ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGES. LANGUAGE CONTACTS

1. Language is to some extent inherent in all living things. Therefore, we can talk about the language of animals, which differs from the human. The most primitive language for ants, hens, elephants. Dolphins have a more complex language. But a person's language is different from the language of animals. The language of animals is biological, that is, the animal is born and already knows its language. The language of animals does not develop. Human language is social, it develops together with society. Animals have signals. People have words.

2. Live is the language that arose at any particular people at a certain historical moment, is a means of communication at the present time and, in connection with this, changes. The dead is a language that at a certain historical moment arose among the people, but because of the socio- political reasons out of use.Languages died in the early stages of human development. An example of dead languages can serve Latin, Ancient Greek and Church Slavonic and others. Under certain conditions, dead languages can be used even now. For example, Latin is the language of medicine, ancient Greek is the language of international terminology, Church Slavonic is the language of religion. If the people had a written language, then the scientists deciphered this language. For example, the Toharian language is Western China up to the 7th century. If the people did not have written language, then the language disappeared without a trace.

3. The natural language is called the language that spontaneously arose from a people. An artificial language is a language specially created by any scientist or group of people to facilitate mutual understanding between peoples. In the whole history of the existence of man-made artificial languages, a great variety has been created.

4. There are types of artificial languages: programming languages, languages for recording scientific facts (language of mathematics, chemistry, etc.), languages for information processing, languages of international communication. The most well-known language of international communication has become the language of Esperanto. He was created by the Polish dentist Ludwig Zamenhof (1859-1917). The vocabulary of this language is based on English, French and Latin. Phonetics is simple.

5. Language contact is the interaction of two or more languages. This interaction influences the structure and vocabulary of one or more languages. The simplest case of language contact is the borrowing of a word from one language to another. For example, the word "parachute" is borrowed from French, "radius" - from Latin. Sometimes morphemes are borrowed. For example, the prefix "anti" means "not", "against": antinational, antiscientific.

1. Which animals have the most primitive language?

2. The language of animals - biological, and human ............

3. List the dead languages.

4. Latin - the language of medicine, Ancient Greek - the language of international terminology, Church Slavonic - the language ............ ...

5. If the people did not have a written language, then the language ...............

6. What is the difference between the human language and the language of animals?

7. What is a dead language?

8. What is a natural language?

9. Write antonyms to the words: 1) live, 2) your own, 3) simple, 4) natural.

10. Give examples of borrowed words with the root "aqua":

11. Why do you think languages disappear? Give reasons, give an explanation.

X. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Many countries face a somewhat more serious economic problem in the form of an unfavorable trade balance with other nations. Such an imbalance exists when the total value of a country’s imports exceeds that of its exports. For example, if a country buys $ 25 billion in products from other countries, yet sells only $ 10 billion of its own products overseas, its trade deficit is $ 15 billion. Many underdeveloped nations find themselves in this position because they lack natural resources or the industrial capacity to use these resources, and thus have to import raw materials or manufactured goods. One effect of a trade deficit is the flow of currency out of a country. In the case of an underdeveloped nation, this can cause many financial difficulties, including failure to meet debt payments and obstacles to creation of an industrial base.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА 5

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу № 5, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка.

1. Причастие I.

2. Причасти II

3. Независимый причастный оборот.

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Переведите предложения на русский язык и определите в них Participle I и Participle II.

1. Students arriving in Paris visit many various exhibitions.

2. A lady travelling by train took a seat in a compartment where a man was smoking one cigarette after another.

3. The life-guard could save the drowned child because of his excellent training in first aid.

4. He recognized him very easily because he had absolutely big hands, and wearing turquoise tie.

5. We have to repair the broken parts of this engine.

 

II. Определите функции Participle I и Participle II (определения, обстоятельства или части сказуемого) в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык:

1. Knowing Spanish very well he can write scientific articles without any difficulty.

2. We will use the instruments of improved design.

3. The children were frightened by the terrible storm.

4. We are all concerned about the rising level of unemployment.

5. While examining the new car we found out some scars on it.

 

III. Употребите Participle I или Participle II в функции определения в следующих предложениях и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The (sorted/sorting) mail was delivered to the offices before noon.

