the Olympic Games and there are races for both men and women.

In Sculling athletes hold two oars, one oar in each hand. Divided into lanes, rowing races cover a distance of 1.25 miles in a river, canal or lake. If you have friends in college you may have heard them use the word "crew" to describe rowing.

Sailing has been around since 1715. The biggest international sailing race is called The America's Cup. It is named after the first yacht to win the competition in 1851, a 101 foot schooner named America.

At the Olympics there are two categories of races. One is fleet racing where all boats race at once. The other is match racing where two boats race against each other at one time.

There are nine Olympic sailing categories. The sailing field is four waterways marked by buoys for the competitors compete in. Wind and the weather are important factors in sailing.

In the Olympics there are men's, women's, and mixed events. Sailing became an Olympic sport in 1900.

 

Vocabulary

a boat – лодка a crew – экипаж корабля a fiberglass – стекловолокно a yacht [jot]– яхта a scull – байдарка a schooner [′sku:nə]– шхуна to hold – владеть a fleet – флот, флотилия an oar – весло a buoy [boi]– буй, бакен, буек

Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations::

To be fond of rowing, to be cancelled, to be held, to be made of wood, two categories of boats, to hold an oar, to cover a distance, the first yacht, to win a competition, fleet racing, important factors, to be marked by buoys.

II. Suggest the English for:

Проводились для мужчин, сделаны из пластика и стекловолокна, лодки весят, разделены на весовые категории, по веслу в каждой руке, открывать дистанцию, названо в честь, шхуна, 4 дорожки, важные факторы, стало олимпийским видом.

III. Insert the missing words given in brackets:

1) Pierre de Coubertin _________ of Rowing.

2) The first rowing events ________ for men in 1900.

3) Today boats are made of _________ .

4) There are ________ in the Olympic games.

5) Sailing _______ since 1715.

6) The sailing field is four waterways ______ for the competitors compete in.

(to be held, two categories of boats, to be really fond of, marked by buoys, plastic and fiberglass, to be around)

IV. Insert the prepositions:

1) The rowers are divided ____ categories ____ weight.

2) Pierre de Coubertin was fond ___ rowing.

3) The biggest sailing race is named ____ the first yacht.

4) Two boats race ____ each other at one time is match racing.

5) The sailing field is marked ____ buoys ___ the competitors compete ____ .

6) Wind and the weather are important factors _____ sailing.

V. Complete the following sentences:

1) The weather was bad and those events ... .

2) Rowing boats used to be made ... .

3) In Sculling athletes hold two oars, ... .

4) The biggest international sailing race is called ... .

5) Rowing races cover a distance of 1.25 miles ... .

6) The biggest international sailing race is named after a 101 foot ... .

VI. Is it true or false?

1) Baron Pierre de Coubertin was really fond of Rowing and included it as an Olympic sport in 1896.

2) Rowing boats used to be made of wood.

3) Rowers are also divided into categories by weight.

4) In Sculling athletes hold two oars, one oar in each hand.

5) At the Olympics there are two categories of races: the fleet racing and the match racing.

VII. Translate into Russian:

Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on river, lakes or on ocean, depending upon the type of a race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water. The sport can be both recreational, focusing on learning the techniques required, and competitive where overall fitness plays a great role. It is also one of the oldest Olympic sports. In the United States and Canada, high school and collegiate rowing is sometimes referred to as crew.

VIII. Put the verbs in brackets in Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous:

1) Sailing (to be) around since 1715.

2) Lately most people (to enjoy) sailing as a recreational activity.

3) How long you (to know) about rowing?

4) It (to show) since early morning.

5) They (to row) for two hours.

6) “How long your friend (to participate) in sailing competitions? For three years.”

IX. Form adverbs from these adjectives and translate them: real, actual, wide, bad, international, happy, slow, bright, useful, helpful.

