Vladimir Ivanovich Dahl was a multi-faceted man: he did as much as it seems to be impossible for one person to do. In the history of our culture Dahl went first of all as the creator of the "Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language." It can be said that Dahl accomplished a feat in science, having created a dictionary in 50 years. But V. I. Dahl was by education a military physician, and by vocation - a writer, ethnographer and geographer.

Dahl was born in Lugansk. His father, a Dane, came to Russia at the invitation of Catherine II in 1799. Father knew German, English, French, Russian, Jewish, Latin, Greek, was a theologian and medic. Mother, Maria Dahl, freely spoke five languages.

"My great-grandfathers were fathers by father," wrote V. I. Dahl in his autobiography, but he attributed himself to Russians: "Who in what language thinks, he belongs to that people. I think in Russian. "

At the age of 13, V. I. Dahl entered the St. Petersburg Marine Cadet Corps, where he studied for 5 years. Here Dahl compiled his first dictionary, it included 34 words of cadet jargon. After several years of service in the Navy, he entered the University for a medical faculty. Dahl as a writer was glorified "Russian fairy tales".One of the few remaining copies of Dahl decided to give A.S. To Pushkin. Zhukovsky long promised to introduce them, but Dahl, without waiting for him, took "Fairy tales ..." and went himself - without any recommendations - to introduce himself to Alexander Pushkin. So began their acquaintance. It was Pushkin who gave Dahl the idea of creating an explanatory dictionary.

Alexander Pushkin presented Dahl with his famous "Tale of a Fisherman and a Fish" with the caption: "Yours from yours! The storyteller Cossack Lugansky - storyteller Alexander Pushkin. "

Dahl was a seeker and a collector of words, and it was to this cause that he gave his whole life. The result of almost fifty years of work was a collection, unique and unique in its kind on the volume and variety of material: it included proverbs and sayings of the Russian people, tongue twisters, omens, riddles. Dahl collected 200,000 words. The very way of life of Dahl - constant moving from place to place, meeting with different people - helped him become a collector of words. Excellent spiritual qualities, sociability, versatility of Dahl's interests attracted people to him. On the work of Dahl positively reflected the good knowledge of modern life - because none of the writers of the XIX century did not travel in Russia as much as Vladimir Dahl. For his great work, V.I. Dahl was awarded the Lomonosov Prize of the Academy of Sciences and the title of Honorary Academician

Simultaneously with the work on the dictionary, V. I.  Dahl worked on the collection of Proverbs of the Russian People. He collected 30130 proverbs. The merit of V. I. Dahl, not only in that he collected so many popular sayings, but also in the fact that Dahl first distributed the proverbs on topics.


IX. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту


1. When was V. I. Dahl born?

2. What dictionary was created by V. I. Dahl?

3. Where was V. I. Dahl by education?

4. Who suggested Dahl the idea of creating a dictionary?

5. What words are written with a capital letter?

6. What was V. I. Dahl awarded for his great work?

7. How many words are there in his dictionary collection?

8. How many proverbs did he collect?

X. Прочитайте текст и переведите письменно 1 часть текста.



1. November 9, 1863 in St. Petersburg, the Academy of Arts, there was an unusual case: thirteen pupils refused to paint pictures on a topic that they were offered at the Academy. Usually the Academy offered a religious theme - one for all students who graduated from the Academy. Thirteen young artists were asked to allow them, independently choosing a topic, to tell about the life around them. They were not allowed. Then they left the Academy and organized an artel. They shared common interests and views on art. Together they worked together, helped each other with advice, artists created wonderful works. is he and painted portraits and paintings depicting Russian life. It was a new art expressing the interests and aspirations of the people. These artists had a great influence on the development of Russian art. Although the Academy continued to offer religious themes, more and more pictures appeared, in which artists tried to tell the truth about Russian life. The first such paintings, which appeared on the exhibition at the Academy of Fine Arts, were paintings by Fedotov and Perov.

2. A few years later, the best artists of Moscow and St. Petersburg, who created democratic art, began to travel around the cities of Russia and organize exhibitions of paintings in them. Often at these exhibitions one could meet a man with a narrow pale face and a dark beard, carefully considering the works of artists. It was Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov, a Moscow businessman. He loved painting and went to exhibitions to buy the best of paintings. Tretyakov lived in Moscow. In Lavrushinsky lane he built a building in which a large collection of paintings was collected. Artists who were friends with Tretyakov, helped him buy valuable paintings, painted portraits of the best Russian writers, scientists, artists for the gallery. They were proud when their works appeared in the halls of the Tretyakov Gallery. Tretyakov, who collected the best paintings, has retained the Russian school of painting. People who came to the gallery admired the beautiful works of Russian artists. Before his death Tretyakov donated his gallery to Moscow. Now in this gallery, which is one of the best collections of paintings by Russian artists, there are not only works that Tretyakov collected, but paintings of contemporary artists.



Дата: 2019-02-25, просмотров: 167.