2. The (trembling/ trembled) children were given a blanket and a cup of hot tea for warmth.

3. As we entered the (crowded/crowding) hall, we noticed our

4. The (boring/bored) students went to sleep during the (boring/bored) lecture.

5. (Freezing/frozen) food is easier to prepare than fresh food but is very unhealthy.

 

IV. Проанализируйте следующие предложения: найдите группу определения с Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Their attention will be focused on comparative methods applied by different sciences.

2. The complexity of the technique employed involved increased considerably.

3. Every body located on earth is polled downwards by the earth.

4. The nucleus formed by the emissions of the gamma-ray may be unstable.

5. The pressure just calculated is surface pressure.

 

V. Определите тип причастного оборота (определительный, обстоятельственный, независимый) в следующих предложений и переведите их.

1. Unless heated this substance does not melt.

2. The professor being ill, the lecture was postponed.

3. A graph is given showing the dependence of pressure on temperature.

4. Being invited too late George could not go to the conference.

5. The contract is written in English and Russian, both versions being valid.

 

VIII. Прочитайте текст и переведите 1, 2 и 3 абзацы текста письменно.

PROTECT OUR PLANET WITH CAT

1. Back in the 1960s and 70s, the world was becoming more aware of the destructive effects of industry on the environment and people were starting to think seriously about ways of protecting the environment. One man who was particularly affected by this subject was Gerard Morgan-Grenville. As Morgan-Grenville travelled round earning his leaving as a gardener, he noticed signs of the damage that was being done to the countryside around him. It wasn’t long before Morgan-Grenville decided that he had to do something about this situation. He felt that if people could be shown a better way of living then maybe they would be interested enough to try to protect their precious environment.

2. Mr. Morgan-Grenville decided to set up a project that would prove what was happening to our surroundings and what could be done about it. So, in 1975, Morgan-Grenville created the Center for Alternative Technology (CAT) in a village in Wales.

3. The main aim of CAT is to search for an ecologically better way of living by using technology that does not harm the environment. One of the most important things CAT did initially was to explore and demonstrate a wide range of techniques and to point out which ones had the least destructive results on the world around us. It is also very important for CAT to provide information and advice to people all over the world. If more and more individuals are informed about how much damage our modern lifestyle is doing to the planet, maybe more of them would be prepared to look for solution.

4. The point about CAT is that by combining theoretical and practical ideas, it has shown ways in which people, nature and technology can exist together successfully. CAT now covers many themes, including energy-saving techniques, good use of land, the correct management of waste products, recycling and health and food issues. Visitors to CAT are able to observe many new ways of living all of which are ecologically correct and use up less of our valuable raw materials. For example the sewage systems at CAT that get rid of all the waste from the kitchen and bathrooms are organized so as to be completely environmentally friendly, and much of the energy used at the center is created by power from the sun, wind or rain. In addition, all the building methods used are ecologically ideal and no chemicals are used at the center; for instance, no chemicals are used in gardening or cleaning. Everything is based on the use of natural products.

5. One major global problem is the damage done to the whole planet by the effects of industry. Problems such as global warming, the holes in the ozone layer, the destruction of huge areas of forests, and pollution in our atmosphere are all connected to the fact that there is an increase in industry. Now, at last, this problem is being recognized worldwide.

6. People now agree that we want clean air, pure drinking water, safe sunlight and healthy food. What CAT is trying to do is to demonstrate that we can have all those things without the environment paying the price. Slowly, CAT is communicating its message to countries across the world. In Europe , several countries have set up similar ecological centers to look at alternative environmentally friendly technology. The workers at CAT hope that one day there will be so many centers all over the world that governments and managers of industry will start to change their ideas and will think more carefully about the environment. Once this happens, the possibilities for protecting our beautiful planet will be endless.

 

VII. Прочитайте текст еще раз и выберите справедливые утверждения a, b, c или d:

1. Mr. Morgan-Grenville was worried about

a) the damage his gardening was doing to the countryside;

b) the countryside being harmed;

c) people protecting the environment;

d) what he did for a living in the countryside.

