Present tenses with the future meaning
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Use (Future Simple)

1) decisions taken at the moment of speaking (on-the-spot decisions)

Since its getting dark, I’ll turn on the light.

2) hopes, fears, threats, offers, promises, warnings, predictions, requests, comments etc, esp. with: expect, hope, believe, l'm sure, l'm afraid, probably etc.

I'm afraid I’ll be a little late.

3) actions or predictions which may (not) happen in the future

She'll probably buy the dress. (prediction)

Or actions which we cannot control and will inevitably happen

He will be ten next year.

4) things we are not sure about or haven't decided to do yet

She'll probably be promoted, (not sure yet)

 

Time expressions: tomorrow, tonight, next week / month, in two / three etc days, the day after tomorrow, soon, in a week / month etc

 

7.1 Read these famous failed predictions. Then complete the sentence using will + the verb in brackets:

 

1. We are in September 1914: according to most newspapers in Britain and Germany, the war (be) will be over by Christmas. They cannot imagine that the war (continue) _______ until 1918, and (claim) _______ the lives of about 9 million in the military and a further 7 million civilians.

2. We are in 1919: according to geologist Albert Porta, the conjunction of six planets (cause) _______ the Sun to explode. In fact, the Sun (probably destroy) _______ the Earth one day, when it becomes a red giant in about 4.5 billion years.

3. We are in 1977: according to Ken Olson, head of a computer company, people (never want) _______ a computer in the home. Latest predictions (2005) suggest that computer ownership (reach) _______ 1.3 billion machines worldwide by 2010.

4. We are in 1999: according to many scientists, computers (crash) _______ and (cause) _______ chaos on the first day of the new millennium.

5. And one to look forward to: according to the Aztec calendar, the world (come) _______ to an end on 22 December 2012. We (have to) _______ wait and see.

 

7.2 Complete the sentence with will + a verb from the list:

 

Hold, carry, cost, take place, provide, sell, use

 

1. Most people know that London will hold the 2012 summer Olympic Games.

2. Most of the Games_______ in three areas of London: in the Olympic Park in East London; along the River Thames; and in Central London.
3. The Olympic Village, in the same area, _______ accommodation for over 17,000 athletes.

4. A new railway link _______ spectators to the Olympic Park.

5. The organizers _______ 8 million tickets for the Olympic Games, and a further 1.6 million for the Paralympics.

6. 75% of the tickets _______ less than £70.

7. For some events the Games _______ well-known places in Central London such as Hyde Park and Horse Guards Parade.

 

7.3 Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the future simple:

 

1. I'm sure he (not be) late. – I'm sure he won't be late.

2. (I open) the window for you? – Shall I open the window for you?

3. How long (the journey take?)

4. I suppose (she be) in London next week.

5. John (phone) your office for you.

6. (There be) a lot of people at the meeting?

7. What time (the race start?)

8. He (never agree) to your idea.

9. You (never see) your money again.

10. What's the matter? (I phone) the doctor?


Be going to

Use

1) actions intended to be performed in the near future

She's going to visit her parents tomorrow.

2) planned actions or intentions

Now that they've settled in their new house, they're going to have a party.

3) evidence that something will definitely happen in the near future

Ann is going to have a baby.

Look at the dark clouds in the sky It's going to rain.

4) things we are sure about or we have already decided to do in the near future

He's going to be promoted. (The boss has decided to do it.)

 

Time expressions: tomorrow, tonight, next week / month, in two / three etc days, the day after tomorrow, soon, in a week / month etc.

7.4 Write the correct form of “going to” and use one of these verbs to complete the sentences. Use each verb once only:

 

finish, complain, fall off, be, miss, die, rain, drive, work, fail

1. Look at those clouds! It is going to rain!

2. Look at the sun! It ______________ hot today.

3. Susan's not working very hard. I think she ________________ her exams.

4. He's very angry. He ________________ to the manager.

5. It's nearly four o'clock. The lesson ________________ soon.

6. I don't like travelling by plane. I _____________________ there.

7. This plan is too complicated. It (not) _____________________.

8. The President's very ill. I think he ______________________.

9. Watch the baby! She ______________________ the bed!

10. This bus is very slow. I think we _______________ the train.

 

7.5 Write these sentences in full, putting the verbs into the present continuous and supply the missing words where necessary :

 

1. I / see / them / Saturday. – I'm seeing them on Saturday.

2. They / come / here / three weeks. – They're coming here in three weeks.

3. I / meet / John / three o'clock.

4. What / you do / Friday night?

5. I / go / to the disco / Saturday evening.

6. We / go back / to the States / three years.

7. They / go on holiday / two days time.

8. I / not come home / Friday.

9. You / work late / tomorrow night?

10. We / not go to school / next week.

 

7.6 Write the correct form of “going to” or “will” to complete the dialogue:

 

Laura: What are you doing this weekend, Tanya?

