Past Simple versus Present Perfect
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Past Simple Present Perfect complete action which happened at a time in the past: e.g. She left yesterday. (When did she leave? Yesterday.) complete action which happened at a time in the past e.g. Don has left for Madrid. (We don't know when he left; unstated time; he's now there or on his way there.) past action which is and happened at a definite past time not mentioned e.g. I met John Lennon. (I won't meet him again; he's dead. – period of time finished) past action which is and happened at a definite past time not mentioned I've spoken to Richard Gere. (I may speak to him again; he's alive. – period of time not finished yet)

 

9.5 Find and underline examples of the present perfect:

Interviewer: I’m here today with Ozlem Turel, an ELT teacher who’s written a blog on teaching English. Welcome, Ozlem.

Ozlem: Thank you!

Interviewer: So, how long have you been a teacher, Ozlem?

Ozlem: For about six years now. I graduated in 2004 and then I started teaching.

Interviewer: OK, and do you teach only English or other subjects too?

Ozlem: I’ve only ever taught English.

Interviewer: How long have you had your current job?

Ozlem: For the last five years.

Interviewer: And how many different schools have you taught in?

Ozlem: I’ve taught in two different schools. I worked for two years in a primary school and now I work in a kindergarten.

Interviewer: What age groups have you taught and which is your favourite?

Ozlem: I’ve taught kindergarten, first, second and third grade, and also eighth grade students, and my favourite is kindergarten.

Interviewer: have you ever thought about changing your job?

Ozlem: No, never. I like it.

Interviewer: And what’s the best thing about being a teacher?

Ozlem: Well, I love to be surrounded by kids. And a teacher is always a student. You never stop learning. It’s my passion and I was born to do it.

Interviewer: OK, thank you for talking to us today, Ozlem.

Ozlem: You are welcome!

 

Grammar Quiz

Work in groups and circle the correct answers:

1. a) Ozlem worked for two years in a primary school.

q Does she work there now?          Yes / No

q What tense is the verb?                        Past Simple / Present Perfect

b) Ozlem has been a teacher for six years.

q Is she a teacher now?                  Yes / No

q What tense is the verb?                        Past Simple / Present Perfect

c) Circle the correct tense for the following rules:

q We use the Past Simple / Present Perfect when we talk about an action that happened in the past and is now finished.

q We use the Past Simple / Present Perfect for an action that started in the past and continues to the present.

2. a) Ozlem has taught fist and second grade.

q Do we know exactly when?        Yes / No

q What tense is the verb?                        Past Simple / Present Perfect

b) I taught first grade in 2005.

q Do we know exactly when?        Yes / No

q What tense is the verb?                        Past Simple / Present Perfect

c) Circle the correct tense for the following rules:

q We use the Past Simple / Present Perfect when we talk about something that happened at a specific time in the past.

q We often use the Past Simple / Present Perfect to talk about past experiences, when we don’t mention a specific time.

3. a) Pierre’s just come home from work.

q Is Pierre at home now?               Yes / No

q When did he arrive there? A long time ago / A short time ago

b) Pierre hasn’t come home from work yet.

q Is Pierre at home now?                Yes / No

q Do I expect him to come home? Yes /No

c) Which of the following sentences are correct?

q I’ve finished yet. / I’ve just finished. / I haven’t finished yet. / have you finished yet?

4. a) My dad’s gone to the doctor.

q Where is my dad?                       Here / At the doctor’s

b) My dad’s been to the doctor.

q Where is my dad?                       Here / At the doctor’s

c) Your husband arrives late home.

q What do you say?    “Where have you been?” / “Where have you gone?”

5. a) Ozlem has had her current job for the last five years.

q Complete the sentence:

Ozlem has had her current job since __________.

b) Circle the correct variant for the following rules:

q We use for / since when we describe a length of time.

q We use for / since when we describe a time from a point in the past to now.

q We can use “for” with the past simple / present perfect / both.

q We can use “since” with the past simple / present perfect / both.

 

9.7 Read the text about climate change. Choose the correct form, A or B, to complete the sentence:

At the moment, scientists agree that the world's climate 1) B warmer over the past 50 years, but they disagree about the causes. Some believe that human activities 2) ___ climate change. They argue that for 1,000 or 2,000 years before 1850, when records 3) ___, the temperature was more or less stable. Short warm or cold periods 4) ___ during that time, but the climate always 5) ___ to the same level. However, since the Industrial Revolution, human beings 6) ___ more and more fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. In 1800 the atmosphere 7) ___ around 280 parts per million of carbon dioxide (CO2). Since then there 8) ___ an increase of about 3 l%. This extra carbon dioxide 9) ___ the world's temperature because of the greenhouse effect.

   Other scientists disagree that human activities over the past 50 years 10) ___ global warming. They point out that volcanoes and other
natural processes 11) ___ CO2 into the atmosphere, and that human activity 12) ___ a rise in CO2 of only three per cent.

    In 1999, 156 countries 13) ___ the Kyoto protocol, part of a United Nations agreement on climate change, which 14) ___ into force in 2005.They 15) ___ to reduce their emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, although so far, some countries, such as the USA and Australia, 16) ___ any action.