2. One of the main aims of CAT is

a) to use better technology to harm the environment;

b) to use less technology in the environment;

c) to stop using technology that does not harm the environment;

d) to use technology that causes less damage to the environment.

3. Which one of the following statements is true?

a) CAT uses a mixture of theory and practice to explain its message;

b) CAT only uses practical solutions to explain its message;

c) CAT has demonstrated how successful its theories are;

d) CAT believes it would be better if technology didn’t exist.

4. Visitors to CAT

a) can use valuable raw materials;

b) are all ecologically correct;

c) can see new ideas in practice;

d) can see valuable raw materials.

5. The increase in industry worldwide

a) has led to an increase in environmental problems;

b) is due to the damage done to the whole planet;

c) is a result of efforts to protect the environment;

d) has been caused by problems like global warming.

6. The workers at CAT are hoping

a) that their managers will start to change industry;

b) that their ideas will be used all over the world;

c) that our beautiful planet will end;

d) that it can protect governments and managers worldwide.

VIII. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 1, 2, и 4 абзацы.

DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY

1. A digital photograph is a photo, produced with computer techniques, made up of hundreds of thousands or millions of tiny squares of colour. The technical name for these squares is picture – elements or pixels. The quality of any digital photo depends on the number of pixels per square centimeter – the more pixels, the better the photo, which is why you should always try to buy the best digital camera you can afford.

2. There are many reasons why people ought to consider changing from ordinary cameras to digital photography. You can change these pictures with your digital camera if you follow the instructions. You don’t waste time going to the shops for your films and photos, and you don’t have to spend money on films. There is also the advantage that digital photography is instant. You can view your pictures immediately – allowing you to decide which photos you want to keep and which you don’t. No more wondering if you should have taken a photo or not – with digital cameras you can take the picture first and decide later whether or not you want it. Of course, with digital technology you are able to change you picture so that it looks great anyway – that’s another huge plus when it comes to digital cameras. Lastly, and something we all ought to think about, is the fact that digital photography doesn’t use toxic chemicals that often end up in our rivers and lakes.

3. You don’t need to be a computer wizard to use digital cameras. Put simply, what happens is that the camera produces your picture in digital format – made up of pixels – so that it can then be ‘read’ by your computer. Once your photos are stored on your computer, you can decide what you want to do with them. They can be saved until you want to use them, included in letters you’ve written on your computer or send to friends and family in e-mail.

4. There are a lot of strange shapes and sizes of digital cameras. However, the design doesn’t make any difference to the camera’s performance and you shouldn’t too influenced by this. Secondly, there is the cost. At the cheaper end of the market, there are the ‘point and shoot’ cameras. These cameras are fully automatic and anybody just starting digital photography should begin with one of these. They’re so simple that after only a couple of weeks, you should have learnt all you need to know about how to use the camera. For more money you can buy one of the megapixel cameras, which, as their name suggests, produce better quality photos by using more pixels. Some of these are a bit too complicated for everyday use. At the top end of the price scale are professional cameras and digital video cameras – very expensive and only necessary for the serious photographer.

5. If you’re buying a digital camera for the first time you can easily get confused. Will you be taking pictures indoors or out side? What kind of picture do you want to take – landscape, portraits, sport’s shots? Do you want to take pictures of things close up or far away? All these questions affect the kind of camera you should choose.

 

IX. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

 

1. What is a digital photograph?

2. What does the word pixel mean?

3. What are the advantages of using a digital camera?

4. How does digital camera work?

5. Which type of digital camera is the most expensive?

6. What kind of information is communicated in this way?

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Переведите предложения на русский язык и определите в них Participle I и Participle II.

 

1. The investigation made by him is of great value.

2. A little girl was punished by her parents because she had ruined her new clothes.

3. Not remembering her address, he had to ask her friend.

4. Three thousand people marched through the streets, protesting about the latest government laws.

5. I’ve never been so excited in all my life!

 

II. Определите функции Participle I и Participle II (определения, обстоятельства или части сказуемого) в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык.