Tanya: I am going to see (see) a new play tomorrow at the Royal Court Theatre – 'Day of the Flood'.

Laura: Have you got the tickets yet?

Tanya: No, I 2 ___________ (get) them this afternoon, actually. Would you like to come?

Laura: Oh, thank you, that would be nice.

Tanya: OK, I 3__________________ (get) you a ticket too.

Laura: Great! What time does it start?

Tanya: Eight o'clock, but we 4 ______________ (all meet) in the Green Cafe at 7.15.

Laura: OK, I 5___________________ (meet) you in the cafe, but I 6 _____________ (be) there about half-past seven.

Tanya: That's fine.

Laura: Oh, one other thing. I've got no money at the moment. I 7______________ pay for the ticket on Saturday. Is that OK?

Tanya: Yes, that's OK, no problem.

Laura: 8_______________ (you eat) in the cafe, or just have a cup of coffee?

Tanya: Just a coffee I think.

Laura: Look, 9________________(we go) to a restaurant after the show? I know a very good Chinese restaurant.

Tanya: That's a good idea – I 10______________ (phone) the others and see if they want to come too.

Laura: Good, and then I 11______________ (book) a table. Great! I 12 ___________ (see) you tomorrow.

 

NOTE: Present tenses should be used instead of future tenses in the conditional or time clauses: e.g. You will be very surprised when you meet him. (not “will meet”) e.g. He will not do anything unless you tell him to. (not “will tell”)

 

7.7 Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the future simple or present simple:

 

1. I (give) it to them when they (visit) us. – I’ll give it to them when they visit us.

2. I (not send) the parcel until I (hear) from you. – I won't send the parcel until I hear from you.

3. As soon as they (phone) me, I (contact) you.

4. I (see) you before I (fly) to Paris.

5. They (send) you the money before they (leave).

6. When I (talk) to him, I (give) him your news.

7. She (visit) her parents before she (go) to the airport.

8. I (finish) this when I (be) at the office.

9. I (send) you a postcard when I (get) to Bermuda.

10. She (do) her homework before she (go) out.

11. After I (visit) the hospital, I (go) and see her parents.

12. I (phone) Mary when we (get) to San Francisco.

13. I (call) you as soon as we (sign) the contract.

 

Present Perfect

Use

1) recently completed actions

She has tidied her room. (She has finished tidying her room. You can see it is tidy now. – evidence in the present)

2) actions which happened at an unstated past time and are connected with the present

He has lost his keys. (He is still looking for them.)

3) personal experiences / changes which have happened

I’ve lost 10 kilos.

4) emphasis on number

She's written three letters since this morning. She has called on two clients since 12 o'clock.

Time expressions: just, ever, never, already, yet (negations & questions), always, how long, so far, recently, since (= from a starting point in the past), for (= over a period of time), today, this week/month etc

 

Note: live, feel and work can be used either in the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Cont. with no difference in meaning.

I’ve been living / I’ve lived in Rome for a year.

8.1 Use the prompts to make a question:

e.g. you / ever / see a humming bird? – Have you ever seen a humming bird ? It's the world smallest bird.

1. you / ever / read War and Peace? It's one of the longest 19th-century novels.      

2. you / ever / visit San Marino? It's Europe’s second smallest country.

3. you / ever / swim in the Pacific Ocean? It's the largest ocean in the world.

4. you / ever / take a trip to the Sahara Desert? It's one of the hottest places in the world.

 

8.2 Complete each sentence with one of the time words in the list. You will need to use some words more than once:

 

Since, yet, for, already

 

In the laboratory ....

Sue: 'Haven't you left yet?'

Michael: 'No. I’ve been here _____ 8.00 this morning.'

Sue: 'Have you checked the results of the experiment _____? '

Michael: 'Yes, I’ve _____ done that.'

Sue: 'We’ve worked on this project _____ three weeks. Unfortunately we haven't discovered anything interesting _____.'

Michael: 'No, nothing has happened _____ last Tuesday.'

Sue: 'Yes, I know. I’ve _____ seen your report.'

Michael: 'So I’m going to do the experiment again. But I haven't started it _____.'

Sue: 'Don't bother. I’ve _____ started it. I haven't checked _____, but I think we're going to get the same results.'

 

NOTE: Spot the difference between the following: Have gone to / Have been to / Have been in

 

He has gone to Brussels. ( = He's there or on his way to Brussels.)

He has been to Brussels once. ( = He's visited Brussels but he's back now.)

He has been in Brussels for two months. ( = He's in Brussels now.)

 

8.3 Fill in: has - have been in/to, has - have gone to:

 

Editor:   Where's Stevens? I haven't seen him for days.

Secretary : He 1) has gone to Washington to interview Kim Basinger.

Editor: How long 2) ___ he_______ Washington?

Secretary : Three days.

Editor: What about Milton and Knowles?

Secretary : They 3) ___ _______ London. They're going to interview the Royal Family.

