ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

СЛАВЯНСКИЙ-НА-КУБАНИ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

Автор - составитель: Логовченко О.Е.

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ

К ПРАКТИЧЕСКИМ ЗАНЯТИЯМ

И САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ СТУДЕНТОВ

ЧАСТЬ I

Summer Olympic Sports

 

Славянск – на – Кубани

2010


 

Методические рекомендации включают тексты, подобранные по тематическому принципу, с разработанной системой упражнений. Оригинальные тексты были сокращены и адаптированы автором-составителем. Система упражнений и творческие задания являются авторской разработкой. Также в данные методические рекомендации включены тексты для дополнительного чтения. Цель работы над такими текстами — научить студентов читать, переводить и реферировать газетные и журнальные статьи. Пособие предназначено для студентов высших учебных заведений факультетов «Физическая культура», ранее изучавших английский язык.

Рецензенты:

Якименко С.А., преподаватель английского языка Славянского-на-Кубани сельскохозяйственного техникума

Бакуменко О.Н., к.ф.н.,  ст.преподаватель кафедры английского языка СГПИ.

 


Оглавление

Пояснительная записка  
Рекомендации студентам для работы с учебными текстами  
Text 1. Archery стр. 6-8
Text 2. Shooting стр. 9-11
Text 3. Aquatics стр. 12-14
Text 4. Judo & Taekwondo стр. 14-18
Text 5. Rowing & Sailing стр. 18-20
Text 6. Canoeing стр. 20-22
Text 7. Cycling & Triathlon стр. 22-26
Text 8. Equestrian стр. 26-28
Text 9. Fencing стр. 29-31
Text 10. Softball стр. 32-34
Additional texts стр. 34-39
Требования к зачету для студентов 2 курса стр. 39-40
Рейтинговая система оценки успеваемости студентов 2 курса стр. 40-41
Рекомендуемая литература стр. 41

 





Пояснительная записка

Владение иностранным языком в такой мере, чтобы читать литературу на английском языке по избранной специальности —  критерий высокой квалификации любого специалиста. В связи с этим од­ним из ведущих направлений при обучении иностранному языку в выс­шем учебном заведении является работа с текстами по специальности.

Цель методических рекомендаций — подготовить студентов  факультета физической культуры к самостоятельному чтению и переводу иностранной ли­тературы по специальности.

Пособие состоит из двух частей и приложения для домашнего чтения.

Первая часть включает в себя 10 оригинальных текстов о летних олимпийских видах спорта. Она предназначена для работы со студентами 2 курса в 3 семестре.

Для расширения и активизации словарного запаса студентов и раз­вития у них общеязыковых навыков и навыков перевода с английского на русский язык, а также с русского языка на английский после каждого тек­ста приводится комплекс упражнений, способствующих развитию соот­ветствующих навыков. Основная часть пособия состоит из целевых зада­ний, имеющих трехчастную структуру и включающих: вокабуляр для ак­тивного овладения, перевод текста с английского языка на русский, а так­же вопросы и задания к содержанию текста.

Тексты расположены по принципу нарастания языковой сложности. Материал изложен с учетом уровня требований, предусмотренных стан­дартом и программой по английскому языку для неязыковых факультетов педагогических вузов.

Пособие имеет приложение, включающее тексты для самостоятель­ной работы студентов по основным темам курса.

Тематика и сложность текстов рассчитаны на изучение их в течение семестра.

Каждый текст сопровождается списком лексических единиц для обя­зательного овладения и  лексическими упражнениями, направленными на закрепление изученной  лексики.

Система упражнений построена по принципу «от простого к слож­ному». Задания и упражнения направлены на формирование произноси­тельных навыков, навыков перевода с английского языка на русский, а также на уровень понимания текста. На более высокой ступени изучения английского языка система заданий дополняется упражнениями на фор­мирование навыков реферирования и аннотирования текстов научно-познавательного характера, включены упражнения на закрепление текущей грамматики.

Рекомендации студентам для работы с учебными текстами

Работу над текстом рекомендуется начинать в аудитории, отрабаты­вая произношение сложных терминов, а также знакомясь с опорными сло­вами. Первоначальный перевод текста должен быть дословным, облег­чающим понимание основного смысла. При таком дословном переводе следует выписывать все незнакомые слова, которые потом необходимо выучить. На следующем этапе работы над текстом подбираются слова и словосочетания, более четко передающие мысль переводимого мате­риала, и устанавливается грамматическая связь слов в предложении.

Когда текст переведен полностью, его читают весь целиком и вносят стилистические поправки. Убедившись, что перевод точно передает мысль английского текста и соответствует нормам русского языка, можно считать, что начальный этап работы над текстом закончен. Далее следует этап работы над грамматическими особенностями данного текста. Этот этап работы рекомендуется проводить в аудитории, поскольку в некото­рых случаях может понадобиться комментарий преподавателя.

Следующий этап работы над текстом по специальности — ответы на вопросы (письменно или устно). Завершается работа над тек­стом по специальности составлением плана к тексту, пересказом и /или обсуждением прочитанного в свободной дискуссии на более продвинутом этапе изучения иностранного языка.

Следовательно, чтобы успешно справиться с работой над научным текстом, необходимо:

ü Запомнить необходимый минимум слов-терминов.

ü Уметь определять значение слова по контексту.

ü Научиться различать, переводить словообразова­тельные формы и оперировать ими.

ü Правильно употреблять новые слова в словосочетаниях.

ü Узнавать, переводить и употреблять грамматические формы и конструкции, характерные для научной литературы на английском языке.

ü Исходить при переводе из контекста как единого целого.

 



Summer Olympic Sports

Text 1

Archery

Have you heard of a thrilling sport that is used for hunting and for fun? Well, have you? We have. It's called archery. People (men, women and even children) have to shoot an arrow at a target that is 70 m away. The target face has ten bright and colourful rings. If you're lucky and your arrow lands in the center ring, you score 10 points! According to Greek history, archery was an event even in the ancient times though it was originally used for hunting. In order to play, special equipment is needed. They are listed below.

  • Bow
  • Arrows
  • Target
  • Quiver (the basket that holds the arrows)
  • Arm guards
  • Chest guards
  • Finger tabs

And now for the rules:

Each archer shoots six ends of three arrows at a time, with a maximum of 40 seconds allowed per arrow. Winners go through to the next rounds (1/16, 1/18) until there are only eight archers left. The following round is the quarter final, and in it four ends of three arrows are shot at a time, again with a maximum of 40 seconds allowed per arrow. Four winners then compete in the semi finals and the finals for the bronze, silver and gold medals.

Archery became a part of the Olympic competition in 1900. After the 1920 games archery was not an Olympic sport. It returned in 1972. In 1988 team competition was added. In the Olympics there are individual events and team events for men and women.

