О.А. Гливенкова, О.Н. Морозова, Е.В. Евенко, В.И. Копельник
Поможем в ✍️ написании учебной работы
Поможем с курсовой, контрольной, дипломной, рефератом, отчетом по практике, научно-исследовательской и любой другой работой

О.А. Гливенкова, О.Н. Морозова, Е.В. Евенко, В.И. Копельник

Английский язык:

Лексико-грамматический практикум

Тамбов 2018


 О. А. Гливенкова, О. Н. Морозова, Е.В. Евенко, В.И. Копельник

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК:

 ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ ПРАКТИКУМ

Утверждено Учёным советом университета
в качестве учебно-методического пособия для студентов 1–3 курсов
всех специальностей заочной формы обучения




Тамбов

2018


УДК 811.111:378.22(075.8)

ББК Ш13(Ан)-923

        

 

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

 

 

Кандидат педагогических наук, доктор культурологии,
профессор кафедры лингвистического обеспечения бизнес-процессов
ФГБОУ ВО "ТГУ им. Г.Р. Державина"

Т.Г. Бортникова

Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры «Международной, профессиональной и научной коммуникации» ФГБОУ ВО «ТГТУ»

Т.В. Мордовина

 

 
  Английский язык: лексико-грамматический практикум для студентов технических вузов: учебно-методическое пособие / О. А. Гливенкова, О. Н. Морозова, Е.В. Евенко, В. И. Копельник. – Тамбов: Изд-во ФГБОУ ВО «ТГТУ», 2018. – 96 с. -  
  Данное учебно-методическое пособие представляет собой лексико-грамматический практикум и включает 6 контрольных работ по английскому языку для студентов I-III курсов заочного отделения всех специальностей. Контрольные работы составлены в двух вариантах, которые отличаются по содержанию, но имеют общую структуру: одинаковые по типу и количеству лексико-грамматические упражнения. В конце пособия представлен грамматический справочник, содержащий основные разделы грамматики английского языка, необходимые для выполнения контрольных работ.  
   

 

УДК 811.111:378.22(075.8)

 

ББК Ш13(Ан)-923

 






СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Контрольная работа №1
Контрольная работа №2
Контрольная работа №3
Контрольная работа №4
Контрольная работа №5
Контрольная работа №6
грамматический справочник
заключение


ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие «Английский язык: лексико-грамматический практикум» адресовано студентам всех специальностей заочной формы обучения и направлено на формирование компетенции, предусмотренных ФГОС ВО: ОК-5(способность к коммуникации в устной и письменной формах на русском и иностранном языках для решения задач межличностного и межкультурного взаимодействия).

Целью пособия является формирование и развитие у студентов умений и навыков различных видов чтения (просмотрового, поискового, ознакомительного, изучающего) англоязычных текстов общей тематической направленности. Основной теоретический материал, реализованный в комплексе упражнений по грамматике английского языка, что позволяет максимально эффективно развить умения и навыки правильного оформления речи в типичных коммуникативных ситуациях.

Особенностью овладения иностранным языком при заочном/дистанционном обучении является то, что объем самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений значительно превышает объем практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем.

Для того чтобы добиться успеха, необходимо приступить к работе над языком с первых дней обучения в вузе и заниматься систематически.

Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка охватывает: уяснение действия правил словообразования, грамматических правил, заучивание слов английского языка, чтение текстов на английском языке в соответствии с правилами чтения, понимание текстов; построение вопросов и ответов к текстам; перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).

Для успешного выполнения контрольной работы рекомендуется ознакомиться с Грамматическим справочником, представленным в конце пособия.



КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 1

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу № 1, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка.

1. Имя существительное. Множественное число. Притяжательный падеж.

2. Существительные в функции левого определения.

3. Времена английского языка групп Simple и Progressive .

4. Активный и пассивный залог английского глагола.

5. Способы перевода оборотов there is/are.

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием –s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

a) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite;

b) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного;

c) признаком множественного числа имени существительного.

 

1. The Boeing company is an enormous American aerospace company which manufactures aircraft.

2. Boeing’s headquarters are in Seattle, Washington State.

3. The US government buys its military planes, system and space vehicles from Boeing.

4. Most scientists believe that what enters a black hole never comes out.

5. You can find many valuable researches and materials here.

6. A scientist's job is to ask questions.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их. Определите видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив.

 

1. The number of people benefiting from those satellites is growing.

2. He was having trouble finding a job.

3. When you see him next time he will be wearing a new uniform.

4. People are equal before the law.

5. Aristotle wrote about it in 300 B.C.

6. We are discussing - and will discuss in future - threats to international security.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. In Britain all learner drivers need to display «L» plates.

2. We will continue to need an effective and trusted police force.

3. This has become known as the "net oil export problem".

4. Most companies reduced exploration expenditures and focused on cost reduction, new mining techniques and product quality.

5. The situation in external product markets was generally favourable.

6. He left his number and name at the call center.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Progress on each phase is described below.

2. TV watchers are being fed with all kinds of violence.

3. A special Web page was created for the occasion.

4. The lecture on solar system will be delivered next Tuesday.

5. Josh was impressed with your speech.

6. A number of countries have lost almost all of their forests and more and more developing countries are being classified in the low forest cover group.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на обороты there is/are.