Editor: 4) ___ anyone _______ Paris to talk to Main Delon?

Secretary : Smith 5) ___ _______ his country house. He interviewed him there yesterday actually. He's coming back today.

 

8.4 Use the prompts to make a present perfect simple question about scientific advances. Then answer yes or no:

 

e.g. scientists / discover a cure for the common cold? – Have scientists discovered a cure for the common cold ?

 

1. people / live for long periods in space?

2. human beings / land on Mars yet?

3. scientists / invent time travel yet?

4. doctors / manage to transplant human hearts?

5. archaeologists / find the lost city of Atlantis?

6. scientists / ever teach an animal to talk?

Past simple

Use

1) past actions which happened one after the other

She sealed the letter, put a stamp on it and posted it

2) past habit or state

He used to go/went to school on foot

3) complete action or event which happened at a stated past time

She called an hour ago. (When? An hour ago.)

Action which happened at a definite past time although the time is not mentioned. This action is not connected with the present Shakespeare wrote a lot of plays. (Shakespeare is now dead; he won't write again. - period of time now finished)

Time expressions: yesterday, last week etc, (how long) ago, then, just now, when, in the 1945 etc.

9.1 Complete the sentence with the past simple form of the verb in brackets. Then decide if each sentence is True or False:

 

1. Greek actors (wear) wore masks and special boots. True

2. Spartan children (take) _______ baths only two or three times a year.

3. The philosopher Sуcrates (drink) _______ poison and died.

4. Alexander the Great's army (go) _______ as far as China.

5. Heron of Alexandria (make) _______ a kind of jet engine.

6. The Roman Emperor Caligula's name (mean) _______ 'Happy Soldier'.

7. Roman mathematics (have) _______ no zero.

8. Most Roman girls (get) _______ married at the age of 18.

9. Roman soldiers (pay) _______ for their own equipment and food.

10. The Romans (know) _______ how to make soap and cement.

9.2 Seven of the sentences (including the example) contain historical errors. Guess which ones are wrong and rewrite them with a negative past simple form:

1. Alexander the Great married Cleopatra. – Alexander the Great didn’t marry Cleopatra.

2. Nelson Mandela became President of South Africa in 1994.

3. Leonardo da Vinci invented the Internet.

4. Confucius the Chinese philosopher died in 1900.

5. Marco Polo stayed in China for five years.

6. The ancient Romans used steam engines in their battles.

7. Genghis Khan invaded Italy and captured Rome.

8. Christopher Columbus reached America by accident.

9. William Shakespeare wrote Don Quixote.

 

9.3 Rewrite each statement about the playwright William Shakespeare as a yes / no question:

 

1. He came from a rich family. Q Did he come from a rich family? – A No, not really. His father was a glove maker.

2. He grew up in London. Q ____________________________________?

A No, in Stratford upon Avon, a small town about 160 km from London.

3. He went to school. Q ________________________________________?

A Yes, we think so.

4. He knew Latin. Q __________________________________________?

A Yes, he learnt Latin at school, and some Greek as well.

5. He got married. Q __________________________________________?

A Yes, he was only 18 when he married Anne Hathaway, aged 26.

6. They had children. Q ________________________________________?

A Yes, a daughter Susanna, and twins, a boy Hamnet and a girl Judith.

7. He began writing plays in Stratford. Q ___________________________ _______________? A We don't really know. We only know that after 1592 he was an actor and writer in London.

8. He wrote 37 plays all by himself. Q ____________________________?

A Well, we know he wrote two plays together with John Fletcher. Some people think that all his plays were really written by somebody else.

9. He made up all the characters and plots of his plays. Q _____________ _______________________? A Actually no. He borrowed lots of ideas from other writers. This was quite usual in his time.

10. He became rich and famous. Q _______________________________?

A He certainly became quite rich, and his plays were popular. But he only became really famous in the 18th century and later.

 

Used to

 

Used to expresses past habits or states. It forms its negative and interrogative with "did" and it is the same in all persons. We can use Past Simple instead of "used to".

e.g. She used to walk / walked long distances. She didn't use to stay in and watch TV.

 

9.4 Complete the sentence with used to + a verb from the list:

 

write , spend, work, hold, help, act, teach, set, tell, do

 

1. Charles Dickens, the novelist, used to write until early in the morning, and then go for long walks across London.

2. William Shakespeare ______________ in some of his own plays.

3. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant ____________ exactly the same things at the same time every day, so that people ____________ their watches by his actions.

4. The author Agatha Christie ____________ her second husband with his archaeological excavations.

5. The novelist James Joyce _____________ English in the Italian city of Trieste, and some people say that he ___________ his students the wrong meanings of words as a joke.

6. The novelist Marcel Proust _______________ in a special soundproof room.

7. The ancient Greek philosophers _____________ their classes outside in the open air.

8. The Russian novelist Vladimir Nabokov ____________ his free time studying and catching moths and butterflies.

 

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 1310.