Vocabulary

a thrilling sport захватывающий вид спорта
an archery стрельба из лука
an arrow стрела
a bow лук
a quiver колчан


Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

To shoot an arrow, the target face, bright and colourful rings, to land in the center ring, to score points, to be used for hunting, arm guards, chest guards, finger tabs, to go through to the next rounds, to become part of the Olympic competition, to be added.

II. Give English equivalents to the following words and phrases:

Применялся для охоты, выпустить стрелу, десять ярких и цветных кругов, попала в центр круга, даже в древние времена, защита грудной клетки, набирать очки, стала частью Олимпийских игр, была добавлена, командные соревнования, бронзовые, серебряные и золотые медали.

III. Is it true or false?

1) People have to shoot an arrow at a target that is 50 m away.

2) The target face has eight bright and colourful rings.

3) In order to play, special equipment is needed.

4) Archery became part of the Olympic competition in 1901.

5) In the Olympics there are only individual events.

6) After the 1920 games archery was not an Olympic sport.

IV. Insert the missing words given in brackets:

(to have to shoot an arrow, to land in the center ring, to be an event, to shoot, to compete)

1) If your arrow ________, you score 10 points!

2) People ______________ at a target that is 70 m away.

3) Archery ____________ even in the ancient times

4) Each archer __________ six ends of three arrows at a time.

5) Four winners then _________ in the semi finals.

V. Complete the sentences:

1) In order to play, you need the special equipment: _____________.

2) If you're lucky and your arrow lands in the center ring, you ___.

3) The target face has __________________.

4) Archery became part of the Olympic competition in ______.

5) In the Olympics there are_________________________.

VI. Fill in the blanks with prepositions if necessary:

1) All archers have to shoot an arrow ___ a target.

2) The arrow lands ____ the center ring

3) Archery was originally used ____ hunting.

4) The winners go ____ to the next rounds.

5) Archery became part ____ the Olympic competition in 1900.

VII. Say it in one word.

1) the basket that holds the arrows (q ____)

2) the circle with 10 colourful rings (t______)

3) you need it to shoot an arrow (b__)

4) it has a tip and plumage (a_____)

5) the special outfit for sportsmen (e_________)

VIII. Translate into English:

Стрельба из лука - один из древнейших видов спорта. Современный спортивный лук состоит из древка и тетивы. Общая длина лука 1580—1770 мм. Для изготовления стрел (стержня, наконечника, хвостовика, оперения) используются алюминий и пластик. Длина стрелы 600—800 мм. Масса лука 1,5—1,6 кг, стрелы — 15—32,5 г

IX. Translate into Russian:

The use of bow and arrow for hunting and for war dates back to the Paleolithic period in Africa, Asia, and Europe. It was widely used in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, the Americas, and Europe until the introduction of gunpowder. Arrowheads were first made of burnt wood, then stone or bone, and then metals. Various woods and bones were used for the bow itself. However, it was not a powerful weapon until the invention of the compound, or composite, bow around 1500 B.C. on the steppes of the  Central Asia. A composite bow is made of various materials (wood, horn, sinew) glued together so as to increase their natural strength and elasticity. Bows and arrows were among the dominant weapons used by Assyrian chariots, Parthian cavalry, Mongol horsemen, and English longbowmen. At other times they have been used more as auxiliary weapons for massed infantry or cavalry.

X. Speak on archery.



Text 2

Shooting

 

Shooting was a part of the first Olympic games in 1896 but shooting goes back to the invention of gun powder. Women's shooting was not part of the Olympic games until 1984. Olympic history abounds with tales of athletes who overcame crippling adversity to win gold medals, but Karoly Takacs' comeback may be the best. Takacs was a part of Hungary's world-champion pistol-shooting team in 1938 when an army grenade exploded in his right hand. Ten years later, he won the first two golds in rapid-fire pistol - after teaching himself to shoot left-handed. In a sport where the bullseye looks about the size of the full stop at the end of this sentence, a sport where shooters compete amid a cacophony of noise and still concentrate on firing between heartbeats, Takacs' achievement tests the imagination. From just three shooting events at the 1896 Olympic Games to 15 today, the sport has grown steadily. In part this leap can be ascribed to advances in the technology of firearms and equipment, which have led to constant changes in the shooting competition. But it can also be ascribed to the passion shooters have for their sport.

There are many different shooting events. In the Olympics there are seventeen shooting events, ten for men and seven for women. There is rifle, pistol, running target, and shotgun events. Some of the events require special clothes. In the rifle events you have to have a shooting jacket, shooting pants, shooting shoes, and a shooting glove. In the Clay Target and Running Target events the athlete must wear a special jacket.

Shooting athletes are sometimes young and sometimes older.

Vocabulary

a gun оружие
to abound изобиловать
cripple калечить
overcome преодолеть
a rifle винтовка
a pistol пистолет, револьвер
clay target наземная цель

Exercises

I .Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

The invention of gun powder, to abound with tales of athletes, a world-champion pistol-shooting team, rapid-fire pistol, to explode in the hand, a cacophony of noise, to concentrate on firing between heartbeats, to grow steadily, to be ascribed to, a running target, a shooting glove, to wear a special jacket.

II. Give English equivalents to the following words and phrases:

Изобретение пороха, изобиловать рассказами, чемпион мира, скорострельный пистолет, наземная цель, движущаяся цель, взрываться в руке, шум, сконцентрироваться между биением сердца, приписывать, носить специальный жакет.

III . Is it true or false?

1) Shooting was a part of the first Olympic games in 1896.

2) Women's shooting was a  part of the Olympic games until 1984.

3) Takacs was a part of Dutch's world-champion pistol-shooting team when an army grenade exploded in his right hand.

4) In the Olympics there are seventeen shooting events, ten for men and seven for women.

5) In the Clay Target and Running Target events the athlete mustn’t wear a special jacket.

IV. Insert the missing words:

1) Olympic history ________________who overcame crippling adversity to win gold medals.

2) Ten years later, Takacs ____________in rapid-fire pistol - after teaching himself to shoot left-handed.

3) A sport where shooters _______________ and still concentrate on firing between heartbeats.

4) There is ___________________ events.

5) In the rifle events you have to ___________________ and a shooting glove.

V. Complete the sentences:

1) Shooting was a part of the first Olympic games in 1896 but shooting goes back to the ____________.

2) Olympic history abounds with tales of athletes who overcame ___________.

3) In a sport where the bullseye looks about ____________________________.

4) Takacs' achievement tests ___________.

5) From just three shooting events at the 1896 Olympic Games to 15 today, the sport ______________.

VI. Make the following sentences 1) interrogative 2) negative:

1) Shooting was a part of the first Olympic games in 1896.

2) Olympic history abounds with tales of athletes.

3) He won the first two golds in rapid-fire pistol.

4) The sport has grown steadily.

5) There are many different shooting events.

6) In the Clay Target and Running Target events the athlete must wear a special jacket.

7) Shooting athletes are sometimes young and sometimes older.

