Text 1. Environmental impact
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Study the following text and point out the main negative impacts of tourism.

Vocabulary

1 quantification – определение количества

2 precisely – точно

3 per annum – в год, ежегодно

4 attributable – могущий быть приписанным, отнесенным (к чему-л.)

5 efficiency – эффективность, результативность

6 sustainable – экологически рациональный

7 commitment – обязательство

8 aspiration – стремление; сильное желание

9 offsetting – возмещение, вознаграждение, компенсация

10 exempted from – освобождать (от обязанности, налога - from)

11 redress – возмещение, компенсация

12 threshold – порог, пороговая величина

13 to flaw – повредить, испортиться

14 inconclusive - неубедительный; нерешающий; неокончательный

15 eligible for – годный, пригодный для

 

External costs, also referred to as hidden costs, are quantifications of the environmental impacts of air transport. Whilst setting a financial value on all such impacts is difficult to do precisely, figures have been produced for the most significant. In 2000 the government valued the annual cost of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions from UK air transport at £1.4 billion, rising to £4.8 billion per annum by 2030. The impact of noise was costed at around £25 million per annum in 2000, and for the same year the impact on air quality was costed at between £119 million and £236 million per annum. Based on figures produced by the European Environment Agency the AEF has calculated a much higher total external cost for 2000 of around £6 billion.

Whilst carbon emissions from all UK activities other than aviation had declined by 9 per cent in the 10 years between 1990 and 2000, carbon emissions from aviation activities doubled in the same period. Air transport in the UK accounted for 6.3 per cent of all UK carbon emissions in 2006. When the radiative forcing impact of other emissions are taken into account the total impact of emissions attributable to aviation is estimated to be twice that of its carbon emissions alone. Although the government has committed to reducing total UK carbon emissions by 60 per cent from existing levels by 2050, its policy is based on the use of "… economic instruments to ensure that growing industries are catered for within a reducing total." Even if this reduction in total carbon emissions is achieved, research published in February 2006 concluded that aviation could account for between 24 per cent and 50 per cent of the UK's carbon budget by 2050.

The aviation industry is seeking to reduce its climate change impacts by becoming more fuel efficient, and in the last 40 years fuel efficiency has more than doubled. In June 2005, Sustainable Aviation; a joint initiative involving a number of UK airlines, airports, manufacturers and the air traffic service provider NATS, was launched with a vision statement relating to environmental issues of "…removing or minimising any negative impacts on the local and global environment…". One of its commitments is to achieve, by means of airframe, engine and air traffic management improvements, a 50% reduction in CO2 emissions, and an 80% reduction in NOx emissions in new aircraft of 2020 relative to new aircraft in 2000. These are however long term aspirations, and whilst progress is being made in engine development, the more immediate efforts of Sustainable Aviation to address climate change are directed towards supporting research, common reporting of emissions, emissions trading, and personal offsetting.

Under the provisions of the Civil Aviation Act aircraft in flight are specifically exempted from trespass and nuisance controls, which denies any form of redress to those living near airports who are disturbed by noise. Government sanctioned measurements of noise near airports take an average sound level, measured in decibels (dB), over a 16 hour day, and are expressed as an LAeq figure. Officially, 57 dB LAeq is the threshold at which noise levels become disturbing, 63 dB LAeq represents moderate disturbance, whilst 69dB LAeq represents high disturbance. Technological improvements in aircraft design means that aircraft are becoming quieter. Taking Heathrow as an example, between 1990 and 2004 the area around the airport affected by noise levels of 57 db LAeq and above fell by 60 per cent, whilst the number of people similarly affected fell by 51 per cent. Campaign groups dispute the methodology used to measure noise, asserting that it is flawed in a number of ways. Amongst other issues they point to the World Health Organisation view that annoyance begins at 50 db LAeq whilst serious annoyance begins at 55 dB LAeq, and they assert that the LAeq measurement does not give sufficient weight to the increasing incidence of noise events. Their conclusion is that noise levels, and the number of people affected, have increased rather than decreased. This is borne out by the latest survey of attitudes to noise published in November 2007 which reports that, compared with over 20 years ago, more people today are annoyed by the same level of noise as measured by LAeq. Whilst this may be attributable to changing attitudes, the report concludes that the contribution of aircraft numbers to annoyance has increased, and that an alternative method of estimating levels of annoyance that takes this into account would appear to be more relevant than the LAeq measurement. The report has attracted criticism in peer reviews, and one such review, characterising the survey as inconclusive, counsels "... against using the detailed results and conclusions [...] in the development of government policy."

Air quality around airports is another major issue and a 2006 study found that levels of nitrogen dioxide exceeds EU guidelines at more than two thirds of airports surveyed. Whilst aircraft contribute to the problem the study states that "…cars, buses and taxis ferrying passengers to and from these sites are dominant sources of pollution." Birmingham airport dismissed the findings, asserting that the results were skewed by M42 motorway traffic unrelated to the airport, whilst studies at Southampton Airport attribute 5.55 per cent of total pollutants to airport activities, the majority of the remainder being generated by non-airport related road traffic. The government recognises Heathrow as the only UK airport where national and European air quality limits are being exceeded.