 

1. The policemen has stopped a dangerous driver, exceeded the speed limit.

2. Though expected on Wednesday they arrived on Friday.

3. Learners starting to study two foreign languages find it difficult to memorize words.

4. While redecorating the house the day before yesterday he fell of the ledder and hurt his leg.

5. He was hurrying somewhere and didn’t notice me.

 

III. Употребите Participle I или Participle II в функции определения в следующих предложениях и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The police towed away the (parking/parked) cars because they were blocking the entrance.

2. The (frightening/frightened) people jumped into the lifeboats when notified that the ship was sinking.

3. The (boring/bored) film got the viewers to sleep.

4. The researchers (inviting/invited) to our plant are Cambridge graduates.

5. Our (crying/cried) baby awoke the neighbours sleeping next door to us.

IV. Проанализируйте следующие предложения: найдите группу определения с Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The data referred to in this paper showed that our conclusions were correct.

2. The technique employed used a single tube.

3. The method proposed by the young scientist was discussed at the meeting.

4. The temperature of the liquid obtained remained constant.

5. All the isotopes now produced by reactors can also be made in a cyclotron.

 

V. Определите тип причастного оборота (определительный, обстоятельственный, независимый) в следующих предложений и переведите их.

1. Phenomena occurring during solar flares are thoroughly investigated.

2. They are going to study mechanisms underlying photosynthesis.

3. We are not giving you any details, the enclosed letters containing the necessary information.

4. The match being very excited, it was difficult to get tickets.

5. Considered from this point of view the question will be of great interest.

 

VI. Прочитайте текст и переведите 1, 2 и 3 абзацы текста письменно.

 

WHAT CAUSED THE ACCIDENT?

1. NASA space shuttle consist of three major components: a winged orbiter that carries both crew and cargo, an external tank containing liquid hydrogen (fuel) and liquid oxygen (oxidizer) for the orbiter’s three main rocket engines, and a pair of large solid-propellant rocket boosters. On January 28, 1986, the Challenger shuttle and its crew of seven were destroyed shortly after launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The primary cause of the loss of the Challenger was the failure of an O-ring seal of a joint on one of the solid rocket boosters.

2. The solid rocket boosters are constructed in four cylindrical sections. These have to be sealed together completely to prevent the escape of the extremely hot by-products of the burning fuel during a launch. The O-rings are rubber rings that play a vital part in sealing the joints.

3. On the day of the launch, the weather was unusually cold and this caused the rubber of one of the O-rings on the joint between the bottom tow segments of the right the solid rocket booster to become brittle. This, combined with the faulty design of the joint, allowed hot gases burned through the metal that held the solid rocket booster in position. When the solid rocket booster broke off, it ruptured the side of the external fuel tank. This allowed the liquid hydrogen and oxygen to mix prematurely and this is what caused the explosion.

4. In early February in 1986, the creation of a Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident was announced. It took four months to complete and required the involvement of 6,000 people. Modifications were made both to shuttle hardware and to NASA’s safety and assurance procedures. While the space shuttle fleet was grounded, hundreds of modifications were incorporated into the shuttle system. The solid rocket boosters were completely redesigned and a new joint design was subjected to stringent examination and review.

5. The report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident was published and delivered to the president early June 1986.

6. Another tragic accident occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Columbia space shuttle broke up over north-central Texas at an altitude of about 40 miles (60 kilometers) as it was returning from an orbital mission. All seven crew members died in the accident.

 

VII. Прочитайте 1 параграф текста и выпишите три основные части космического корабля. Read the 1 paragraph of the text and, write out the tree main components of the space shuttle.

a)

b)

c)

 

VIII. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту. Answer the questions.

 

1) When and where did this accident take place?

2) What caused the accident?

3) How many lives were lost in the accident?

4) When was the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident created?

5) How long did the commission’s investigation take?

6) How many people were involved in the investigation?

7) When was the commission’s report published?

 

IX. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 1, 2, и 4 параграфы.

 

THE AMAZING POWER OF NATURE

1. Now that the human race has made great technological and scientific progress and is about to clone whatever or whoever it wants, it is very easy to forget about the forces of nature. Although the images of destruction which we have seen on our television screens are horrific, they are, in fact, just the tip of the iceberg compared to what nature can really do.