VII. Point out nouns, adjectives and adverbs and write them down in three columns:

Invention, world-champion, pistol-shooting, rapid-fire, left-handed, achievement, imagination, steadily, passion, sometimes.

nouns adjectives adverbs

VIII.Match the words from the two columns:

1. pistol a) target
2. rapid b) shooting
3. world c) handed
4. left d) fire
5. running e) champion
6. fire f) arms

IX. Answer the following questions:

1) When was shooting a part of the Olympic Games?

2) Who was Takacs?

3) What is he famous for?

4) How many events are there in the Olympic shooting?

5) What shooting events do you know?

6) What special clothes must the athlete wear?

7) What Russian shooting champions do you know?

Text 3

Aquatics

Aquatics are a combination of 4 sports: Diving, Water polo, Synchronized swimming, and Swimming.

Synchronized swimming is for women only. It is like dancing in water. In order for swimmers to stay underwater they have to put a clip on their noses. Women compete as a pair or as part of a team. There are speakers in water so swimmers can hear the music better.

Diving has several events. There is 10m platform diving for men and women, 3m springboard diving for men and women, and Synchronized diving for men and women from both the 10m platform and 3m springboard. Divers do many different kinds of dives. The synchronized diving is done by two divers at a time. Judges score the dives and the diver with the best score wins.

Water Polo is like handball in water. There are six players on each side and one goal keeper. They are not allowed to touch the bottom of the pool at any time. The offense has 35 seconds to score a goal. If they are not successful the defense will get the ball. There are 4 quarters in a game, each is seven minutes long. The winner is the team that scores the most goals.

In the Olympics Swimming has 26 individual events and six relay or team events for both men and women. They take place in a 50 meter pool. There is backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, freestyle, and individual medley for men and women in different distances. The relays are the freestyle and the medley. In the 1972 Olympics US swimmer Mark Spitz won seven gold medals.

Swimming was one of the sports at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. Water polo was included in 1900, Diving in 1904, and Synchronised swimming was added in 1984.


Vocabulary

Aquatics водные виды спорта
a clip зажим
a springboard трамплин
a judge, to judge судья, судить
to backstroke плавать на спине
to breaststroke плавать на животе
medley смешанный


Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

To stay underwater, to put a clip on the nose, to hear the music better, different kinds of dives, to be done by two divers, to be like handball in water, to touch the bottom of the pool, to score a goal, to take place in a 50 meter pool, freestyle and the medley, to be included in.

II. Suggest the English for:

Синхронное плавание, оставаться под водой, надевать зажим на нос, могут слышать музыку, разные виды погружений, забивать гол, дотрагиваться до дна бассейна, баттерфляй, защитник, нападающий.

III. Insert the missing words:

1) Aquatics are a _______ of 4 sports. Synchronized _______ is for women only.

2) The synchronized diving is done by two ______ at a time.

3) Judges ______ the dives.

4) Water Polo is like ______ in water.

5) Synchronized swimmers have to put a _______ on their noses.

IV. Is it true or false?

1) Synchronized swimming is for men only.

2) In order for swimmers to stay underwater they have to put a cap on their heads.

3) The synchronized diving is done by three divers at a time.

4) There are 4 quarters in a game, each is seven minutes long.

5) In the Olympics Swimming has 27 individual events.

6) In the 1972 Olympics US swimmer Mark Spitz won seven gold medals.

V. Complete the sentences:

1) Aquatics are a combination of 4 sports: ______________________.

2) In order for swimmers to stay underwater they have _______________

3) There are speakers in water so swimmers can ______________________.

4) Water Polo is like ______________________.

5) They are not allowed to touch ____________________________.

6) The relays are ___________________________________.

Text 4

Judo & Taekwondo

    

 

Jigoro Kano introduced judo to Japan in 1882. He devoted his life to promoting the sport and training new athletes. Kano was a member of the International Olympic Committee and an associate of Baron Peirre de Coubertin, founder of the modern Olympic movement. Men's judo was not added to the Olympic Games until 1964 and women's judo became an Olympic event in 1992.

The uniform for judo is called judogi. These outfits are made of heavy cotton to allow athletes to grab on to their opponent’s collar, chest, and belt. The colour of your belt tells how good you are at the sport. Beginners wear white belts and they work their way up to yellow, orange, green, blue, brown, black, red and white (or black), and red (or black).

Judo takes place on a mat about 26 feet by 26 feet. Competitors bow to each other at the beginning and at the end of the contest to show respect to each other. The winner is the person who has scored more points at the end of a five minute period. There is a referee and two judges who award the points.

In the Olympics there are seven weight categories for men and seven weight categories for women.

Taekwondo came from Korea about 2000 years ago. It is a defensive art of self defense. Do you know that the uniform in Taekwondo is really called a dobok? The belts are white, yellow, orange, green, blue, purple, red, brown, red black, yellow black, black blue and finally black belt. It takes two to three years to get good enough to earn a black belt.

In the Olympics the contestants must wear body protector, forearm protection, shin guards and tooth brace that protects your mouth from getting hit. You wear a head brace too. It protects the head from damage. Then it's time to fight!

There are three rounds of three minutes each for men and three rounds of two minutes each for women. There is one minute between rounds. You can kick your opponent in face or body but you can only punch the body. You can't kick or punch below the belt. The winner is decided by knock out, by points, or by penalties.

In the Olympics there are competitions for men and women. They are divided up according to weight. Taekwondo became an official Olympic sport in the 2000 Olympics.

Vocabulary

judo [′dзu:dəu] дзюдо
taekwondo [taikwο′dəu] тайквандо
an outfit снаряжение
to grab on захватить
a collar воротник
a chest грудная клетка
a belt пояс, ремень
a defensive art искусство самозащиты
to earn заслужить
a shin guard голенная защита
a brace скрепа, связь

Exercises

III. Is it true or false?

1) Jigoro Kano introduced judo to Japan in 1885.

2) Kano was a member of the London Committee.

3) The outfits for judo are made of heavy cotton.

4) Beginners wear red belts.

5) Judo takes place on a mat about 26 feet by 26 feet.

6) Judo is a defensive art of self defense.

IV. Insert the missing words without using the text above:

The (1) for judo is called judogi. These (2) are made of heavy (3) to allow athletes (4) to their opponent’s collar, chest, and (5). The colour of your belt tells how good you are at the sport. Beginners wear (6) belts and they work their way up to yellow, orange, green, blue, brown, black, red and white (or black), and red (or black).

Words: outfits, cotton, uniform, white, to grab on, belt


1_________

2__________

3__________

4__________

5__________

6__________


V. Complete the sentences:

1) Jigoro Kano devoted his life to promoting the sport and ______________.

2) Kano was a member of the International Olympic Committee and an associate of_________________.

3) The uniform for judo _____________________.

4) Competitors bow to each other at the beginning and the end of the contest ________.

5) Taekwondo came from ________________________.

6) In the Olympics the contestants must wear ___________________________.

7) In the Olympics the competitions are divided up according ______________.

VI. Make the following sentences 1) interrogative 2) negative:

1) Jigoro Kano introduced judo to Japan in 1882.