Birmingham airport, for example, has been operating a sound insulation scheme since 1978, in which 7,600 properties are eligible for sound proof glazing paid for by the airport. Schemes are also available to residents most affected by noise around Heathrow, designed to protect property prices ahead of any development of a third runway, assist with relocation costs for people who wish to move, and provide sound insulation for private and communal property currently affected by noise.

 

Text work

1. Give Russian equivalents:

1 also referred to as hidden costs

2 difficult to do precisely

3 from all UK activities other than aviation

4 is seeking to reduce its climate change impacts

5 a joint initiative

6 the air traffic service provider

7 exempted from trespass and nuisance controls

8 the threshold at which noise levels become disturbing

9 flawed in a number of ways

10 non-airport related road traffic

 

2. Find synonyms to the following words:

1 costs

2 impact

3 to decline

4 to estimate

5 to achieve

6 disturbance

7 survey

8 relevant

9 to exceed

10 property

3. Find antonyms to the following words:

1 improvement

2 reduction

3 increased

4 dominant

5 available

 

4. Match the given words with definitions:

 

1 emission                   a) the feeling of being irritated, bothered

2 impact                      b) the action of worrying or alarming; breaking the rest,

                                         concentration or calm of somebody/something  

3 commitment             c) the production or release of something, e.g. light, heat,

                                         gass, etc.  

4 disturbance               d) a strong impression or effect on somebody/something 

5 annoyance                e) a thing one has promised to do

 

5. Read and translate the following groups of words derived from a common root:

1 to quantify – quantity – quantitative – quantitatively – quantification

2 to emit – emission – emissive – emissively – emitted – emittance

3 account – accountant – accountability – accountable – accountably – accountancy

4 to commit – commitment – commited – committal – committer

5 to conclude – concluded – conclusion – conclusive – conclusively – conclusiveness

 

6. Answer the questions:

1 Gow can you define the external costs?

2 How did the government value the annual cost of climate change?

3 How did carbon emissions change in the last decade?

4 What is the reaction of aviation industry to its climate change impacts?

5 How strong should be the noise near the airports to disturb and annoy people?

6 Do you know how noise influences the human organism?

7 What is the quality of air around airports?

8 Is it comfortable to live not far from the airports? Discuss it with your partner.

 

7. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1 There are more positive than negative impacts on nature from tourism.

2 We should travel only by land transport.

3 Comfort for traveling is more important than negative impacts of transport.

 

Text 2. Ecotourism

Scan the text to grasp the general idea. Find the passage describing the main characteristics of ecotourism. Retell it to your partner.

Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals. Generally speaking, ecotourism focuses on volunteering, personal growth, and learning new ways to live on the planet. It typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions.

Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for the local communities.

Ideally, ecotourism should satisfy several criteria, such as:

 - conservation of biological diversity and cultural diversity through ecosystem protection

 - promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity, by providing jobs to local populations

 - sharing of socio-economic benefits with local communities and indigenous people by having their informed consent and participation in the management of ecotourism enterprises

 - tourism to unspoiled natural resources, with minimal impact on the environment being a primary concern.

 - minimization of tourism's own environmental impact

 - affordability and lack of waste in the form of luxury

 - local culture, flora and fauna being the main attractions

For many countries, ecotourism is not simply a marginal activity to finance protection of the environment but is a major industry of the national economy. For example, in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nepal, Kenya, Madagascar, and Antarctica, ecotourism represents a significant portion of the gross domestic product and economic activity.

The concept of ecotourism is widely misunderstood, and in practice is often used as a marketing tool to promote tourism which is related to nature. This is an especially frequent malpractice in the realm of Jungle tourism. Critics claim that ecotourism as practiced and abused often consists of placing a hotel in a splendid landscape, to the detriment of the ecosystem. According to them, ecotourism must above all sensitize people to the beauty and the fragility of nature. They condemn some operators as “greenwashing” their operations: using the label of “green-friendly”, while behaving in environmentally irresponsible ways.

Although academics disagree about who can be classified as an ecotourist and there is precious little statistical data, some estimate that more than five million ecotourists - the majority of the ecotourist population - come from the United States, with others from Western Europe, Canada, and Australia.

Currently there are various moves to create national and international ecotourism accreditation programs, although the process is also controversial. Ecotourism certificates have been put in place in Costa Rica, although some critics have dismissed these programs as greenwashing.

 

Vocabulary

1 conscious – сознательный, осознанный; сознающий

2 volunteering – добровольный, добровольческий

3 heritage – наследство; наследие

4 to enhance – увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать

5 to evaluate – оценивать

6 recycling – переработка отходов; повторное использование

7 conservation – охрана, сохранение; защита

8 indigenous – местный, туземный

9 malpractice – противозаконное действие

10 to sensitize – делать чувствительным, повышать чувствительность

 

Text work

1. Give Russian equivalents to the given phrases:

1 ecologically and socially conscious individuals

2 focuses on volunteering, personal growth

3 cultural heritage

4 enhance the cultural integrity of local people

5 biological and cultural diversity

6 unspoiled natural resources

7 affordability and lack of waste

8 malpractice in the realm of Jungle tourism

9 the beauty and the fragility of nature

10 national and international ecotourism accreditation programs

 

2. Fill in the table with words with common root:

Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
  environment    
diversify      
    conservative  
      Controversially

 

3. Decide whether the statements are true or false:

1 The main purpose of ecotourism is not to damage the environment.

2 Ecotourism is not represented in Kenya, Madagascar, and Antarctica.

3 Ecotourism should sensitize people to the beauty and the fragility of nature.

4 Ecotourism is mostly greenwashing and not an ecological programme for conservation of our planet.

5 There are no negative impacts of tourism, so we don’t need such programme as ecotourism.

 

4. Scan the following information and make your own conclusion if ecotourism is helpful for our environment or not? Discuss it with your groupmates.