1. A became                          B has become

2. A caused                        B have caused

3. A began                         B have begun

4. A occurred                     B have occurred

5. A returned                      B has returned

6. A burned                        B have burned

7. A contained                   B has contained

8. A was                             B has been

9. A raised                         B has raised

10. A caused            B have caused

11. A always released      B have always released

12. A contributed          B has contributed

13. A signed                        B have signed

14. A came               B has come

15. A agreed            B have agreed

16. A did not take          B have not taken


Present Perfect Continuous

Use

1) actions started in the past and continuing up to the present

e.g. He's been writing a letter for two hours. (He started two hours ago and he's still writing it)

2) past actions of certain duration having visible results or effects in the present

e.g. She's been crying. (Her eyes are red.)

3) actions expressing anger, irritation, annoyance, explanation or criticism

e.g. Who has been using my toothbrush? (annoyance)

4) emphasis on duration (usually with for, since or how long)

e.g. She's been calling on clients since this morning.

Time expressions: how long, for, since

 

Note: live, feel and work can be used either in the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Cont. with no difference in meaning.

e.g. I’ve been living / I’ve lived in Rome for a year.

 

10.1 Complete the sentence using the verb in brackets in the present perfect continuous form:

 

1. I’m sorry to keep you waiting. I hope you (not wait) __________ long.

2. There you are! We (look for) __________ you all morning!

3. I feel really tired. I (study) __________ hard lately.

4. Anna has got a really good suntan. She (go) __________ to the beach a lot.

5. Tom needs cheering up. He (have) __________ a lot of problems lately.

6. I haven’t seen you for ages. What (you / do) __________?

7. I (work) __________ here for the past three years, and I really like it.

8. Sam and Chris (paint) __________ their room, and their clothes are covered in paint!

 

10.2 Underline the correct form:

 

A. Scientists 1) have recently identified / have been identifying a new species of animal in the rainforest of Borneo. They 2) have been searching / searched for this creature for several years, after reports from local villagers, and say it is a type of lemur.

B. Archaeologists in Guatemala 3) have found / have been finding a Mayan wall painting which they think is more than 2,000 years old. Archaeologist William Saturno 4) explored / has been exploring the site since 2002.

C. Scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope think they 5) found / have found two new moons circling the planet Pluto. Astronomers 6) have been looking / looked closely at Pluto since 1978 when they 7) spotted / have spotted its first moon. The telescope 8) worked / has been working for fifteen years, and 9) has been producing / has produced more than 700,000 images of the universe.

D. Australian scientists 10) have been discovering / have discovered a new coral reef over 60 km long in the Gulf of Carpentaria by using satellites to spot the reefs in deep water. Recently divers 11) have managed / have been managing to reach the reefs and take photographs.

Past Continuous

 

Use

1) action in the middle of happening at a stated past time

e.g. He was playing tennis at 4.30 yesterday.

2) past action in progress interrupted by another past action. The longer action is in the Past Continuous, the shorter action is in the Past Simple.

e.g. While I was get­ting dressed the bell rang.

3) two or more simultaneous past actions

e.g. While I was sunbathing, Tim was swimming.

or background description to events in a story

e.g. She was flying to Par н s. The sun was shining...

 

Time expressions: while, when, as etc

 

11.1 * Underline the correct form:

 

1. While he took / was taking a bath, Archimedes discovered / was discovering the principles of density and buoyancy.

2. When Edouard Benedictus, a French scientist, worked / was working in his laboratory, he dropped / was dropping a glass bottle which had some plastic inside – and invented / was inventing safety glass.

3. Columbus arrived / was arriving in America while he tried / was trying to reach the Far East.

4. Alexander Fleming discovered / was discovering penicillin by accident while he looked / was looking at some old experiments.

5. While Hiram Bingham climbed / was climbing in the mountains of Peru in 1911, he discovered / was discovering the lost city of Macchu Picchu.

6. While Isaac Newton sat / was sitting under an apple tree, an apple fell / was falling on his head, and he understood / was understanding gravity.

7. While Dr Harry Coover tried / was trying to invent a new kind of plastic, he made / was making a very soft substance which stuck / was sticking things together. It was Superglue.

8. While he observed / was observing the Moon through his telescope, Galileo realized / was realizing that it had mountains and craters.

 

11.2A * Use the prompts to make a question. The answers are in Exercise 11.1:

e.g. Where / Edouard Benedictus / work when he invented safety glass? – Where was Edouard Benedictus working when he invented safety glass ?

1. Where / Columbus / try to go when he reached America?

2. Where / Isaac Newton / sit according to the story about gravity?

3. What / Dr Harry Coover / hope to invent?

4. What Galileo / look at / through his telescope?

 

11.2B * Complete the sentence with the past continuous form of the verb in brackets. The sentences refer to Exercise 12.1:

1. Edouard Benedictus (not try) _____________ to invent safety glass.

2. Alexander Fleming (not hope) _______________ to discover penicillin.

3. Hiram Bingham (not look for) ____________ the lost city of Macchu Picchu.

4. Isaac Newton (not sit) ____________ in his study when he understood gravity.

5. Dr Harry Coover (not conduct) ____________ an experiment to discover a kind of glue.

 

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 879.