2) The colour of your belt tells how good you are at the sport.

3) Women's judo became an Olympic event in 1992.

4) It is a defensive art of self defense.

5) In the Olympics the contestants must wear body protector, forearm protection, shin guards and tooth brace that protects your mouth from getting hit.

VII. Give three degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and adverbs. Translate them into Russian:

Positive Comparative Superlative
heavy
good
many
new
bed
far
difficult
big
short

VIII. Give the Past Participle of the following verbs. Translate them:

To devote, to promote, to train, to add, to bow, to tell, to become, to take place, to show, to win, to award, to score, to wear, to fight, to kick, to divide.

IX. Answer the following questions:

1) Who introduced judo to Japan in 1882?

2) What does the colour of your belt show your opponent?

3) When was men's judo added to the Olympic Games?

4) Where does judo take place?

5) What clothes must the contestants wear in the Olympics?

6) When did taekwondo come from Korea?

7) How many weight categories are there for men and for women in the Olympics?

8) In Taekwondo you can kick your opponent in face or body but you can only punch the body, can’t you?



Text 5

Rowing & Sailing

Baron Pierre de Coubertin was really fond of Rowing and included it as an Olympic sport in 1896 at the first modern Olympic Games. The weather was bad and those events had to be cancelled. The first rowing events were actually held for men in 1900 but women were not included until 1976.

Rowing boats used to be made of wood. Today they are made of plastic or fiberglass. They can be 23.5 cm to 24.5 cm wide and 9 yards to 21 yards long. The boats weight between 39 and 211 pounds.

Rowers are also divided into categories by weight. There are two categories of boats in the Olympic Games and there are races for both men and women.

In Sculling athletes hold two oars, one oar in each hand. Divided into lanes, rowing races cover a distance of 1.25 miles in a river, canal or lake. If you have friends in college you may have heard them use the word "crew" to describe rowing.

Sailing has been around since 1715. The biggest international sailing race is called The America's Cup. It is named after the first yacht to win the competition in 1851, a 101 foot schooner named America.

At the Olympics there are two categories of races. One is fleet racing where all boats race at once. The other is match racing where two boats race against each other at one time.

There are nine Olympic sailing categories. The sailing field is four waterways marked by buoys for the competitors compete in. Wind and the weather are important factors in sailing.

In the Olympics there are men's, women's, and mixed events. Sailing became an Olympic sport in 1900.

 

Vocabulary

a boat – лодка a crew – экипаж корабля a fiberglass – стекловолокно a yacht [jot]– яхта a scull – байдарка a schooner [′sku:nə]– шхуна to hold – владеть a fleet – флот, флотилия an oar – весло a buoy [boi]– буй, бакен, буек

Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations::

To be fond of rowing, to be cancelled, to be held, to be made of wood, two categories of boats, to hold an oar, to cover a distance, the first yacht, to win a competition, fleet racing, important factors, to be marked by buoys.

II. Suggest the English for:

Проводились для мужчин, сделаны из пластика и стекловолокна, лодки весят, разделены на весовые категории, по веслу в каждой руке, открывать дистанцию, названо в честь, шхуна, 4 дорожки, важные факторы, стало олимпийским видом.

III. Insert the missing words given in brackets:

1) Pierre de Coubertin _________ of Rowing.

2) The first rowing events ________ for men in 1900.

3) Today boats are made of _________ .

4) There are ________ in the Olympic games.

5) Sailing _______ since 1715.

6) The sailing field is four waterways ______ for the competitors compete in.

(to be held, two categories of boats, to be really fond of, marked by buoys, plastic and fiberglass, to be around)

IV. Insert the prepositions:

1) The rowers are divided ____ categories ____ weight.

2) Pierre de Coubertin was fond ___ rowing.

3) The biggest sailing race is named ____ the first yacht.

4) Two boats race ____ each other at one time is match racing.

5) The sailing field is marked ____ buoys ___ the competitors compete ____ .

6) Wind and the weather are important factors _____ sailing.

V. Complete the following sentences:

1) The weather was bad and those events ... .

2) Rowing boats used to be made ... .

3) In Sculling athletes hold two oars, ... .

4) The biggest international sailing race is called ... .

5) Rowing races cover a distance of 1.25 miles ... .

6) The biggest international sailing race is named after a 101 foot ... .

VI. Is it true or false?

1) Baron Pierre de Coubertin was really fond of Rowing and included it as an Olympic sport in 1896.

2) Rowing boats used to be made of wood.

3) Rowers are also divided into categories by weight.

4) In Sculling athletes hold two oars, one oar in each hand.

5) At the Olympics there are two categories of races: the fleet racing and the match racing.

VII. Translate into Russian:

Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on river, lakes or on ocean, depending upon the type of a race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water. The sport can be both recreational, focusing on learning the techniques required, and competitive where overall fitness plays a great role. It is also one of the oldest Olympic sports. In the United States and Canada, high school and collegiate rowing is sometimes referred to as crew.

VIII. Put the verbs in brackets in Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous:

1) Sailing (to be) around since 1715.

2) Lately most people (to enjoy) sailing as a recreational activity.

3) How long you (to know) about rowing?

4) It (to show) since early morning.

5) They (to row) for two hours.

6) “How long your friend (to participate) in sailing competitions? For three years.”

IX. Form adverbs from these adjectives and translate them: real, actual, wide, bad, international, happy, slow, bright, useful, helpful.

X. Speak on rowing and sailing.

Text 6

Canoeing

Canoeing is one of the oldest activities on earth. As far back as there were men, there were canoes. Eskimos used kayaks to get across lakes and Indians used canoes to get around too. The origins of canoeing and kayaking stretch back centuries, where South and North American Indians and Eskimos used these craft as a mode of transport, fishing and battle. They were propelled through water by single-bladed paddles usually made from wood. The earliest known archaeological evidence of a canoe was unearthed at the tomb of a Sumerian king near the Euphrates River. This relic is estimated to be around 6000 years old. The counterpart of the American Indian canoe is the kayak which was introduced by Eskimos many years ago. These people inhabited the land to the Far North of the American continent and Greenland.

In Olympic canoeing there are two kinds of races. One is canoe/kayak flatwater racing. That is when the water is calm and the race is to see who finishes first. There are teams of one or more that race together. The other event is canoe/kayak slalom racing. In this event the race happens on a natural (usually a river) or man-made course in which the racers have to go through a series of gates without touching them with their boat, paddle, or any part of their body. Canoes can have one- or two-person crew. Kayaks can have a one, two, or four person crew. Both men and women can race in the Kayak flatwater and kayak slalom racing but there are only men’s competitions for canoe flatwater and slalom racing.

Men's canoeing was added to the Olympic competition in 1936 and women's one in 1948.