Ecotourism activities are, in of itself, issues in environmental impact because they disturb fauna and flora. Ecotourists believe that because they are only taking pictures and leaving footprints, they keep ecotourism sites pristine, but even harmless sounding activities such as a nature hike can be ecologically destructive. In the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal, ecotourists have worn down the marked trails and created alternate routes, contributing to soil impaction, erosion, and plant damage. Where the ecotourism activity involves wildlife viewing, it can scare away animals, disrupt their feeding and nesting sites, or acclimate them to the presence of people. In Kenya, disruption of wildlife observers drive cheetahs off their reserves, increasing the risk of inbreeding and further endangering the species.

5. Project work. Work in groups of three. Look at the given pictures and try to create your own programme of harmless tourism for our flora and fauna.

                            

Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica                  Elephant safari after the Indian Rhinoceros in

                                                                          Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal

 

                           

Gnus and zebras in the Maasai Mara                    Lake Titicaca in Puno

park reserve in Kenya.

 

 

           

The Huascarán National Park in Ancash          The jaguar, an animal native to the national

                                                                           parks of Peru

 

 

 

Glossary

A

a great deal of – много, большое количество чего-л.

abolition – отмена, аннулирование

abolition – отмена; упразднение

abseil – спускаться на веревке (об альпинистах)

accommodation – помещение, жилье, ночлег, приют, убежище;

accompaniment – сопутствующий продукт

accurate – правильный, точный

acquis – согласие

adjacency - соседство; смежность, сопредельность

advent – наступление ( какой-л. эпохи, какого-л. события )

affectation – претенциозность, манерность

affiliate – устанавливать

affiliated body - филиал, отделение

affix – ставить (подпись, печать)

affordable - возможный; допустимый; по средствам

alcoholic beverage - алкогольный напиток

alehouse - бар; пивная

alehouse – бар; пивная

alert – тревога, сигнал тревоги

ambiance – окружение; обстановка, среда

amendment – поправка (к резолюции, законопроекту)

amenities - прелести, красоты

amenities – прелести, красоты

ample - богатый, просторный

ancestry - происхождение; родословная

anchored – надежно закрепленный

anxious - озабоченный, беспокоящийся

apparent – видимый, очевидный, явный

appeal to - привлекать, притягивать

arrack – арак (спиртной напиток из риса)

aspiration – стремление; сильное желание

assess - оценивать

associate with – ассоциировать с

associate with - ассоциировать, связывать

assume – принимать, брать на себя

assume – принимать, считать

attachment – прикрепление, присоединение

attest – подтверждать

attributable – могущий быть приписанным, отнесенным (к чему-л.)

auspice – покровительство

austerity – строгость

authentic – аутентичный, истинный, настоящий

autonomous – автономный, независимый

average annual rate -средний годовой уровень

B

backgammon – нарды (игра)

ban – налагать запрет

be conscripted to - призванный на военную службу

be drawn to - зд. привлекать, притягивать, соблазнять

be driven by - обусловлен, вызван (чем-либо)

be established by - быть учрежденным кем-либо

be in existence – существовать

be licensed – имеет разрешение, право

be subject to – подвергать (воздействию, влиянию и т. п.)

beam – балка, брус

bedrock – скальное основание

benefit - выгода; преимущество

bierkeller – пивной погребок

biometric – биометрический

boar – кабан

bound - обязанный, связанный обязательством

breakdown – распад; развал

brewery – пивоваренный завод

bring about – вызывать

broadband connectivity - широкополосная связь

buckling – перекашивание; потеря устойчивости

buffet – "шведский стол"

buoyancy – плавучесть; способность держаться на поверхности воды

buyout – выкуп; поглощение

C

Canterbury Tales - "Кентерберийские рассказы" (знаменитое произведение Джеффри Чосера) [Geoffrey Chaucer, 1340?-1400]

carrier –авиаперевозчик; авиакомпания

cask ale – бочковое пиво, эль

catering – поставка, снабжение

cease - переставать ( делать что-л ), прекращать(ся)

charge - запрашивать цену

childcare - уход за ребёнком

chopsticks – палочки для еды

chutney – чатни (индийская кисло-сладкая фруктово-овощная приправа)