 

1. There is a lot of evidence that proves this fact.

2. There was some discussion after you left.

3. There are 52 police forces, or police authorities in Britain, each employed and paid by their local council.

4. There will be a large commission.

5. There are a lot of counterfeit banknotes in circulation.

6. There is a person who wishes to see you.

 

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод личных и притяжательных местоимений.

 

1. Whenever they meet, they quarrel.

2. I respect her moods and her wish to be alone.

3. The doctor was looking for him.

4. It’s your own business.

5. My statement to the police was used in evidence against me.

6. He left his last job to save his marriage.

 

VII. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Письменно ответьте на вопросы.

TRAVELLING AND TRANSPORT

Travelling has become an important part of our life. People travel not only on holidays but on business as well. Some people travel to other countries to get education. 

People travel for different reasons. Some people travel to relax, to have a rest after a trying working year. Some people travel on business, to negotiate with their foreign counterparts or settle a deal. Some people travel to learn something new, they strive for new emotions and impressions.      

Undoubtedly, traveling is a pleasant and useful experience. It broadens people’s mind, allows looking at current problems from a different angle and finding a better way-out from some difficult situation.   

People choose different ways of traveling. But planes, trains, buses and cars enjoy the popularity among people the most. Planes are popular among business people who try to save their time as they carry passengers quite fast. Buses are suitable for travelers who want to enjoy the views of the country or city. They may be uncomfortable if the trip is too lengthy. Trains are the most popular means of transport among travelers as it is cheap and gives a possibility to rest on a berth. 

Whatever country or city you choose, whatever way of traveling you choose the thing about traveling is your feelings, emotions, aims. This what makes the trip unforgettable and memorable.

 

1. Why does traveling become an important part pf our life?

2. What are the reasons of traveling?

3. Why is traveling useful for people?

4. What ways of traveling do you know?

5. What transport do business people prefer?

6. Why are trains the most popular means of transport?

 

VIII. Письменно переведите текст.

Environment

Our planet is the only place where a human being might live. Unfortunately, scientists haven’t yet discovered other planets, to where a person may move and live the rest of life. That’s why our task is to take care of the Earth and look after our nature and surroundings as well as possible.   

A human being is able not only to create but also to destroy. Especially our earth suffers badly from pernicious actions of man. This applies to both people’s neglectful attitude to the nature – dropping of cigarette ends, rubbish on the earth – and industrial factories and natural appearances (e.g. acid rains).     

Factories regularly emit harmful chemicals into the air. Petrol and gas, that are used by our drivers, also leave much to be desired. Apart from air pollution, water and soil are subjected to pollutions as well. When such fuels as coal and oil burn, they emit very dangerous smoke.        

A person destroys not only environment, plants, animals, but also himself. Faster and faster man’s health starts worsening; children of weak immune system are being given birth. Forests are being cut down, and animals from the Red Book are gradually dying out. What will be next in our world of progressive technology remains undecided.

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием –s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

a) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite;

b) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного;

c) признаком множественного числа имени существительного.

 

1. This company now develops products for Hewlett Packard.

2. At present the team of our firm consists of professional auditors, consultants and experts.

3. The state is a system of official institutions and organs.

4. John completely forgot his friend’s warning.

5. It also builds partnerships with other organisations that support such activities.

6. She presents the journalist’s material as the evidence.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их. Определите видовременные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив.

 

1. So you became a scientist and I became a writer.

2. Those functions are becoming increasingly important.

3. The journalist was examining the documents all day long yesterday.

4. The electorate will increase in size from 500,000 to 813,000 electors.

5. I wrote the letters of resignation.

6. It is clear that the situation is not entirely satisfactory.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

 

1. The length of transmission lines of 400 kV and higher voltages is 4900 km.

2. This includes shop assistants, managers, automobile repair specialists, and, certainly, senior managers.

3. The contract period was 18 months.

4. The video game industry in 2005 became a 29 billion dollar business.

5. We help companies optimize their business processes, by effective using of modern IT technologies.

6. Many of the northern and Scottish cities also experience sharply enhanced rush hours.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The news is being reported in all newspapers.

2. The castle was built quite late - in eighteenth century.

3. If he starts speaking the secret will be revealed.

4. At common law, all fair and accurate reports of Parliament and the courts are protected by qualified privilege.

5. The candidates from different political parties were being discussed by the electors.

6. According to English law, people are innocent until they are proved guilty.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на обороты there is/are.

 

1. There are several important issues on the agenda of the meeting.

2. Today there is very limited cooperation in this area.

3. In many countries, there was not enough growth to create jobs.

4. Competition implies that there will be winners and losers.

5. Finally, there were proposals for future action.

6. There are three methods of international payment: a telegraphic transfer, a SWIFT transfer and a mail transfer.

 

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод личных и притяжательных местоимений.

 

1. When she was abroad, she often used Skype.

2. We must invest in them, motivate them, and treat them with the respect that they deserve.

3. They e-mail each other all the time, they talk on the phone whenever they can.

4. I'll probably be working for him now.

5. As soon as we find out her legal address we shall contact you.

6. Please telephone him to send this message.

 

VII. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Письменно ответьте на вопросы

Healhty Way Of Life

Scientists say that in the future people will live longer. With healthier lifestyles and better medical care, the average person will live to 90 or 100 instead of 70 and 75 like today. When the human genome is decoded, we'll probably live up to 150. Incurable diseases will be cured, and "bad" genes replaced.