2. Tornadoes, which are the fastest and most violent winds on earth, can reach speeds of over 500kph. Roofs of houses, cars, animals, buses and people have been lifted into the air in this way. Those people whose lives have been put at risk by ‘twisters’ have described how helpless they felt in the face of such power.

3. A tornado is a violently spinning column of air that can start to form during a thunderstorm, of which there are about 45,000 a day worldwide. Of course, not all thunderstorms bring about total destructions. The most destructive ones occur in India, Bangladesh and ‘Tornado Alley’ in the USA. The worst ever ‘twister’ hit this area in March 1925, when a huge tornado travelled across Missouri, Illinois and India, killing 695 people and injuring further 2,027.

4. A blizzard is another natural phenomenon which affects North America. It is a deadly mixture of wind, snow and freezing temperatures. Muscles and internal organs then fail to work when body temperatures falls below 30 C. In the USA blizzards are quite common, with winds travelling at up to 65 kph.

5. It is believed that global warming, which is caused ice caps to melt, will be the cause of more blizzards in the future. Even Britain may experience blizzards as violent as the one which hit New York, Washington, Boston and Philadelphia in January, 1996. These cities became completely paralysed when snow up to 78cm deep and weighing a total of five billion tons covered an area 800 km long.

6. Apart from causing death and injury directly, tornadoes and blizzards can also cause floods. Naturally, floods are usually caused by heavy rainfall, but whichever way they are created, they can be very destructive. The most dangerous and dramatic ones are known as flash floods. In June 1976, hot air blew north from the Gulf of Mexico, bringing huge thunderstorms to the big Thompson Gorge, where they released 25 cm of rain in six hours. All the mountain streams filled up and met at the Big Thompson Gorge. The water then flowed through the canyon, removing everything in its path, killing 139 people and causing damage worth $ 36 million. Other floods on record have developed more slowly but have been equally destructive.

7. If we choose to ignore it and believe we are the supreme rulers of the planet, we may be in for a big surprise. Remember, lightning can strike twice in the same place.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА 6

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Употребите, где необходимо, частицу to перед инфинитивом и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. I can’t … go there now, I have … do my homework.

2. Make him … speak louder.

3. She asked me … read the letter carefully and … write an answer.

4. We had better … stop rest a little

5. We saw the ship … sail off.

II. Выберите эквивалент русского предложения из предложенных вариантов.

 

1. Мэри хочет обучать вас английскому.

a) Mary wants to teach you English.

b) Mary wants to be taught English.

2. Ему не нравится, когда вы его беспокоите.

a) He doesn’t like to be disturbed by you.

b) He doesn’t like to disturb you.

3. Статья должна быть переведена на испанский.

a) The article must translate into Russian.

b) The article must be translated into Russian.

4. Он сделал вид, что спит.

a) He pretended to be sleeping

b) He pretended to have been sleeping

5. Вероятно, я забыл портфель в магазине.

a) I might have left my bag in the shop.

b) I might leave my bag in the shop.

 

III. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом в функции подлежащего и обстоятельства.

 

1. To drive a car in a big city is very important.

2. To run modern machines workers must be educated/

3. To solve the problem you have to make a great many experiments.

4. To get to the earth the rays of the sun have to travel during 8 minutes.

5. To calculate the age of our planet requires much knowledge in different branches of science.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом и определите его функцию в предложении (подлежащее, часть сказуемого, дополнение, определение, обстоятельство, вводный член предложения)

 

1. To enter the university one have to take entrance exams.

2. To be sure, a great progress in chemistry has been made in the last few decades.

3. There are many examples to illustrate the rule.

4. Whether to take part in the conference or not has not been decided yet.

5. The latest paper by this scientist is rather difficult to understand.

 

V. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе сложного дополнения (Complex Object).

 

1. I know him to be an experienced writer.

2. During the experiment we saw the temperature fall rapidly.

3. Everybody was waiting for him to announce his decision.

4. They consider themselves to be right.

5. Do you expect the documents to be signed tomorrow?

 

VI. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе сложного подлежащего (Complex Subject).