citizenship – гражданство

cleanliness – чистота; чистоплотность; опрятность

cliff – обрыв, клиф

cloister - монастырь

closely – внимательно, тщательно

collaboration – сотрудничество; участие, совместная работа

commitment – обязательство

community - общество

comparability – сопоставимость

comprehensive – полный

concomitant - сопутствующий, сопровождающий

condiment – приправа

condominium – совладение

confusion – неразбериха, путаница

congregate – собирать(ся)

congruent – соответствующий

conscious – сознательный, осознанный; сознающий

consecutive – последовательный;

consent – согласие

conservation – охрана, сохранение; защита

constitute - составлять

consular – консульский

consumption - потребление; затрата, издержки, расход;

contemporary - новый, современный

contribute – вносить вклад;

controversy – разногласия

convenience – удобство, пригодность

convention - собрание, встреча

convention – собрание, съезд

convert – переделывать (into); преобразовывать

convert – преобразовывать, превращать

convert into – превращать

curious - любопытный

currently - теперь, в настоящее время

custody – владение (чем-л.)

D

decree – выносить постановление, распоряжение

dedicate to – посвящать (чему-либо)

deduct – вычитать

deli meat – деликатесное мясо

delineate – очерчивать, обрисовывать

denomination – номинал банкноты

denote - обозначать

depreciation – снижение стоимости, обесценивание

derive from - происходить от

descent – спуск, скат, склон

designator – указатель

detention – задержание, арест

devaluation – обесценивание

discontinue – прекращать (действие)

disembark – высаживаться

disorder - нарушение, расстройство ( какой-л. функции организма )

dispute – оспаривать

distinction - отличие, различие

distribute – распределять

diverse – иной, отличный от чего-л.

downside – недостаток

draft dodger – лицо, уклоняющееся от призыва на военную службу

drawee – трассат

due to - благодаря; вследствие; в результате

dweller – жилец, житель; обитатель

E

efficiency – эффективность, результативность

elaborately – тщательно, детально разработанный

eligible for – годный, пригодный для

embargo – правительственный запрет

embrace – принимать

emerge - появляться

employee – служащий; работающий по найму

enact – устанавливать; вводить закон; постановлять

encompass – заключать

encompass – окружать, заключать;

endangered – находящийся под угрозой исчезновения (о виде)

enforcement – правоприменение

enhance – увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать

en-suite - смежный, соседний

entree – главное блюдо (амер.)

entrepreneur – предприниматель

environment - окружение, окружающая обстановка; окружающая среда;

equipment – оборудование

erect - сооружать; устанавливать; поднимать; возводить

esplanade - эспланада, площадка для прогулок; ровная открытая местность

espouse – поддерживать

essential – неотъемлемый, необходимый

estate – поместье, имение

evaluate – оценивать

eventually – со временем

evoke – пробуждать (чувства); вызывать (воспоминание, восхищение)

exceed – превышать

exclude – исключать

excursionist – турист, экскурсант

exempted from – освобождать (от обязанности, налога - from)

exemption – освобождение (от налога и т. п.)

exhaustion – изнеможение, истощение

exhibit in - выставлять(ся); экспонировать(ся) на выставке

expand – развивать(ся), увеличивать(ся)

expectancy - ожидание

expenditures – расходы

expire – кончаться, истекать (о сроке)

F

face - выходить, быть обращенным (в определенную сторону)

facilitate - облегчать; способствовать; помогать

facilitation – облегчение, помощь

fame for - прославлять (за что-либо), славить

fare – стоимость проезда, тариф, плата за проезд

ferry – перевоз

fiery – жгучий, острый (о вкусе)

flat price – единая цена

flaw – повредить, испортиться

flee – убегать; исчезать

float – плыть

flood – изобилие, избыток; множество

floor show – представление среди публики (в ночном клубе, ресторане, кабаре и т. п.)

flyover – эстакада

fodder - корм для скота

foreigner - иностранец

fortification - фортификация, укрепление

fragile – ломкий, хрупкий

franchise – лицензия на продажу товара в определенном районе

fraud – мошенничество, обман

freight – груз, фрахт

freight-hauling – транспортировка груза

frequent – часто посещать

friction – трение

fusion – объединение, слияние

G

gambling – азартная игра; игра на деньги

game meat – мясо животных, добытых на охоте

gear – принадлежности

gentry - джентри (мелкое и среднее дворянство)

genuine – истинный, подлинный

go-go dancer – танцовщица в дискотеке

gorge – узкое ущелье, теснина

gourmet – гастроном, гурман

grandeur – грандиозность; великолепие; богатство

grant – предоставлять

gravy – подливка (из сока жаркого), соус, сок

guideway – направляющий путь

Guinness Stout – Гиннес (крепкий ирландский портер)

H

halt – останавливать, задерживать

hangout – постоянное место сборищ/встреч (for)

heritage - наследство; наследие

heritage – наследство; наследие

heritage – наследство; наследие;

heyday – зенит, расцвет, лучшая пора

highlight – выделять, подчеркивать

hire – нанимать

HIV – вирус иммунодефицита человека

hookah – кальян

hors d'oeuvre – закуска

hospitality - гостеприимность, гостеприимство;

huge – огромный

hull – основной корпус

I

imagery - образы, мысли, представления

imam – имам

immature – незрелый

impact - сильное воздействие; влияние

impending – будущий, грядущий

implementation – выполнение, исполнение, осуществление, реализация

impressive - производящий глубокое впечатление; впечатляющий; выразительный

improvement - улучшение, усовершенствование

in accord with – в соответствии с (чем-л.)