But that's tomorrow. And today, we continue to stuff ourselves with fast food — chips and pizzas, hamburgers and hot dogs. We are always in a hurry. We have no time to enjoy a home-cooked dinner with family and friends. We want to eat at that moment and we want to eat fast. What is tasty is not always healthy. Doctors say that chips and pizzas are fattening, cola spoils our teeth and coffee shortens our lives.

If we eat too much, we'll become obese, and obesity leads to heart disease, diabetes and other serious illnesses. But the world today is getting fatter and fatter. America is the world's leader in obesity, but Europe is quickly catching up.

Lack of exercise is another serious problem. We spend hours in front of our computers and TV-sets. Few of us do morning exercises. We walk less, because we prefer to use cars or public transport. Research shows, however, that young people who don't take enough exercise often suffer from heart attacks.

It's common knowledge that smoking and drinking can shorten our lives dramatically. Cigarette-smoking, for example, kills about 3 million people every year. Many of them die from lung cancer. Some aren't even smokers. They are people who live or work with heavy smokers. Yet many young people smoke and drink. Why? One answer is that tobacco and drinks companies invest enormous sums of money in advertising their products. For them cigarettes and alcoholic drinks mean money. For us they mean disease and even death.

We all know that the healthier we are, the better we feel. The better we feel, the longer we live.

 

1. Why do scientists say that people will live longer in future?

2. What unhealthy food do we eat?

3. What leads to heart disease?

4. What is one of the serious problems today?

5. What can shorten our lives?

6. Why do many young people smoke and drink?

VIII. Письменно переведите текст.

 

Internet

Internet is a worldwide network that transmits data to different parts of the Earth. Owing to the internet, humanity has a chance to share information, download or transfer files, communicate in various chat rooms as well as learn the latest news in the split second.

Every year users in a network are not growing smaller. On the contrary, their number is increasing. Two thirds of Americans regularly use the internet. The second place has been taken by the Asian countries - China and Japan. However, data are constantly changing. We can draw one conclusion from these indices - every day the number of users is growing rapidly.

Advantages of the global network are obvious. Internet is not only an entertaining place, but also a learning platform. Want to learn something - search the answer to your question on the internet. The answer won’t make you wait. Want to learn, for example, a foreign language – it’s all in your hands. Even higher education can be acquired via the World Wide Web. The only minus of the Internet is abundance of information. There is so much of it that at times you get lost in this web of communication.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу № 2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка.

1. Особенности употребления и перевода неопределенных местоимений some и any и отрицательного местоимения no, а также их производных.

2. Функции глагола to be. Употребление to be в качестве глагола-связки, смыслового, вспомогательного и модального глагола.

3. Функции глагола to have. Употребление to have в качестве смыслового, вспомогательного и модального глагола.

4. Perfect Tenses (Active and Passive Voice).

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности употребления местоимений some , any , no и производных от них.

 

1. Is there anybody here who can speak Japanese?

2. There's nothing that distinguishes them structurally from any of their competitors.

3. There are some interesting theories that, if I had time, I would tell you about.

4. Have you got any brothers or sisters?

5. I’ve tried phoning, but every time I phone there’s nobody in.

6. Is there any petrol in the car?

7. I’ve prepared something for dinner which you’ll like very much.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, является ли глагол to be смысловым, глаголом-связкой, вспомогательным или модальным. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Don’t rush me. I am working as fast as I can.

2. He was at home when it happened.

3. Its mission is to encourage and promote development and maintenance of better roads.

4. I was to tell the professor that the book was a riddle.

5. I was wondering what she was doing there.

6. She is to be married soon.

 

III. Определите, является ли глагол to have смысловым, вспомогательным или модальным. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

 

1. After all, someone had to do it.

2. The value of increased flexibility has become obvious.

3. To have courage one must have faith.

4. Some countries have raised tariffs and have introduced other trade defence mechanisms.

5. Moreover, they had to work long hours, received very low wages and had to pay heavy fees to job placement agencies.

6. Learning has to be continuous and the training provided has to be responsive and flexible in order to reflect evolving needs.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения. Выпишите из каждого глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Computers had been installed and information technology training was provided.

2. I have received information from my colleague in France.

3. During that inspection no immediate intervention had been undertaken.

4. He will have done his homework by tomorrow.

5. Numerous topics have been suggested.

6. Now, new discoveries have revealed some of the most spectacular dinosaurs ever found.

7. I had prepared all papers by the time my chief entered the room.

8. By 2001 computers will have been supplied to all schools.

 

V. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Письменно ответьте на вопросы

ART IN OUR LIFE

Art is a way to show one’s emotions or communicate one’s thoughts. Art is an important part of people’s cultural life. There are different forms of art.

Painting is a practice of applying paint or color to a surface. There are a lot of genres and styles. For example, there are landscape, portrait and still life paintings. There are a lot of famous painters, such as Leonardo da Vinci with his Mona Lisa and Rafael with his Sistine Madonna.

Sculpture is one of the plastic arts. The process of work involves carving or modeling. Stone, clay or wood are the most typical materials.

Photography is also a form of art but is characterized by usage of various technical tools. Thanks to technological progress a photographer can create unforgettable images.