Vocabulary

a canoe [kə′nu:]– каноэ, челнок, байдарка
a kayak [kaіæk]– байдарка
a craft – судно, корабль, лодка
to propel – 1) грести, 2) продвигать вперед, приводить в движение
a single-bladed paddle – однолопастное весло
an evidence – свидетельство
a tomb [tu:m]– захоронение, могила
to estimate – оценивать
a gate – ворота, шлагбаум

Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

One of the oldest activities, to get across lakes, the origin of canoeing, to stretch back, a mode of transport, to propel through the water, to make from wood, archaeological evidence, to be estimated, a flatwater racing, a slalom racing, a man-made course, four -person crew.

II. Suggest the English for:

Сколько существуют люди, переплывать озера, происхождение каноэ, тянуться через века, как вид транспорта, рыболовство, грести с помощью однолопастного весла, археологическое свидетельство, надгробие, оцениваться, в противовес, водная гладь, не прикасаясь к лодке.

III. Insert the missing words:

1) The ______ of canoeing stretch back centuries.

2) People used this ______ as a mode of transport.

3) Canoes and kayaks were propelled through the water by ______ usually made from wood.

4) In Olympic ______ there are two kinds of races.

5) The other event is Canoe ______ racing.

6) Kayaks can have one-, two- or four- person ______ .

IV. Insert the prepositions and conjunctions:

1) _____ far back _____ there were men, there were canoes.

2) Ancient people used canoes to get ______ lakes.

3) The earliest archaeological evidence ___ a canoe was unearthed ____ the tomb _____ a Sumerian king.

4) In Canoe slalom racing the race happens ______ a natural ______ man-made course.

5) ______ men _____ women can race ______ the Kayak flatwater racing.

V. Is it true or false?

1) Canoeing is one of the modern sport activities on earth.

2) The origins of canoeing and kayaking stretch back centuries.

3) The earliest known archaeological evidence of a canoe was unearthed at the tomb of a Sumerian king near the Nile River.

4) This relic is estimated to be around 600 years old.

5) Eskimos inhabited the land to the Far North of the European continent and Greenland.

6) In Olympic canoeing there are two kinds of races.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1) South and North American Indians and Eskimos used _____________________.

2) The earliest known archaeological evidence of a canoe was _________________.

3) In Olympic canoeing there are ____________________.

4) Both men and women can race in the Kayak flatwater and Kayak slalom racing but there are __________.

5) Men's canoeing was added to the Olympic competition in __________________.

VII. Give the Past Participle of  the following verbs and translate them into Russian:  to know, to estimate, to introduce, to add, to use, to propel, to make.

VIII. Translate into Russian:

Canoeing improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. Canoeing reduces fat but does not tend to build muscle in itself, though the associated weight training may do this. High-performance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: although extra weight does increase the drag on the boat, the larger athlete's increased power tends to be more significant.

IX. Translate into English:

Каноэ появились много веков назад. Индейцы использовали каноэ как средство передвижения, рыболовства и войн. Самое раннее археологическое доказательство каноэ – надгробие шумерского короля. Этой находке около 6000 лет.

X. Speak on canoeing.

Text 7

Cycling & Triathlon

You may think your bicycle is a toy. But bicycles are also one of the world's most important forms of transportation. In many parts of the world there are more bicycles than cars. Today it is also a favourite sport for children and grown ups.

French Count Sivrac built the first bicycle in 1790. The first bicycles were made of wood and had no steering wheel or pedals. You used your feet to push yourself along. It was like walking and sitting on wheels at the same time. Cycling was a part of the first modern Olympic games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Now In the Olympics there are three different kinds of cycling.

Track cycling is more complicated than the other events. There are short, medium and long distance events. It is not just speed that is important in Track cycling.

Road cycling has two events. They are called road race and individual time trial. The men's road race covers 142 - 155 miles, for women it covers 62 - 87 miles. The winner is the one who finishes first. In individual time trial the distance is shorter and racers race against the clock, against not each other.

Mountain biking started in the California in the 1970s. It was a way to have fun and get some exercise. It became an Olympic sport in 1996. The course is outside and includes forest, field roads, with uphill and downhill areas. Everyone starts together and the first one finished wins.

In the Olympics there are events for women and men in all the Cycling events.

Triathlon

The very first triathlon was in California in 1974. The Olympic committee announced that the triathlon would become an Olympic event in 2000. Triathlons have three parts swimming, cycling, and running, and they happen one right after the other.

To be in the triathlon you need a swimming suit, a pair of swimming goggles, a bicycle helmet, a bicycle and a pair of running shoes and a running vest. Some athletes also wear a wetsuit and cycling shoes. The Olympics triathlon is a distance triathlon. The athletes swim for about one mile, cycle for about 25 miles, and then run for about six miles.

That’s all you need so … Swim your best! Don't give up on swimming! You also have to run up the mountains. Run your best! Don't give up on running! Cycle your best! Don't give up on cycling!

Vocabulary


triathlon [traі′æθlon] – троеборье
a steering wheel – рулевое колесо
to complicate – усложнять, осложнять
a trial – испытание
a goggle – защитные очки
a helmet – шлем, каска
a vest – жилет
a wetsuit – непромокаемый костюм



Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

A favourite sport, to be made of wood, to have no steering wheel, to push oneself along, to be more complicated, a time trial, to race against the clock, mountain biking, uphill and downhill areas, to happen one right after the other.

II. Suggest the English for:

Средство передвижения, больше велосипедов, чем машин, дети и взрослые, сделан из дерева, не было руля и педалей, как прогулка, более сложный, чем, победитель тот, кто финиширует первым, гонщики едут на время, горный велосипед, включает лесные и полевые дороги, пара защитные очки.

III. Insert the missing words given in brackets:

1) The first bicycles_______ wood.

2) Track cycling _______ than the other events.

3) In individual _______ the distance is shorter.

4) Mountain biking was a way _______ and get some exercise.

5) The course is ______ and includes forest and field roads.

6) Triathlons have 3 parts: swimming, ______ and running.

7) To be in the triathlon you need a swimming suit, a pair of ______ , a bicycle helmet, etc.

( swimming goggles, to be more complicated, to be made of, to have fun, time trial, cycling, outside)

IV. Complete the following sentences:

1) The first bicycle hadn't ... .

2) Road cycling has two events: ... .

3) Mountain biking started in ... .

4) Mountain biking became an Olympic sport in ... .

5) The Olympic committee announced that the triathlon ... .

6) Some athletes also wear ... .

7) Athletes swim for about ... .

V. Answer the following questions:

1. When was the first bicycle built?

2. Who was the inventor of the first bicycle?

3. The first bicycle was made of steel, wasn't it?

4. What kind of cycling do you know?

5. How many miles does the men's road race cover?

6. When and where did the mountain biking start?

7. What kind of roads does the course include?

8. When did the Olympic committee announce that the triathlon would become an Olympic event?

9. What do sportsmen wear in triathlon?

10. How many miles do athletes run in triathlon?

VI. Give the Present Participle of the verbs: to cover, to complicate, to swim, to run, to cycle, to estimate, to race.

Text 8

Equestrian


  In the Olympics, men and women can ride together for the same team and against each other in the same events. The rider and the horse both win medals. They are considered a team. There are different kinds of ways to ride. In the Olympics they ride English style. Here are some of the events.