X. Speak on rowing and sailing.

Text 6

Canoeing

Canoeing is one of the oldest activities on earth. As far back as there were men, there were canoes. Eskimos used kayaks to get across lakes and Indians used canoes to get around too. The origins of canoeing and kayaking stretch back centuries, where South and North American Indians and Eskimos used these craft as a mode of transport, fishing and battle. They were propelled through water by single-bladed paddles usually made from wood. The earliest known archaeological evidence of a canoe was unearthed at the tomb of a Sumerian king near the Euphrates River. This relic is estimated to be around 6000 years old. The counterpart of the American Indian canoe is the kayak which was introduced by Eskimos many years ago. These people inhabited the land to the Far North of the American continent and Greenland.

In Olympic canoeing there are two kinds of races. One is canoe/kayak flatwater racing. That is when the water is calm and the race is to see who finishes first. There are teams of one or more that race together. The other event is canoe/kayak slalom racing. In this event the race happens on a natural (usually a river) or man-made course in which the racers have to go through a series of gates without touching them with their boat, paddle, or any part of their body. Canoes can have one- or two-person crew. Kayaks can have a one, two, or four person crew. Both men and women can race in the Kayak flatwater and kayak slalom racing but there are only men’s competitions for canoe flatwater and slalom racing.

Men's canoeing was added to the Olympic competition in 1936 and women's one in 1948.

Vocabulary

a canoe [kə′nu:]– каноэ, челнок, байдарка
a kayak [kaіæk]– байдарка
a craft – судно, корабль, лодка
to propel – 1) грести, 2) продвигать вперед, приводить в движение
a single-bladed paddle – однолопастное весло
an evidence – свидетельство
a tomb [tu:m]– захоронение, могила
to estimate – оценивать
a gate – ворота, шлагбаум

Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

One of the oldest activities, to get across lakes, the origin of canoeing, to stretch back, a mode of transport, to propel through the water, to make from wood, archaeological evidence, to be estimated, a flatwater racing, a slalom racing, a man-made course, four -person crew.

II. Suggest the English for:

Сколько существуют люди, переплывать озера, происхождение каноэ, тянуться через века, как вид транспорта, рыболовство, грести с помощью однолопастного весла, археологическое свидетельство, надгробие, оцениваться, в противовес, водная гладь, не прикасаясь к лодке.

III. Insert the missing words:

1) The ______ of canoeing stretch back centuries.

2) People used this ______ as a mode of transport.

3) Canoes and kayaks were propelled through the water by ______ usually made from wood.

4) In Olympic ______ there are two kinds of races.

5) The other event is Canoe ______ racing.

6) Kayaks can have one-, two- or four- person ______ .

IV. Insert the prepositions and conjunctions:

1) _____ far back _____ there were men, there were canoes.

2) Ancient people used canoes to get ______ lakes.

3) The earliest archaeological evidence ___ a canoe was unearthed ____ the tomb _____ a Sumerian king.

4) In Canoe slalom racing the race happens ______ a natural ______ man-made course.

5) ______ men _____ women can race ______ the Kayak flatwater racing.

V. Is it true or false?

1) Canoeing is one of the modern sport activities on earth.

2) The origins of canoeing and kayaking stretch back centuries.

3) The earliest known archaeological evidence of a canoe was unearthed at the tomb of a Sumerian king near the Nile River.

4) This relic is estimated to be around 600 years old.

5) Eskimos inhabited the land to the Far North of the European continent and Greenland.

6) In Olympic canoeing there are two kinds of races.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1) South and North American Indians and Eskimos used _____________________.

2) The earliest known archaeological evidence of a canoe was _________________.

3) In Olympic canoeing there are ____________________.

4) Both men and women can race in the Kayak flatwater and Kayak slalom racing but there are __________.

5) Men's canoeing was added to the Olympic competition in __________________.

VII. Give the Past Participle of  the following verbs and translate them into Russian:  to know, to estimate, to introduce, to add, to use, to propel, to make.

VIII. Translate into Russian:

Canoeing improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. Canoeing reduces fat but does not tend to build muscle in itself, though the associated weight training may do this. High-performance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: although extra weight does increase the drag on the boat, the larger athlete's increased power tends to be more significant.

IX. Translate into English:

Каноэ появились много веков назад. Индейцы использовали каноэ как средство передвижения, рыболовства и войн. Самое раннее археологическое доказательство каноэ – надгробие шумерского короля. Этой находке около 6000 лет.