in addition to – в добавление, к тому же, сверх, кроме того

in advance – до, заблаговременно

in particular – в особенности, в частности

inaccessibility – недоступность, недосягаемость; неприступность

inadvertently – невнимательно; небрежно, неосторожно

inbound – прибывающий, возвращающийся;

incentive – побуждение, стимул

incentive – поощрение, стимул

inconclusive - неубедительный; нерешающий; неокончательный

indigenous – местный, туземный

inhabitant – житель, обитатель

initially - в начале

initially – в начальной стадии, в начале

intervene – вмешиваться

intrabound tourism – внутренний туризм;

investigation – расследование, следствие

J

joint – совместный

jumbo jet - авиалайнер-гигант

K

knotting – связывание, завязывание в узел

L

latitude - широта

launching – начало (чего-л.)

lease – сдавать внаем, в аренду; брать внаем, в аренду

legitimate – законный

legitimate – законный, легальный; легитимный

levy on/upon – облагать налогом;

livery – прокат

locate on - располагать в определенном месте; помещать, размещать

lodging - жилище, жилье

lodging - жилище, жилье

lodging – жилище, жилье

long hours – удлиненный рабочий день

luxury - богатство, пышность, роскошь

M

maglev – магнитная подвеска

maintenance – содержание и техническое обслуживание

malpractice – противозаконное действие

manpower – рабочая сила

memorable – запоминающийся

merchant – торговец, торговая фирма

merge – сливать(ся), соединять(ся) (into, with)

mom-and-pop - семейный (имеется в виду небольшой магазин или какое-либо мелкое предприятие, обычно управляемое семейной парой)

monitor – наблюдать, следить, смотреть

multiple – многократный; множественный

mutton – баранина

N

niche – надлежащее место (область, сфера деятельности)

nobility - дворянство

nomenclature – перечень, список

nominal supply - минимальное наличие

non-perishable – непортящийся

noodles – лапша; лентовидные макаронные изделия

nutrient – питательное вещество

O

obligor – лицо [сторона], взявшее на себя какое-л. обязательство; заемщик

obscure – скрывать, прятать

obvious – очевидный, явный, ясный

'off the peg' - готовый

off-duty – не при исполнении служебных обязанностей

offsetting – возмещение, вознаграждение, компенсация

old-fashioned – несовременный, старомодный

omnibus – омнибус; автобус

on site – на месте

opt out – не принимать участия; устраняться, уклоняться

opulence – изобилие, богатство

opulently – обильно; пышно

ostentatious – показной; внешний, нарочитый; хвастливый

outbound – отправляемый за границу, вылетающий международным рейсом;

outskirt - край, окраина

overland – по суше; на суше

overlap – частично совпадать

owner - владелец

P

parasol – балдахин, тент (от солнца); небольшой зонтик (от солнца)

parking lot – место стоянки автотранспорта

partake – принимать участие

patron – постоянный покупатель, клиент

patronage - покровительство, попечительство

penetrate – пропитывать

per annum – в год, ежегодно

permit – разрешать, позволять

personnel – персонал, кадры

pickles – соленые или маринованные огурцы

pilgrimage - основание

ply – курсировать, маневрировать, лавировать

pond – пруд; маленькое озеро

pop up – неожиданно возникнуть

portfolio – портфель ценных бумаг

portmanteau - слово-гибрид (искусственное слово, составленное из двух слов, напр.: motel = motor + hotel) 

possession - владение, собственность, имущество

pot-roasted – тушеное мясо

poultry – домашняя птица

precipitate – торопить, ускорять

precipitation – выпадение осадков

precisely – точно

predecessor - предшественник

premise - помещение, дом

premises – помещение

preprinted – предварительно напечатанный

prevalent - распространенный, общепринятый

price bracket – ценновой диапазон, ценовая категория, ценовые рамки

prior – предшествующий

procure - доставлять; обеспечивать

prominent – выдающийся, знаменитый, известный

prosecuted – преследуемый судебным порядком

prosperous - богатый, обеспеченный, состоятельный

provision - обеспечение, предоставление; снабжение;

purpose – цель

putsch – путч

Q

quantification – определение количества

quarter – место

R

railway – железная дорога, железнодорожный путь 

rally - съезд, слет; митинг

rate – оценивать, расценивать, ценить

rather than – скорее . . . , чем . . .