Theatre is a form of art where a group of people performs in front of a live audience. The performance is usually based on a real or imagined event. The actors communicate this experience to the public through gestures, songs and words.

Cinema is a relatively new form of art. The action is performed on the screen. Today, cinema is a very popular leisure activity.

Music has always been an important part of human’s life. Different genres of music can be used for relaxation, awakening, and what not. Everyone has heard about Ludwig van Beethoven, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and other great composers.

Architectural works are often perceived as a form of art. Architecture is quite versatile. There are a lot of styles, shapes and trends. One can’t help admiring the Sagrada Familia by Antoni Gaudi or the Winter Palace by Francesco Rastrelli.

1. What is art?

2. Enumerate the forms of art.

3. What is painting?

4. What are the most typical materials for sculpture?

5. Which form of art is characterized by usage of technical tools?

6. What kind of art is a popular leisure activity?

VI. Письменно переведите текст.

Advertisement

Advertisement is a marketing tool used to raise public awareness of a certain object. The main purpose of advertisement is to gain an interest of a prospective client in a product.

One of the main functions of advertisement is to attract public interest to something. It is also used to maintain this interest and constantly remind us of a product or a service. Along with that, advertisement is a good way to inform people of a brand or a company.

A lot of different types of advertisement have appeared with the development of mass media. Depending on a purpose, advertisement can be political, commercial or social.

According to the place, it can be outdoor and indoor. Advertising on TV, radio and in newspapers is, without any doubt, something that everyone is familiar with.

The main advantage of advertising is that it helps to generate sales. Thanks to advertising we learn about new products and services.

On the other side, advertisement is beyond our control. We cannot fully eliminate it, because it is everywhere.

It is not just an economic role advertising plays in our life. It influences on and forms our views and preferences. Besides, it makes us aware of a technological progress and development of other parts of our life.

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности употребления местоимений some , any , no и производных от них.

 

1. I haven't accused anybody of anything.

2. There's nothing to worry about and nothing to investigate.

3. And you'll see, there's some damage to the surface of the coral.

4. Have you any facts to support this?

5. When I phone them nobody answers.

6. Is there anybody here who can help me with these models?

7. I'm trying something... to learn something new.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, является ли глагол to be смысловым, глаголом-связкой, вспомогательным или модальным. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Undoubtedly, we are faced with both opportunities and serious challenges.

2. He did an internship there years ago when he was at the University of Miami Law School.

3. The task is to create the institutions that make that global society work.

4. I became his pupil, and he was to be my counselor and guardian.

5. When he came, I was writing a letter.

6. We are to do our job properly.

 

III. Определите, является ли глагол to have смысловым, вспомогательным или модальным. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

 

1. His insurance policy was expiring when he was 55, so he had to do it before his birthday.

2. Swensen has written two books about investing, one for professionals and one for the general public.

3. You don't have to buy anything, since we have everything we need.

4. The Government has taken a sound interest in the technical support service programme.

5. Maybe they had some business dealings?

6. Various activities had been undertaken in the field of human rights education.

 

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения. Выпишите из каждого глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. As a result of the test, many recommendations have been suggested.

1. The United Nations had begun its peacekeeping operations in the Middle East approximately half a century earlier.

2. Some of those candidates had been selected but never recruited.

3. The family will have got serious financial difficulties by the time their guardian returns.

4. Where agreements have been reached, they have been broken soon after.

5. The process will have been completed by the end of 1998.

6. He has written a number of articles for magazines.

7. I had expected to get news by the end of the last week.

8. Recently there has been a constant increase in crime, including organized crime.

 

V. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Письменно ответьте на вопросы

EDUCATION IN MODERN WORLD

It is impossible to overestimate the importance of education in the modern world. Education has become the leading power of the technological progress and thus of the whole development of the humanity.

There are different levels of education in our country: pre-school, primary, secondary and a higher one.

Pre-school education comprises nurseries and kindergartens. Children there are looked after by professional nannies and educators. They are often taught to read and count.

There are different kinds of schools in Russia. All schools begin with primary education. It lasts up to the 5th form. The most of pupils go to secondary schools, others choose lyceums, gymnasiums, specialized schools. If pupils finish a secondary school successfully, they get a secondary education certificate. It gives them an opportunity to enter a university or an academy which are the institutions of a higher education.

Higher education institutions nowadays prepare Specialists, Bachelors and Masters. A diploma of a higher education makes it possible to find a better job.

The systems of education are not similar in different countries. In Britain there are three stages of schooling. The British have primary school, secondary school and post-secondary education. The latter includes further and higher education.

In the USA the system of education is very decentralized. That means every state has its own education laws. Generally, they have got elementary schools (6-11 years), intermediate schools (11-15 years) and senior high schools (9-12 grades). There are several ways to continue education: universities, colleges, community colleges, technical and vocational schools.

 

1. Why is education so important in modern world?

2. What levels of education are there in our country?

3. What does pre-school education comprise?

4. What kinds of schools are there in Russia?

5. Whom does higher education institutions prepare?

6. Is there any difference between educational systems in different countries?

 

VI. Письменно переведите текст.

Cinema

At the end of the XIX century the cinema started to gain its popularity. First motion pictures were very short, lasting for about a minute. They were black and white and silent. A few years later the duration of the films was already 15-20 minutes.