X. Speak on canoeing.

Text 7

Cycling & Triathlon

You may think your bicycle is a toy. But bicycles are also one of the world's most important forms of transportation. In many parts of the world there are more bicycles than cars. Today it is also a favourite sport for children and grown ups.

French Count Sivrac built the first bicycle in 1790. The first bicycles were made of wood and had no steering wheel or pedals. You used your feet to push yourself along. It was like walking and sitting on wheels at the same time. Cycling was a part of the first modern Olympic games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Now In the Olympics there are three different kinds of cycling.

Track cycling is more complicated than the other events. There are short, medium and long distance events. It is not just speed that is important in Track cycling.

Road cycling has two events. They are called road race and individual time trial. The men's road race covers 142 - 155 miles, for women it covers 62 - 87 miles. The winner is the one who finishes first. In individual time trial the distance is shorter and racers race against the clock, against not each other.

Mountain biking started in the California in the 1970s. It was a way to have fun and get some exercise. It became an Olympic sport in 1996. The course is outside and includes forest, field roads, with uphill and downhill areas. Everyone starts together and the first one finished wins.

In the Olympics there are events for women and men in all the Cycling events.

Triathlon

The very first triathlon was in California in 1974. The Olympic committee announced that the triathlon would become an Olympic event in 2000. Triathlons have three parts swimming, cycling, and running, and they happen one right after the other.

To be in the triathlon you need a swimming suit, a pair of swimming goggles, a bicycle helmet, a bicycle and a pair of running shoes and a running vest. Some athletes also wear a wetsuit and cycling shoes. The Olympics triathlon is a distance triathlon. The athletes swim for about one mile, cycle for about 25 miles, and then run for about six miles.

That’s all you need so … Swim your best! Don't give up on swimming! You also have to run up the mountains. Run your best! Don't give up on running! Cycle your best! Don't give up on cycling!

Vocabulary


triathlon [traі′æθlon] – троеборье
a steering wheel – рулевое колесо
to complicate – усложнять, осложнять
a trial – испытание
a goggle – защитные очки
a helmet – шлем, каска
a vest – жилет
a wetsuit – непромокаемый костюм



Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

A favourite sport, to be made of wood, to have no steering wheel, to push oneself along, to be more complicated, a time trial, to race against the clock, mountain biking, uphill and downhill areas, to happen one right after the other.

II. Suggest the English for:

Средство передвижения, больше велосипедов, чем машин, дети и взрослые, сделан из дерева, не было руля и педалей, как прогулка, более сложный, чем, победитель тот, кто финиширует первым, гонщики едут на время, горный велосипед, включает лесные и полевые дороги, пара защитные очки.

III. Insert the missing words given in brackets:

1) The first bicycles_______ wood.

2) Track cycling _______ than the other events.

3) In individual _______ the distance is shorter.

4) Mountain biking was a way _______ and get some exercise.

5) The course is ______ and includes forest and field roads.

6) Triathlons have 3 parts: swimming, ______ and running.

7) To be in the triathlon you need a swimming suit, a pair of ______ , a bicycle helmet, etc.

( swimming goggles, to be more complicated, to be made of, to have fun, time trial, cycling, outside)

IV. Complete the following sentences:

1) The first bicycle hadn't ... .

2) Road cycling has two events: ... .

3) Mountain biking started in ... .

4) Mountain biking became an Olympic sport in ... .

5) The Olympic committee announced that the triathlon ... .

6) Some athletes also wear ... .

7) Athletes swim for about ... .

V. Answer the following questions:

1. When was the first bicycle built?

2. Who was the inventor of the first bicycle?

3. The first bicycle was made of steel, wasn't it?

4. What kind of cycling do you know?

5. How many miles does the men's road race cover?

6. When and where did the mountain biking start?

7. What kind of roads does the course include?

8. When did the Olympic committee announce that the triathlon would become an Olympic event?

9. What do sportsmen wear in triathlon?

10. How many miles do athletes run in triathlon?

VI. Give the Present Participle of the verbs: to cover, to complicate, to swim, to run, to cycle, to estimate, to race.

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