receipt – расписка, квитанция

reception - приемная (в гостинице)

reciprocal – взаимный, обоюдный

recitation – повествование; публичное чтение

recreation – отдых, развлечение

recreation - отдых; восстановление здоровья, душевных и физических сил; выздоровление

recreational - развлекательный, относящийся к сфере развлечений, отдыху

recycling – переработка отходов; повторное использование

redeem – выкупать

redress – возмещение, компенсация

refer to – иметь отношение, относиться к чему-либо

refer to - ссылаться на

reflect in - отражаться в чем-либо

refreshment – восстановление сил; отдых

regardless of – не обращая внимания; невзирая на; не считаясь с

remaining – остальной

remote – далекий, отдаленный

remunerate – вознаграждать, компенсировать, оплачивать;

renew – обновлять, продлить срок действия

rental pickup – сбор арендной платы

resemble – напоминать

resemble – походить, иметь сходство

reside – проживать, жить (где-л.); пребывать

respond to - реагировать, отзываться

restore – восстанавливать, возвращать в прежнее состояние; реконструировать

retinue – свита, эскорт

retirement – выход в отставку; уход на пенсию

retreating - отступающий; уходящий назад, удаляющийся

revenue – доход

revive – возрождать

revive - оживлять; возрождать

revolve – периодически возвращаться

route – маршрут, дорога, путь

rowing – гребля

rugged – пересеченный, заваленный, труднопроходимый

rugged – труднопроходимый (о местности)

rush – прилив, приток

S

sachet - маленький пакет

sample - пробовать на вкус, дегустировать

scheduled – запланированный, предусмотренный графиком

scorching – обжигающий

scramble – пробираться с трудом; карабкаться; ползти

seasonality – сезонность

seasoning – приправа; специи

seclusion – отделение, изоляция

self-contained - изолированный, отдельный

sensitize – делать чувствительным, повышать чувствительность

sequence – последовательность

service passport – служебный паспорт

set up – подготавливать

shedding – снижение

shift – сдвигать, менять;

shuttle bus – пригородный автобус

sleeper – шпала

sommelier – служащий ресторана, ведающий спиртными напитками

son-in-law – зять (муж дочери)

soundproofing – звукоизоляция

span - измерять, мерить, отмерять

spin off – развиваться из чего-л. 

split among - распределять между

spring up - возникать, появляться

spring up – возникать, появляться

stableman – грум; конюх

stabling - конюшня

stamp – ставить печать

standard of living - жизненный уровень, уровень жизни; материальное благосостояние

start out – начинать профессиональную деятельность

stay - пребывание, жительство, остановка

steep – крутой

stew - блюдо из тушеного мяса или рыбы

stricture – строгая критика, осуждение

strip – снимать верхний слой

subsidiary – дочерняя компания

substantial - важный, значимый, значительный

substantial – крепкий, прочный, солидный

substantial – питательный, основной

suffice – быть достаточным, хватать

sumptuously - роскошно; превосходно; богато

supposedly - по общему мнению, предположительно

surplus - избыток, излишек

sustainable – экологически рациональный

T

take charge of – взять на себя заботу; осуществлять контроль

tend to - иметь тенденцию (к чему-л.); клониться, склоняться (к чему-л.)

tercentennial - трехсотлетняя годовщина, трехсотлетие;

terminous - конечная станция; цель, место назначения

terrain – местность, место, территория, район

threshold – порог, пороговая величина

tiny – крошечный, очень маленький

toddy – пунш, тодди; пальмовый сок

tolerance – терпимость

tolerate – допускать; дозволять, позволять, разрешать

torch – осветительный прибор (факел, фонарь)

torrent – стремительный поток; ливень

trader - трейдер, торговец

trail – тропа, тропинка

transaction – сделка, торговая операция

treaty – договор, соглашение, конвенция

trekking – путешествие (особенно длительное, сопряженное с трудностями)

tributary – дополнительный, второстепенный

tumultuous - шумный, буйный, бурный

turn somebody away - отворачивать; отклонять

U

ubiquitous – вездесущий; повсеместный

umbrella term – широкий, общий термин

unconditional – безоговорочный, безусловный

undercut – сбивать цены; продавать по более низким ценам

undertake - предпринимать, совершать

unpretentious – скромный, простой

usher – вводить (in)

V

valid – действительный, имеющий силу; правомерный

validity – действительность, законность

vary – изменяться, меняться

vegan – строгий вегетарианец

vehicle – транспортное средство

venison – оленина

venue – место

verbiage – формулировка

verify – проверять; сверять

vessel – корабль, судно

viable – жизнеспособный

vicinity - близость, соседство; окрестности; округа; район

vis a vis – в отношении, по отношению

volunteering – добровольный, добровольческий

W

waive – не требовать выполнения чего-л.

wane - убывать, уменьшать, снижаться

watershed – водораздел

withdraw – забирать; отзывать

wok – котелок с выпуклым днищем (особ. для блюд китайской кухни)

woodruff – ясменник (душистый)

Z

zeppelin – цеппелин (вид дирижабля)

zest – пикантность, особенность; особый вкус

 

Tourism terms

Accommodations are places at which travelers can obtain a bed and food while on a trip, in other words, hotels, motels, inns, camping grounds, hostels, and so forth.

Affinity group is a group of people with the same purpose or interests traveling to the same destination. An example can be a garden club making a tour of English gardens.

Amusement Park is an area that offers different kinds of amusements or entertainments, such as thrill rides, magic shows.

Brochure is a pamphlet usually put out for promotional purposes.

Car rental agency (or car hire in England) is a service for renting automobiles for short periods of time.

Caravanning or camping means traveling with one's own facilities for shelter and often for eating. A caravan or van is a type of vehicle with sleeping space. In camping, the traveler carries a tent or other equipment with him.