There are several types of films, such as short films, documentaries and feature films.

Short films may be considered as a separate genre. A lot of professionalism is required to convey a whole range of emotions within 15-20 minutes.

Documentaries are based on real stories and facts. Usually these are the films about historical events, famous people and so on. Educational films also relate to this category.

Feature films are the films where actors play a certain part. There are many different genres of feature films such as melodrama, comedy, thriller and other ones.

The rapid development of the cinema of Russia started at the beginning of the XXI century. A lot of films are aimed at large audience and are mostly entertaining. There are plenty of high-quality films.

Hollywood is the most popular film production place in the world. Every year thousands of films are created there. Hollywood films are full of special effects which attract millions of people to the cinemas.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 3

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу № 3, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка.

1. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.

2. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

3. Perfect Continuous Tenses (Active Voice)

4. Согласование времен.

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимания на степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий, а также конструкции, содержащие the…the; as…as.

 

1. The new class of electors had different and greater demands than those of the existing middle-class electors.

2. He spent much more money for defense than he expected.

3. Go to our office and choose the most reliable document.

4. The more I read it the more astonished I was.

5. He was as nervous as never in his life before the exam.

6. She is the most experienced specialist I have ever met.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The technology must be sufficiently flexible to provide useful results at many different levels of technological development.

2. Our goal is to provide the best service possible to our clients. Thus, we are able to carry out any necessary repairs.

3. Astronomy and solar physics should permit a global vision of the universe and a better understanding of how it evolved.

4. Additional calculations may be necessary.

5. The mechanic is asking if he is allowed to go now.

6. Science can explain everything nowadays.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения. Выпишите из каждого глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. We are all agreed on the need for change, we have been discussing it for years.

2. They had been correcting their mistakes for half an hour.

3. The Olympic Ideal has been living in the hearts of the Greek people for more than 30 centuries.

4. He will already have been learning German for four years when he enters the Institute.

5. The clerk has been collecting information on this matter of law for a month.

6. The had still been debating that matter long after the meeting was over.

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода косвенной речи.

 

1. I thought they wouldn't come.

2. She wanted to know if it was connected to the symbols.

3. But when we got there he said he was thirsty.

4. He wondered if the agreement had been signed.

5. We were sure he would demand a ransom.

6. The Prime Minister announced that he would resign within a few weeks.

 

V. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Письменно ответьте на вопросы.

Mass Media

Mass media can be defined as channels of communication with the help of which information is delivered to the audience.

Despite today's abundance and variety of mass media, not everything can be ranked as such. Thus, for example, libraries or press conferences cannot be attributed to mass media.

There are 3 main features which characterize mass media. First, they must be periodic. Second, they are always aimed at a large audience. Third, there must be a speaker or any other source of information.

Press is a classic form of mass media. It includes newspapers, magazines, brochures and all other printed publications issued with a specific periodicity. Unfortunately, with the development of Internet and other means of media, press is experiencing difficult times.

Another category includes radio, television and Internet. Radio is a popular means of media, especially when travelling or driving. Television is, without any doubt, the most effective one with the biggest audience of all. Nowadays, with Internet playing a significant part in our life, mass media is gradually moving into virtual space.

It is difficult to overestimate the role of mass media in our life. Media influence people's consciousness, creating a certain public opinion. They also play a great role in the formation of a personality. With the help of mass media, it becomes possible to quickly learn about things that happen around the world.

 

1. What is mass media?

2. Name the main features of mass media.

3. What is the classic form of mass media?

4. What does press include?

5. What does another category of mass media include?

6. What is the role of mass media in our life?

 

VI. Письменно переведите текст.

Computer

Computers appeared in people’s life not long ago. In the middle of the 20th century common people had no idea about them. In 1951 the first commercially available computer was introduced. In 1975 personal computers appeared.

It is hard to imagine modern life without computers. The sphere of their application is very wide.

Most offices are equipped with computers to make calculations and work with documentation. Surgical operations which were not previously possible are performed thanks to computer technologies. Technologies are also used in modern education both by students and teachers.

Teenagers use computers for many purposes. Firstly, they play computer games, watch cartoons and films. Secondly, they do school tasks, read books and find various information on the Internet.

A comparatively new trend is communicating online. Such applications as Skype give an opportunity to talk to people who may be very far away in real time.

Computers do not have only a positive influence on children. One of the threats is being captured by a virtual reality. Some kids spend so much time at the computer that they forget about real people around them.

Consequently, they will lack important social skills in the future. Sitting at the computer children spoil their eyes and posture. So, adults should be very attentive to how long their kids use computers.

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимания на степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий, а также конструкции, содержащие the…the; as…as.

 

1. The new class of electors had different and greater demands than those of the existing middle-class electors.

2. He spent much more money for defense than he expected.

3. Go to our office and choose the most reliable document.

4. The more I read it the more astonished I was.

5. He was as nervous as never in his life before the exam.

6. She is the most experienced specialist I have ever met.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. We must create; we must build; we must innovate.

2. On the other hand, we agree that a decision does not have to be made right now.

3. Nuclear tests must cease and must cease immediately.

4. Market forces may also affect wage levels.

5. They are also allowed to have a bank account.

6. We can demonstrate that cooperation can work and that it can generate economic growth.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения. Выпишите из каждого глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. UNESCO has been collecting science and technology statistics from its member countries since the late 1990s.