Show Jumping

Jumping events are held in a grass or sand ring. The horse and rider are judged for speed and accuracy. Contestants jump over 12 to 15 jumps in a certain order and have to do it in a certain amount of time. The horse and rider are penalized if they refuse a jump, knock down a jump, fall off, or go over the time limit. There are several rounds to the competition and the rider and horse with the most points win.

Dressage

Dressage events are also held in a sand ring 60m x 20 m. Dressage has three rounds. Grand Prix, Grand Prix special and Grand Prix Freestyle- sounds like Grand Pree- (classes in Dressage). Riders will choose the music they perform to and they choose the actions they perform. In Dressage the riders wear top hats.

Eventing

Eventing is part Dressage, part cross-country, and part Jumping. Rider uses the same horse for three days with one event on each day. The cross country race tests endurance, speed, and jumping ability.

Equestrian event became a part of the Olympics in 1900. In 1976 Princess Anne of Great Britain was a member of her country's Equestrian team.


Vocabulary

Equestrian [іk′westriәn] – конный спорт
to ride – скакать
a sand ring – песчаная арена
to penalize – наказывать
a dressage – объездка лошадей

Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

Can ride together, the rider and the horse, to be considered, show jumping, a grass or sand ring, to be judged for speed and accuracy, the contestants jump, to be penalized, to refuse a jump, to go over the time limit, to choose the music, to wear top hats.

II. Suggest the English for: Могут скакать вместе, судить за скорость и точность, считаться командой, наказываются, отказаться от прыжка, выйти за пределы времени, выбирать музыку, одевать высокие шляпы, травяная или песчаная арена, наездник и лошадь, показательные прыжки, конкурсный прыжок.

III. Insert the missing words:

1) ______ and the horse both win medals.

2) ______ events are held in a grass or ______ ring.

3) The horse and the rider ______ for speed and ______ .

4) Dressage events ______ in a sand ring.

5) The cross-country race tests ______, speed and jumping ability.

6) The ______ events became a part of the Olympics ______.

IV. Complete the following sentences:

1) Men and women can ride together for the same team and ... .

2) In the Olympics they ride....

3) Horse and rider are penalized if they....

4) Rider chooses the music they perform to and ... .

5) The rider uses the same horse for ... .

V. Is it true or false?

1) Equestrian is for men only.

2) In the Olympics the participants ride German style.

3) Jumping events are held in a grass or sand ring.

4) Dressage has two rounds.

5) The riders mayn't choose the music they perform to.

6) The cross-country race doesn't test endurance, speed and jumping ability.

VI. Make your own sentences with modal verbs should, may, must, need, can. Use new words and word combinations.



VII. Guess the Crossword.

e q u e s t r i a n
j r o u n d i m b m
u h o r s e d e i u
m b m k a y e d l s
p o s h n p r a i i
s p e e d r a l t c
d r e s s a g e y z

VIII. Translate into English: Соревнования по объездке лошадей (дрессуре) проводятся на песчаной арене. Они состоят из 3 раундов: гранд при, особый  гранд при, гранд при в свободном стиле. 25 лучших наездников проходят во второй раунд. В третий раунд проходят только 15.

IX. Translate into Russian

Harness

 Horses, mules and donkeys are driven in harness in many different ways. For working purposes, they can pull a plough  or other farm equipment designed to be pulled by animals. In many parts of the world they still pull wagons for basic hauling and transportation. They may draw carriages at ceremonies, in parades or for tourist rides. As noted in "horse racing" above, horses can race in harness, pulling a very lightweight cart. At the other end of the spectrum, some draft horses compete in horse pulling competitions, where single or teams of horses and their drivers vie to determine who can pull the most weight for a short distance.

Vocabulary

a harness упряжь, сбруя
a donkey осел
a plough плуг
to pull тянуть, тащить
a carriage коляска
to vie соперничать

X. Speak on equestrian.



Text 9

Fencing

Fencing was known in Egypt, China, India, and Greece. Homer, a famous Greek author, wrote about a fight with swords in his book,  «The Illiad». There are four sports that have been included in each modern Olympic Games since 1896 and fencing is one of them.

To be a fencer you need a sword, a protective vest and a jacket, a mask, and a glove. Fencers also wear breeches and special fencing shoes. There are three different kinds of swords. The foil is the lightest, the epée was the sword used for dueling years ago, and the sabre is the heaviest sword. Fencing is an indoor sport. Fencers use a special surface about 46 feet long and 5 feet wide.

Each bout has three rounds that last three minutes each, with one minute between rounds. The winner is the first fencer to score 15 hits on the opponent or the fencer who scores the greater number of hits by the end of the bout. If the players are even by the end of regular match time, one minute extra time will be fenced and the winner will be the first to score a touch on the opponent.

In the Olympic Games there are six disciplines of fencing that include six individual and four team events.

· Men's foil - individual & team events

· Women's foil - individual event

· Men's épee - individual & team events

· Women's épee - individual event

· Men's sabre - individual & team events

· Women's sabre - individual event

Vocabulary

fencing фехтование
a sword [so:d] меч
breeches штаны, бриджи
a foil рапира
an epée шпага
a sabre сабля
a bout 1) круг; 2) схватка, борьба

Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

Fencing, a fight with swords, a protective vest and a jacket, to use for dueling years ago, an indoor sport, a special surface, each bout has three rounds, to score 15 hits, a touch on the opponent, to include six individual and four team events, men's foil, women's sabre, men's épee.

V. Is it true or false?

1) Fencing is a modern sport.

2) Homer, a famous Roman author, wrote about a fight with swords in his book, “The Illiad.

3) There are five sports that have been included in each modern Olympic Games since 1896 and fencing is one of them.

4) To be a fencer you needn’t any special equipment.

5) The sabre is the heaviest sword.

6) The winner is the fencer who scores the greater number of hits by the end of the bout.

7) Fencing is an outdoor sport.

VI. Give the Past Perfect form of the verbs: to go back, to know, to write, to include, to be, to score, to hit.

VII. Give three degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and adverbs. Translate them into Russian:

Positive Comparative Superlative
protective
different
light
heavy
great
long

X. Speak on fencing.



Text 10

Softball

 

Softball was invented in 1887 as an indoor sport by George Hancock of the Chicago Board. In 1895 Lewis Rober invented outdoor softball and called it Kitten League Ball. Softball is played by men, women, and children. There is fast pitch and slow pitch softball. Eight teams compete at the Olympic Games in the discipline of women's fast pitch. The host country automatically has a spot because they are the host team, and the other seven teams qualify through world championships and various regional Olympic Qualifiers.