Casino is a place for gambling. Where gambling is legal, some hotels and motels include casinos. In Las Vegas, for instance, the hotels are really secondary to gambling. They feed, house and entertain the guests, but the real profits come from the casinos.

Charter plane is an aircraft that has been rented to fly when and where the service is desired.

Chartering means renting an aircraft, usually from nonscheduled airline

Commission is a per centage of the price of a sale that is paid to the seller. Travel agents work on a commission basis for most of their business.

Condominium is a building or group of buildings in which a unit can be bought by an individual. The public spaces are owned jointly by all the purchasers of the individual units.

Consultant is a person who offers his experience and knowledge in a particular field to individual customer on a fee basis. There are consultants and consulting firms in the tourist industry.

Convention is a meeting at which people usually within the same field or business exchange their ideas, experiences, specialized knowledge, and so on.

Cruise is a pleasure voyage by ship. It is not part of a regularly scheduled service.

Direct mailing is a form of promotion that involves mailing brochures or throwaways to a selected list of people.

Entertainment includes activities that amuse people, such as going to theatres, night clubs, and art exhibitions and so on.

Excursion is a trip away from a person's usual place of residence for less than 24 hours, although weekend trips are often classified as excursions. A person who takes such a trip is an excursionist.

Family Plan is a basis for calculating fares on some airlines. Members of a family traveling with the head of the family get reduced fares.

Franchise means a business operated according to guidelines and standards set down by whoever sells or leases the franchise.

Free-lancers are people who work for themselves. Many free-lance writers specialize in the travel field.

Free port is a port where people can buy some types of merchandise without paying customs duties on their purchases.

Fringe benefits are other benefits than pay rises. The most important fringe benefit in relation to tourism is the paid vacation.

Front-desk employees are hotel personnel who work at the registration, information and cashier's desks.

Gourmet is a lover of good food. The word is also used as an adjective to describe food of special, very delicious taste, as in the phrase "gourmet meal

Guest house or a tourist home means a small establishment that accommodates travelers. They usually have relatively few rooms.

Guided tour is a tour for sightseeing purposes that is accompanied by a guide.

Handicraft is the art or skill of making articles by hand, often pottery or fabrics.

IT means inclusive tour, a packaged tour that offers transportation, accommodations, and often other inducements. Transportation on most inclusive tours is on the scheduled airlines, although some is by bus and by rail.

Independent traveler is a traveler or tourist who is traveling on his own rather than as a member of a group. Most businessmen, for example, are independent travelers.

Infrastructure means the facilities such as airports, roads, water, sewers, electricity, and so on that are necessary before development of an area can take place.

Inn is a place that offers shelter and food to travelers, often in rural areas. It was more common before railroads and modern hotels came into existence. The word 'inn' now has a quaint old-fashioned sound.

Institutional advertising is intended to keep the name of a corporation — such as an airline — in the public eye rather than to give much information about specific services.

Internal tourism is tourist travel within the same country of which the tourist is a resident. This is also called domestic tourism.

International tourism means tourist travel between two or more countries.    

Jumbo jet is a large aircraft with a seating capacity of about 400 passengers. The term most often refers to Boeing 747. Load factor means the number of seats that have been sold on an aircraft. The term also refers to the per centage of seats that must be sold before a flight is profitable.

License is a document giving permission to carry on a particular kind of activity.

Marina is a place at which boats can dock. The marina usually offers electricity, telephones, water, etc so that people can use their boats for accommodations.

Media refers to the means of spreading information through the print media, like newspapers and magazines, and the broadcast media, like radio and television.

Motel is a hotel with special facilities for motor vehicles. The word "motel" is made by combining "motor" and "hotel."

Occupancy rate is the per centage of rooms or beds in a hotel that are occupied in a particular period of time.

Pension, which is pronounced in French, is another type of accommodation for traveler, especially in Europe. Nowadays, it usually offers bed and breakfast at low prices. In Britain it is traditionally called "B and B" and means a boarding house which offers breakfast.

Promotion is paid advertising and public relations efforts that in case of tourism encourage recreational travel either generally or on specific carriers and to specific places.

    Research and analysis: In tourism, research generally means collecting data — units of information — that can be put into statistical form, and the analysis means interpreting trends or deriving other meaning from the statistical figures

Retail outlet is a place where products are sold to the general public.

Room Service is a catering service in which food and drink are brought to a guest's room in a hotel.

Resort is a place where people gather for recreational purposes.

Scheduled airline operates its aircraft on fixed routes at fixed times. In other words, it operates according to a time-table.

Sightseeing excursion is a trip of less than a day's duration for the purpose of looking at local attractions.

Social Director is a person at a resort hotel or on a cruise ship who is in charge of the activities to amuse and entertain the customers.

    Social tourism is recreational travel that is paid for wholly or in part by a government, a trade union or a similar organization.

Souvenir shop is a place where people can buy objects that will help them to remember their trip because 'souvenir' is the French word for "to remember".

Theme Park is a special kind of amusement park that has a unifying concept. Disneyland in California uses the Disney cartoon characters, like Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck as its theme.