2. They have been waiting for the decision of the Committee for an hour and a half.

3. We will have been having dinner for half an hour when you call for us.

4. This is the breakthrough we have been waiting for.

5. She had been searching for him since he ran off with Trixie.

6. The Government had been collecting information

7. I had been reading a magazine for some time when she came.

 

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода косвенной речи.

 

1. Bruce confirmed that she had been living there for 2 years.

2. He said that he had worked the day before.

3. Mom said that Tom was tired because he had studied hard.

4. My son said that he had read the book twice.

5. They answered that they were looking for a place to live.

6. He said that he would be with me whatever what.

 

V. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Письменно ответьте на вопросы.

 

Television

 

The first attempts to get an image on the screen were made in the late XIX century. But the large-scale production of the first televisions did not start until 1930s. Soon, with the development of science and technologies, television became an essential part of our life.

Today, it is hard not to get lost in this diverse TV world. Thus, there is high definition television, which is characterized by images and sound of high quality. There is also smart-TV – television with integrated Internet. There is also 3D-television, which can only be watched with the help of special goggles.

Television is one of the mass media with the largest audience of all.

Due to its accessibility everyone can watch television despite their age and social status. Some people get an update on the latest news; others watch soap operas and talk-shows.

However, television does not exist for information and entertainment only. It can also be educational. That is why students and little children may find it useful as well.

Television came to our life about 100 years ago, but nowadays there is hardly a household without a TV set. Despite the development of other sources of information, TV remains one of the most important ones.

 

1. When did the large-scale production of televisions start?

2. What is the high definition television characterized by?

3. What is a smart - TV?

4. Why can everyone watch television?

5. What does television exist for?

6. What is one of the most important source of information nowadays?

 

VI. Письменно переведите текст.

Internet

There is hardly anyone who has never heard about Internet. A lot of people use Internet every day, among those students and teachers, children and businesspeople, housewives and pensioners.

Internet is a storehouse of every sort and kind of information and possibilities. With the help of Internet, we can communicate with those, who are far away, we can read books, watch films, shop without leaving the house. Some people work on the Internet, others treat it as a source of inspiration and personal development.

Internet helps us keep up to date. However, there are not only positive things to say about Internet.

Unfortunately, some people become incredibly dependent on it. They live in the, so-called, virtual reality, forgetting about their everyday responsibilities. Choosing to have Internet in our life, we must remember that too much pudding will choke the dog.

It is difficult to imagine what else Internet can surprise us with, however, one can be sure that its potential has not been fully discovered yet. Whether it will be something useful and necessary will depend on us.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА 4

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу № 4, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка.

1. Неопределенные и отрицательные местоимения.

2. Функции глаголов . should, would

3. Типы условных предложений.

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на неопределенные и отрицательные местоимения.

 

1. There isn’t anything in the table.

2. Somebody is speaking at the door.

3. Did you flight anywhere last year? No, I didn’t, but I’m planning to go somewhere this year.

4. Have you got any interesting books?

5. She asked me some questions.

6. Mary didn’t make any mistakes in the test.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, употребляя some , any , no .

1. Are there … pictures in your album?

2. We brought … good books from the library.

3. There are … people in the park because it is cold.

4. I can see … children in the yard. They are jogging .

5. Give me … juice, please. I am thirsty.

III. Переведите письменно следующие предложения на английский язык.

1. Дайте мне что-нибудь посмотреть.

2. Боюсь, она ничего не знает об этом.

3. Может ли кто-нибудь перевести это предложение?

4. У вас нет свободных мест? К сожалению, ничего не могу вам сейчас предложить.

5. Не хотите ли еще торта? Спасибо, но я больше не хочу.

6. В этом году мои родители посадили кое-какие цветы, но не сажали никаких овощей.

7. У него нет никаких причин сердиться на вас.

IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов should, would.

 

1. He said that he would come at ten o'clock.

2. I told them that at two o'clock the following day I should be having a music lesson.

3. He said yesterday that by the time we were back he would have finished the letter.

4. We asked her several times to be careful, but she wouldn’t listen to us.

5. You shouldn’t give the children everything they want.

V. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы have to , has to или had to .

 

1. Susan can’t see us quite well. She … put on my glasses.

2. In London we … drive on the left side. In Moscow we … drive on the right side.

3. Jack … wear a uniform to his company.

4. Не knew he had to stay in because his friend was going to ring him up.

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы must , mustn ’ t .

 

1. Kate looks pale. I think she … see the doctor.

2. It’s very slippery outside. We … run there.

3. You … throw litter on the pavement.

4. Pupils … look neat and clean at school.

5. You … make noise in the book store.

VII. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы mustn ’ t , don ’ t have to .  Вставьте модальные глаголы.

 

1. You … leave your kids unattended at the railway station.

2. We … be late for the interview.

3. She … eat the soup if she doesn’t want to.

4. He … shout at us.

5. We … run. We have plenty of time before the concert.

VIII. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Раскройте скобки в условных предложениях 2 и 3 типа и поставьте глаголы в правильную форму.