 

1. There happened to be a surgeon among them.

2. The radius of our orbit is believed to be increasingly very slowly.

3. The experiment is believed to be a failure.

4. Light is to be considered as some kind of wave motion of electromagnetic origin.

5. He is unlikely to come to the meeting tomorrow.

VII. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на тип инфинитивной конструкции, и определите этот тип (Complex Subject or Complex Subject).

 

1. He heard somebody mention his name at the last meeting.

2. They are certain to cope with the problem facing them.

3. This pipeline is thought to be built next autumn.

4. We want you to see the new university building.

5. The engineers of the plant are said to have constructed a new device.

 

VIII. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 2 и 4 абзацы текста.

 

OLYMPIC GAMES

1. Why are the Olympic Games so called? Why is the Greek word "stadium" understood by people who speak different languages? Why always sportsmen from Greece open a holiday?

2. Why do they bring Olympic fire from Greece? The first Olympic Games took place in Greece, in the city of Olympia, in 773 BC. (before the new era) in honor of the god Zeus. In Olympia there were beautiful white buildings, there was a large stadium, several schools where athletes could engage. Once in four years Olympia hosted the most famous sports competitions in Olympia. Thousands of men, old people, children from cities and villages came to Olympia. Many people came on foot. Only men and boys from Greece could participate in the competition. Each Greek city sent athletes to the competitions. The Olympic flame was burning for five days, the Olympic Games continued for five days, and there was a holiday in Greece. The Olympic Games united all Greek cities, wars ended, and peace ensued in the country. Every city was waiting for news from Olympia. And in Olympia itself at the stadium thousands of people watched the competitions and knew how to "hurt" in the same way as millions of people "get sick" in the stadiums now, in our time. Five days later people left and athletes left Olympia, athletes returned home to their cities. Olympic winners were welcomed as heroes. They sang songs about them and wrote poems.

3. Time has destroyed Olympia. Only in 1875, scientists found this place on earth. Then they decided to resume the Olympic Games again. The first "new Olympic Games" took place in 1896 in their homeland in Greece. Just like 2000 years ago, they take place every four years. These competitions unite people. Their symbol is peace and friendship.

4. The Olympic Games are great sporting events. In different countries, athletes dream of participating in the Olympic Games, because these are not just competitions, but big holidays for young people from Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia. The Olympic Games occur every four years. Thousands of people come to the city where games are played. Everyone is waiting for the holiday. And here comes the first day. People gather at the biggest stadium. They stand in the stands and look to where athletes should come from. Music is playing. Athletes from different countries come to the stadium. And always ahead are athletes from Greece. And then one of the sportsmen appears at the stadium. He has an Olympic flame in his hands. Many people in different countries carried this fire from Greece. And now the best sportsman of their country, in which the Olympic Games are taking place, brought it to the stadium. The Olympic flame is burning. A white Olympic flag is hoisted, on which five rings are blue, black, yellow, red and green. In each national flag there is one of these colors. Athletes leave the stadium. The next day, competitions begin. They last for several days, and there are always a lot of athletes involved in them. "The main thing is not to win, the main thing is to participate," they say about the Olympic Games around the world.

 

IX. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

 

1. When did the first Olympic Games take place?

2. Who could take part in the competition?

3. How long did the competition last?

4. How did the winners of the Olympic Games meet?

5. Why do athletes dream of participating in the Olympic Games?

6. How often do the Olympic Games take place?

7. Why are there five rings of blue, black, yellow, red and green colors on the Olympic flag?

8. What is the main slogan of the Olympic Games?

 

X. Прочитайте текст и переведите письменно 1 часть текста.

 

YELLOW STORK

1. They say that once lived in Fuzhou, one poor student. He was so poor that he could not even pay for a cup of tea. His name was Mi. He would have died of hunger, if not for one master of tea. He pitied Me and drank, and fed it for free. But one day, Mi came to the master and said:

- I'm leaving. I do not have the money, and I can not pay for everything I drank and ate here. But I do not want to be ungrateful. Here look!