Softball is a fun sport. It's like baseball but different in some ways. You need a softball, a bat, a glove, a helmet, and most women wear a slider on their sliding legs. Catchers wear special equipment to protect themselves behind home plate. The field is shaped like a "diamond'' because home plate and the three bases form a diamond. The bases are called first base, second base, third base, and home plate. The bases are 60 feet apart and are actually a square turned on its side. The thing you have to do is hit the ball and run to all three bases before your team makes three outs.

Softball is played by two teams at a time, nine players per team on the field. The teams take turns at bat. The game is divided into innings with each team playing the field while the other team is at bat.

Softball became an Olympic sport in 1996 and in the Olympics there is only fast pitch and it is played by women.

Vocabulary

softball – софтбол
a pitch – бросок, подача; бросать, подавать
a bat – бита 
a catcher – ловец
a host team – хозяева поля
to qualify – квалифицировать, определять

Exercises

I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

To be invented, an indoor sport, a fast pitch, to compete at the Olympic Games,  a host country, a fun sport, to wear special equipment, a catcher, to be shaped, to hit the ball, to make three outs, an inning, to take turns, to become an Olympic sport.

II. Suggest the English for:

Был изобретен, принимающая страна (страна-устроительница), отличаться по нескольким признакам, специальное оборудование, ловцы, бита и шлем, форма напоминает бриллиант, бить по мячу, пробежать по всем базам, по 9 игроков в команде.

III. Insert the missing words:

1) Softball _____ in 1887.

2) There is _____ pitch and _____ pitch softball.

3) Catchers wear special equipment _____ themselves.

4) The bases are _____ apart and a square turned on its side.

5) The thing you have to do is ______ to all three bases.

6) Softball is played by _____ teams.

7) You need _____ to play softball.

IV. Complete the following sentences:

1) Softball is played by … .

2) It’s like baseball but … .

3) You need … .

4) Catchers wear … .

5) The field is shaped like … .

6) The thing you have to do is … .

7) Softball became an Olympic sport in … .

V. Guess the crossword:

1

s    

 

 

   

2

 

 

o    

f

 

3      

 

t

4

b  

 

 

 

5

 

a  

 

l

6

  l    

 

 

                               

VI.Make up 6 questions to the text and answer them.

Vocabulary

to intend намереваться, хотеть
alumnus (pl. alumni) [ә′lΛmnәs] бывший питомец (учебного заведения), выпускник
annual ежегодный, годовой
a bet пари
a bat бита
to grab хватать, захватывать
to swing (swung) качаться, колебаться
a broom handle рукоять метлы
bare голый
undersized недостаточного размера, карликовый, маленький

IX. . Translate into English:

Софтбол напоминает бейсбол, но отличается от него по нескольким признакам. Чтобы играть в него, вам нужно специальное оборудование: мяч, бита, шлем, перчатка и так далее. Поле для игры своей формой напоминает бриллиант. Софтбол стал олимпийским видом спорта в 1996 году.

X. Speak on softball.

Additional texts

Text 1

High jump

H igh jump is an athletics (track and field) event in which competitors must jump over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without aid of any devices. It has been contested since the Olympic Games of ancient Greece. Over the centuries since, competitors have introduced increasingly more effective techniques to arrive at the current form.

In a competition, the bar is initially set at a relatively low height, and is moved upward in set increments. Each competitor has the option of choosing at which height they wish to start, as long as the height is greater or equal to the designated starting height for that competition. The starting height is usually determined by the games committee for the competition.

The modern high jump bar is made of glass-reinforced plastic or aluminium. Other materials are allowed, but there are weight and sag restrictions. The bar is approximately 4 metres in length, with a round, triangular, or square cross-section for most of its length, and two square resting points at each end. It is placed at a measured height on two uprights, or standards, which allow the bar to rest on its ends at a measured height. Cleared heights are reported by measuring from the take-off level to the top edge of the lowest part of the bar. Directly behind the bar is a soft foam mat that allows for a safe landing. Competitors must jump off one foot to clear the bar. Although they may touch the bar in their clearance, the jump is ruled unsuccessful if the bar falls. In rare instances competitors have been allowed to retry an attempt where the bar has fallen. This may occur if the official declares that the bar fell due to external circumstances such as wind, rain or faulty equipment.

Once a competitor has elected to begin, they receive three attempts at each height and once they clear a height, they are cleared until the next height. Competitors can choose whether or not to attempt subsequent heights. A competitor may choose to pass at a given height or, after failing to clear the bar at a given height, may "pass" on subsequent attempts at that height. Any competitor who records three consecutive misses is out of the competition. The competitor who clears the highest jump is declared the winner.

 

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Hurdling

In track and field athletics there are sprint hurdle races and long hurdle races. The standard sprint hurdle race is 110 metres for men and 100 metres for women. The standard long hurdle race is 400 metres for both men and women. Each of these races is run over ten hurdles and they are all Olympic events.

Other distances are sometimes run, particularly indoors. The sprint hurdle race indoors is usually 60 metres for both men and women, although races 55 meters or 50 metres long are sometimes run. A 60 metre indoor race is run over 5 hurdles. A shorter race may have only 4 hurdles. The long hurdle race is sometimes shortened to 300 metres or 200 metres, usually for indoor or high school races.

There are two basic hurdle heights: high hurdles and intermediate hurdles. The sprint hurdle races (60 m, 100 m and 110 m) use high hurdles, which are 42 inches (1.07 m) high (39 inches, or 0.99 m, in U.S. high school competition) for men and 33 inches (84 m) high for women. Long hurdle races (400 m) use intermediate hurdles, which are 36 inches (914 m) high for men and 30 inches (762 m) high for women. Slightly lower heights (generally 3 inches (76 mm) lower) are sometimes used in youth or high school events.

There is a certain technique that is desirable to accomplish a smooth hurdle action during the race. Other racers may depend solely on their speed; however, if you have the "perfect technique" you will do far better than someone that simply jumps over the hurdle. When approaching the hurdle, you do not want to stutter (a term used to refer to the cutting of your stride length before reaching a hurdle). You then attack the hurdle by pushing away from the ground with the trail leg and leading with the knee of the lead leg. The goal is to minimize the deviation from normal running technique.

In men's hurdles it is usually necessary to straighten the leg at the top of the flight path over the hurdle, however a partial bend in the knee gains a faster push of when you hit the ground. As soon as the foot has cleared the hurdle, the knee starts bending again to lessen the effect of a long, slow pendulum. In women's hurdles, the lead leg is usually straight and the center of gravity does not change path from a normal running stride. Another way to view it is the foot path: "shortest path up and shortest path down". The opposite arm reaches farther forward and the elbow travels out to the side and then behind to make room for the trailing leg. The trailing leg also leads with the knee, but the foot and knee is horizontal, tucked up as tight as possible into the armpit.

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Running

Running is a sport known to be good for health; it not only helps breathing and heartbeat but it is also a good exercise because it burns any spare calories. Running keeps a person fit and active. Running makes a person thirsty, so it is important to drink water when running. Some people may hate running because it is an hard and exhausting work.