 

1. If you … (have) a diploma, you … (get) this job.

2. My cat … (be) 10 years old today if it … (be) alive.

3. You … (not have) a car accident if you … (choose) another road.

4. I … (visit) Kate yesterday if I … (know) that she was ill.

5. I … (go) to the doctor if I … (be) you.

6. If people … (not buy) guns, the world … (become) safer.

 

IX. Прочитайте и выполните задания по тексту.

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на неопределенные и отрицательные местоимения.

1. Give me some water, please.

2. Have you bought any sugar?

3. Some people like hot tea and some don’t.

4. Anybody can do it.

5. You may play anything you like.

6. We saw nobody there.

7. There is nothing in the box.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, употребляя some, any, no.

1. We didn’t play … games in the garden because it was raining all day long.

2. There are … boys and girls in the garden now because they are at school.

3. Well, anyway, there is … need to hurry, now that we have missed the train.

4. Have you ever seen … of these photos before?

5. We couldn’t buy … cherries, so we bought … plums instead.

III. Переведите письменно следующие предложения на английский язык.

1. Он редко читает газеты; говорит, что некоторые новости его просто убивают. 2. Любой студент знает, как трудно учиться. 3. Никто не может быть в безопасности. Все что угодно может случиться. 4. Нам абсолютно некуда пойти. 5. Им нужен кто-нибудь, кто бы сделал эту работу. 6. Ничто не изменилось. 7. Давайте проведем вечер дома и никуда не пойдем.

IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов should, would.

 

1. We should invite our cousins to the party.

2. She shouldn’t go outside without an umbrella today.

3. Не would go there if he had time.

4. It is strange that she should have said it.

5. She tried to persuade us, but we wouldn't listen to her.

V. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы have to , has to или had to . Вставьте модальные глаголы.

1. Yesterday we … stay at work till midnight.

2. She … go now or she’ll miss the bus.

3. If I lose my job, I will … sell my jewellery.

4. I didn't know I ….. take the book home.

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы must , mustn ’ t .

1. You … brush your teeth before going to bed.

2. We … fasten our seatbelts in a car.

3. Children … play computer games and watch TV a lot.

4. You … light a fire in the forest.

5. You … be friendly to other people.

VII. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы mustn ’ t , don ’ t have to . Вставьте модальные глаголы.

 

1. She … pay now. She can pay online later.

2. This exhibition is free. We … buy any tickets.

3. This is my mum’s key. You … lose it. 4. You … make much noise. Little baby is sleeping.

5. It’s Sunday tomorrow. We … get up early.

VIII. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Раскройте скобки в условных предложениях 2 и 3 типа и поставьте глаголы в правильную форму.

 

1. Mike … (not be) so tired this day if he … (go to bed) early last night.

2. The children … (not get wet) if they … (take) an umbrella.

3. If my sister … (not open) the windows, our room … (not be) full of flies.

4. My cousin ... (not eat) much “fast food” if his wife … (cook) at home.

5. If they … (go) with us to Paris last month, they … (see) the Eifel Tower too.

6. We …..(make) the cake yesterday, if we …..(buy) some eggs.

IX. Прочитайте и выполните задания по тексту.

 

LANGUAGES LIVE AND DEAD.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА 5

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу № 5, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка.

1. Причастие I.

2. Причасти II

3. Независимый причастный оборот.

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Переведите предложения на русский язык и определите в них Participle I и Participle II.

1. Students arriving in Paris visit many various exhibitions.

2. A lady travelling by train took a seat in a compartment where a man was smoking one cigarette after another.

3. The life-guard could save the drowned child because of his excellent training in first aid.

4. He recognized him very easily because he had absolutely big hands, and wearing turquoise tie.

5. We have to repair the broken parts of this engine.

 

II. Определите функции Participle I и Participle II (определения, обстоятельства или части сказуемого) в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык:

1. Knowing Spanish very well he can write scientific articles without any difficulty.

2. We will use the instruments of improved design.

3. The children were frightened by the terrible storm.

4. We are all concerned about the rising level of unemployment.

5. While examining the new car we found out some scars on it.

 

III. Употребите Participle I или Participle II в функции определения в следующих предложениях и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The (sorted/sorting) mail was delivered to the offices before noon.

2. The (trembling/ trembled) children were given a blanket and a cup of hot tea for warmth.

3. As we entered the (crowded/crowding) hall, we noticed our

4. The (boring/bored) students went to sleep during the (boring/bored) lecture.

5. (Freezing/frozen) food is easier to prepare than fresh food but is very unhealthy.

 

IV. Проанализируйте следующие предложения: найдите группу определения с Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Their attention will be focused on comparative methods applied by different sciences.

2. The complexity of the technique employed involved increased considerably.

3. Every body located on earth is polled downwards by the earth.

4. The nucleus formed by the emissions of the gamma-ray may be unstable.

5. The pressure just calculated is surface pressure.

 

V. Определите тип причастного оборота (определительный, обстоятельственный, независимый) в следующих предложений и переведите их.