And he took a piece of yellow chalk from his pocket and drew a yellow stork on the wall. The stork was just as alive.

"This stork," said Mi, "will bring you ten times more money than I owe." Every time people gather in your tea room, you must clap three times. Then the stork will come off the wall and will dance. But you should never make a stork dance for one person. If you make him dance for one person, he will dance for the last time.

2. The next day, when a lot of people gathered in the tea-room, the owner clapped his hands three times, and the stork came off the wall and began to dance. The guests were surprised and did not believe their eyes. Since then, the tea room has always attracted a lot of visitors and the owner has become very rich.

But one day a rich man went into the tea-room. He came to look at the storks, of which he heard a lot. He put a lot of money on the table and forced the master to drive out all the people from the tea-room.

"I want to look at the stork alone," he said. The owner saw the money and forgot what the student told him. He clapped his hands three times, and the stork came off the wall. He looked unhappy and sick. He danced only one dance and went back. The owner was angry, shouted, but could do nothing.

And at night someone knocked at the door of the tea-room. The master opened the door and saw: there was a student Mi and was silent. Then student Mi took a pipe out of his pocket, played on it and went away. The stork came off the wall and went after him. Since then, no one has ever seen a student Mi and his yellow stork.

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Употребите, где необходимо, частицу to перед инфинитивом и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Let me … help you with your work.

2. She ought … take care of her health.

3. You must make him …practice … playing piano at least two hours a day.

4. He was seen … leave the house.

5. I am very tired. I would rather not … go out this evening, if you don’t mind.

 

II. Выберите эквивалент русского предложения из предложенных вариантов.

 

1. Почему ты ушел и не попрощался со мной.

a) You could say goodbye to me.

b) You could have said goodbye to me.

2. Питер рад, что его пригласили на вечеринку.

a) Peter is happy to have invited us to the party.

b) Peter is happy to have been invited to the party.

3. Наши дети любят, чтобы им читали.

a) Our children like to read

b) Our children like to be read to.

4. Она хочет, чтобы ее информировали о его приезде.

a) She wants to be informed of his arrival.

b) She wants to be informed of his arrival.

5. Она должно быть подготовилась очень хорошо.

a) She must be studying very well.

b) She must have studied very well.

 

III. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом в функции подлежащего и определения.

 

1 To drive a car in a big city one must be an experienced driver.

2. To run modern machines workers must be very educated.

3. To solve this problem you have to make great many experiments.

4. To avoid the accident the cars had to move slowly.

5. To find the mass of the electron numerous experiments had to be made.

 

IV. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом и определите его функцию в предложении (подлежащее, часть сказуемого, дополнение, определение, обстоятельство, вводный член предложения)

 

1. To give a true picture of the surrounding matter is the task of natural science.

2. He is to prepare the income statement by Monday.

3. They are happy to have passed all the exams successfully.

4. The first scientist to discover this phenomenon was Lavoiser.

5. Laws were not made to be broken, laws were made to stay within.

 

V. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе сложного дополнения (Complex Object).

 

1. They noticed him leave the room.

2. They thought us to be experienced enough to carry out the work.

3. Examination with X-rays has shown the halogen even in the solid state to possess diatomic molecules.

4. They found radon to be three times as heavy as hydrogen.

5. One may safely expect this prediction to be quite reliable.

 

VI. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе сложного подлежащего (Complex Subject).

 

1. The delegation was expected to arrive the next day.

2. They seemed to have quite forgotten their quarrel.

3. Many buildings were reported to have been damaged by the fire.

4. The weather can’t be expected to change tomorrow.

5. They are unlikely to complete the work in time.

 

VII. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на тип инфинитивной конструкции, и определите этот тип (Complex Subject or Complex Subject).

 

1. I hope you won’t think it very odd for a perfect stranger to talk to you like this.

2. The construction of that building is supposed be completed in a week.

3. Air was considered by the ancients to be an element.

4. Heat was for a long time thought to be an invisible all-pervading fluid.

5. The chemist wants the reaction to go as nearly to completion as possible.

 

VIII. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 2 и 4 абзацы текста.

Дата: 2019-02-25, просмотров: 155.