Ways to avoid injuries

Running injuries are quite common among runners. Many running injuries can be reduced through proper training, wearing of the correct gear and awareness of the running environment.

  • Before going on a long run, do not forget to have a five-minute warm-up and some stretching exercises.
  • It is better to run in the morning, to avoid heat tiredness. Do not run when pollution levels are high.
  • Run in the shade if possible, wear sunglasses, apply sunscreen and try to avoid direct sun rays.
  • Too much clothing can produce sweating, which causes the body to lose heat quickly. Dress in layers. Wear the correct footwear.
  • When running in cold weather wear hat, gloves and clothing that covers your neck.
  • Try running on a straight surface.

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Synchronized swimming

Synchronized swimming is a hybrid of swimming, gymnastics, and dance. This sport has an artistic effect, and really relates to those three sports. It consists of swimmers (individuals, duets, trios, teams or combos) performing a synchronized routine of elaborate and dramatic moves in the water, accompanied by music.

Synchronized swimming demands first-rate water skills, and requires strength, endurance, flexibility, grace, artistry and precise timing, not to mention exceptional breath control while upside down underwater. Developed in the early 1900s in Canada, it is a sport performed almost exclusively by women, although there is some participation by men. In its early form it was sometimes known as "water ballet".

Sculls are the basic elements of synchronized swimming and they are combined with one or more positions to form a figure, or complete movement. Figures can be combined with transition elements, such as above the water arm movements, and set to music, to form a routine.

There are hundreds of different regular positions and infinite combinations of positions. These are a few basic and commonly used ones:

Vertical position: Achieved by holding the body upside down and perpendicular to the surface of the water. The legs are held together above the water with toes pointed.

Crane position: While holding a vertical body position, the legs are held at a 90-degree angle with one parallel to the water and the other perpendicular.

Vertical bent knee: Similar to the vertical position, but one knee is bent as much as possible with the toe touching the inside of the vertical leg.

Ballet Leg: Beginning in a back layout, one leg is extended and held perpendicular to the body, while the other is held straight along the surface of the water. A stationary scull under the hips is used to support the leg.

Split position: Holding the body in a vertical position, the legs are extended in opposite directions along the surface of the water and held as flat as possible while keeping the hips straight.

It is a Summer Olympic Games sport. First demonstrated in 1952, it has been an official event since 1984. Olympic and World Championship competitions are not currently open to men, but other international and national competitions allow male competitors. Both USA Synchro and Synchro Canada allow men to compete with women.

Competitors point to the strength, flexibility, and aerobic endurance required to perform difficult routines. Swimmers perform two routines for the judges, one technical and one free.

 

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Sambo (martial art)

 Sambo is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev.

The word meaning is "self-defense without a weapon" in Russian. Sambo has its roots in Japanese Judo and traditional folk styles of wrestling. It has often been noted that Sambo was a demonstration sport at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, USSR.

A Sambo practitioner normally wears either a red or a blue jacket, a belt and shorts of the same color, and Sambo shoes. The Sambo uniform does not reflect rank or competitive rating. Sport rules require an athlete to have both red and blue sets to visually distinguish competitors on the mat.

Sambo was in part born of native Russian and other regional styles of grappling and combative wrestling, bolstered with the most useful and adaptable concepts and techniques from the rest of the world.

There are five generally recognized styles of Sambo: sports Sambo, self-defense Sambo, combat Sambo, special Sambo, etc. Sport Sambo is stylistically similar to amateur wrestling or Judo. The competition is similar to Judo, but with some differences in rules, protocol, and uniform. For example, in contrast with Judo, Sambo allows all types of leg locks, while not allowing chokeholds. Self-defense Sambo is based on self-defense application, such as defending against attacks by both armed and unarmed attackers. Combat Sambo includes practice with weapons, including disarming techniques. Special Sambo was developed for Army Special Forces and Rapid Reaction Police teams and other law enforcement formations. The "Special Sambo" version differs from team to team due to different tasks and aims, however the base of any special system developed in that field is of course Sambo. The term "Special Sambo" is a relatively new term which refers to specialized versions of combat Sambo.


Требования к зачету для студентов 2 курса


Чтение, говорение, письмо

Студент должен уметь:

Ø определять основное содержание прагматических текстов и текстов по широкому и узкому профилю специальности, по знакомым опорным словам, интернациональной лексике и с помощью лингвистического анализа (морфологической структуры слова, соотношения членов предложения и т.д);

Ø распознавать значение слов по контексту;

Ø воспринимать смысловую структуру текста;

Ø выделять главную и второстепенную информацию;

Ø обобщать факты;

Ø делать перевод (со словарем) фрагмента статьи или монографии;

Ø устно и письменно составлять тезисы, сделать сообщение на произвольную тему;

Ø писать частное и деловое письмо, биографию.

Рейтинговая система оценки успеваемости студентов 2 курс а

  Семестр III  
  Модуль I  
1 Устные темы: «Спорт в России и Великобритании», «Климат и погода» 3
2 Грамматика: «Past Continuous», «Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий», «Сравнительные конструкции», «Словообразование: суффиксы -al, -ful, -y», «Глаголы to get, to grow to turn, to look в качестве связок». 2
3 Спец. тексты: « Archery», « Shooting », « Aquatics» 3
4 Реферирование газетной статьи 2
5 Контрольный тест — 30 вопросов 10
  Итого за модуль 20
  Модуль II  
1 Устные темы: «Москва», «Лондон». 3
2 Грамматика: « The Present Perfect Tense», « The Present Perfect Continuous Tense», «Сложные местоимения и наречия». 2
3 Спец. тексты: «Judo & Taekwondo», « Canoeing», «Cycling & Triathlon». 3
4 Реферирование газетной статьи 2
 5 Контрольный тест — 30 вопросов 10
Итого за модуль 20
Модуль III
1 Устные темы: «Россия», «Великобритания». 3
2 Грамматика: «Страдательный залог» 2
3 Спец. тексты: «Equestrian», «Fencing», « Softball» 3
4 Реферирование газетной статьи 2
5 Контрольный тест — 30 вопросов 10
Итого за модуль 20
Выполнение творческих заданий различного вида (рефераты, презентации, проекты), участие в конференции (олимпиада, выступление с научной статьей) 40

Рекомендуемая литература

1. Шах-Назарова В.С., Журавченко К.В. Английский для Вас: Учеб. пособ.— М.: Вече, 2005.

2. Голицинский Ю.Б. Грамматика английского языка: Сборник упражнений. — М.: Вече, 2003.

3. Бонк Е.Л., Котий Г.И., Лукьянова Н.А. Учебник английского языка. — Минск, 1992.

4. Газета „Моscow News“.

5. Газета “Дайджест для изучающих английский язык ”.

6. Журина Т.Ю. 55 устных тем по английскому языку для школьников 5 — 11 кл. – М.: Дрофа, 2002.

7. Журнал “Speak Out”.

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