Throwaway usually means a one-page advertisement that can be widely distributed by mail or by hand.

Tourism is travel away from a person's usual place of residence for a period longer than twenty-four hours, primarily for pleasure or recreation, and frequently to multiple destinations.

Tourist destination is a place or area to which tourists travel. It may be a resort, but it may also be a large city.

Travel statistics, as important as they are to the tourist industry, should be considered as estimates rather than accurate figures.

Tourist attraction is anything that may cause a tourist to visit an area. It may be a beach, a mountain, a historical landmark and so forth.

Tour guide (or conductor) is the person in charge of a tour or an excursion. The terms are interchangeable but some people use "guide" to refer to the person who accompanies a sightseeing trip and "conductor" for the person who makes the travel arrangements.

Visa is a travel document that gives permission for a foreigner to enter, or in some cases to leave, another country. It is usually stamped in a traveler’s passport.

The mailing list often includes card holders, previous customers, members of clubs or organizations, and so on.

Destination advertising stresses a resort area or some other tourist destination.

There are also sightseeing tours with overnight stops.

 In the case of travel, the product is a service rather than tangible merchandise. Leg is a segment or a part of a journey. A passenger going from Moscow to Paris to London to New York with stops at Paris and London would be making a trip with three legs:

Moscow — Paris, Paris — London, London — New York

Most airlines in the more highly developed resort areas now have computerized reservations systems. Many of the hotel chains have also started to use computers to keep better control of their bookings. In fact, many of the hotel chains are really computer referral systems, which means that independently owned hotels have joined together to computerize their reservations.

Tour operators are the people who package or put together tours. They can be large travel companies like Thomas Cook or American Express, the airline and shipping companies or independent operators. They are in effect the wholesalers of the tourist industry who sell to the general public through retail travel agents. Transfer is transportation to and from airports, including luggage.

Both Cook and American Express operate as tour packagers as well as retail travel agents, that is, they sell the tours which they package directly to the public through their own travel offices and through other agents.

American Express is involved in many other kinds of business. It was the first company to issue traveler’s checks: it owns one of the major credit card services, and it also engages in international banking and insurance.

ITX fares are tour-basing fares. They are special lower fares offered for sale by the scheduled airlines through tour operators and travel agents. 216

Snack bar means a quick food service.

A few resorts that contain a mixture of several different kinds of accommodations have been built in recent years. Probably the most spectacular example is the Costa Smeralda development, constructed on the Italian Island of Sardinia. It contains hotels of varying price ranges, residential areas, marinas, elaborate recreational facilities, and even some light industry. The syndicate's own airline flies passengers to the island from Nice and Rome. The Costa Smeralda is the largest and most expensive example in the world of developing not just a resort but an entire resort area. Careful planning included not only the mixture of facilities, but also the architecture and the preservation of the natural landscape.

 

 

Literature

1.Воробьёва С.А., Киселёва А.В., Деловой английский для гостиничного бизнеса. М.: Филоматис, 2004.

2. Воробьёва С.А., Деловой английский язык для сферы туризма. – М., Филоматис, 2006.

3. Сербиновская А.М. Английский для турбизнеса и сервиса. – М.: Издательско – торговая корпорация «Дашков и К», 2007. – 428 с.

4. Dictionary of Hotels, Tourism and catering management, 1996.

5. www.britannica.com

6. www.wikipedia.org

 

Contents

Chapter 1. Definition of tourism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

a. The main concepts of tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

b. Domestic tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . 6

- Russia. Moscow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

- Attractions of St.Petersburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

c. International tourism (other countries) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

d. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

Chapter 2. Types of tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .17

a. Tourist industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .17

b. Health tourism (spas, resorts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

c. Leisure tourism (entertainment: for adults and children) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

d. Mass tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

e. Cultural and educational tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

f. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Chapter 3. Extreme tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

a. Extreme tourism. River trekking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 29

b. Canyoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

c. Hiking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

d. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 34

Chapter 4. Passport and visa system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 36

a. Passport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

b. Russian passport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 39

c. Visa (types of visa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

d. Schengen Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

e. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47

Chapter 5. System of payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

a. Credit cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

b. Traveler’s cheques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

c. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .53

Chapter 6. Accommodation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

a. Hotels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 54

b. Inns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

c. Motels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .60

d. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62

Chapter 7. Hotel and motel chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63

a. Marriot corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

b. Hilton Hotels Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

c. The Ritz Hotel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

d. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .75

Chapter 8. Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 76

a. Tourism and transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .76

b. Railways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

c. Airplanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

d. Ships (water transport) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

e. Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  .88

f. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90

Chapter 9. Catering services . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 91

a. Restaurants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 94

b. Cafes (coffeehouse) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

c. Pubs, taverns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

d. Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .103

e. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

Chapter 10. National cuisine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107

a. Asian and European cuisine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 108

b. Example of Asian cuisine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110

- Cuisine of Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  110

- Cuisine of Sri Lanka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .113

c. Example of European cuisine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

    - German cuisine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

d. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119

Chapter 11. Negative impacts of tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 120

a. Environmental impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

b. Ecotourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .124

c. Project work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Tourism terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 138

Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

 

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 499.