1. Unless heated this substance does not melt.

2. The professor being ill, the lecture was postponed.

3. A graph is given showing the dependence of pressure on temperature.

4. Being invited too late George could not go to the conference.

5. The contract is written in English and Russian, both versions being valid.

 

VIII. Прочитайте текст и переведите 1, 2 и 3 абзацы текста письменно.

PROTECT OUR PLANET WITH CAT

1. Back in the 1960s and 70s, the world was becoming more aware of the destructive effects of industry on the environment and people were starting to think seriously about ways of protecting the environment. One man who was particularly affected by this subject was Gerard Morgan-Grenville. As Morgan-Grenville travelled round earning his leaving as a gardener, he noticed signs of the damage that was being done to the countryside around him. It wasn’t long before Morgan-Grenville decided that he had to do something about this situation. He felt that if people could be shown a better way of living then maybe they would be interested enough to try to protect their precious environment.

2. Mr. Morgan-Grenville decided to set up a project that would prove what was happening to our surroundings and what could be done about it. So, in 1975, Morgan-Grenville created the Center for Alternative Technology (CAT) in a village in Wales.

3. The main aim of CAT is to search for an ecologically better way of living by using technology that does not harm the environment. One of the most important things CAT did initially was to explore and demonstrate a wide range of techniques and to point out which ones had the least destructive results on the world around us. It is also very important for CAT to provide information and advice to people all over the world. If more and more individuals are informed about how much damage our modern lifestyle is doing to the planet, maybe more of them would be prepared to look for solution.

4. The point about CAT is that by combining theoretical and practical ideas, it has shown ways in which people, nature and technology can exist together successfully. CAT now covers many themes, including energy-saving techniques, good use of land, the correct management of waste products, recycling and health and food issues. Visitors to CAT are able to observe many new ways of living all of which are ecologically correct and use up less of our valuable raw materials. For example the sewage systems at CAT that get rid of all the waste from the kitchen and bathrooms are organized so as to be completely environmentally friendly, and much of the energy used at the center is created by power from the sun, wind or rain. In addition, all the building methods used are ecologically ideal and no chemicals are used at the center; for instance, no chemicals are used in gardening or cleaning. Everything is based on the use of natural products.

5. One major global problem is the damage done to the whole planet by the effects of industry. Problems such as global warming, the holes in the ozone layer, the destruction of huge areas of forests, and pollution in our atmosphere are all connected to the fact that there is an increase in industry. Now, at last, this problem is being recognized worldwide.

6. People now agree that we want clean air, pure drinking water, safe sunlight and healthy food. What CAT is trying to do is to demonstrate that we can have all those things without the environment paying the price. Slowly, CAT is communicating its message to countries across the world. In Europe , several countries have set up similar ecological centers to look at alternative environmentally friendly technology. The workers at CAT hope that one day there will be so many centers all over the world that governments and managers of industry will start to change their ideas and will think more carefully about the environment. Once this happens, the possibilities for protecting our beautiful planet will be endless.

 

VII. Прочитайте текст еще раз и выберите справедливые утверждения a, b, c или d:

1. Mr. Morgan-Grenville was worried about

a) the damage his gardening was doing to the countryside;

b) the countryside being harmed;

c) people protecting the environment;

d) what he did for a living in the countryside.

2. One of the main aims of CAT is

a) to use better technology to harm the environment;

b) to use less technology in the environment;

c) to stop using technology that does not harm the environment;

d) to use technology that causes less damage to the environment.

3. Which one of the following statements is true?

a) CAT uses a mixture of theory and practice to explain its message;

b) CAT only uses practical solutions to explain its message;

c) CAT has demonstrated how successful its theories are;

d) CAT believes it would be better if technology didn’t exist.

4. Visitors to CAT

a) can use valuable raw materials;

b) are all ecologically correct;

c) can see new ideas in practice;

d) can see valuable raw materials.

5. The increase in industry worldwide

a) has led to an increase in environmental problems;

b) is due to the damage done to the whole planet;

c) is a result of efforts to protect the environment;

d) has been caused by problems like global warming.

6. The workers at CAT are hoping

a) that their managers will start to change industry;

b) that their ideas will be used all over the world;

c) that our beautiful planet will end;

d) that it can protect governments and managers worldwide.

VIII. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 1, 2, и 4 абзацы.

DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY

1. A digital photograph is a photo, produced with computer techniques, made up of hundreds of thousands or millions of tiny squares of colour. The technical name for these squares is picture – elements or pixels. The quality of any digital photo depends on the number of pixels per square centimeter – the more pixels, the better the photo, which is why you should always try to buy the best digital camera you can afford.

2. There are many reasons why people ought to consider changing from ordinary cameras to digital photography. You can change these pictures with your digital camera if you follow the instructions. You don’t waste time going to the shops for your films and photos, and you don’t have to spend money on films. There is also the advantage that digital photography is instant. You can view your pictures immediately – allowing you to decide which photos you want to keep and which you don’t. No more wondering if you should have taken a photo or not – with digital cameras you can take the picture first and decide later whether or not you want it. Of course, with digital technology you are able to change you picture so that it looks great anyway – that’s another huge plus when it comes to digital cameras. Lastly, and something we all ought to think about, is the fact that digital photography doesn’t use toxic chemicals that often end up in our rivers and lakes.

3. You don’t need to be a computer wizard to use digital cameras. Put simply, what happens is that the camera produces your picture in digital format – made up of pixels – so that it can then be ‘read’ by your computer. Once your photos are stored on your computer, you can decide what you want to do with them. They can be saved until you want to use them, included in letters you’ve written on your computer or send to friends and family in e-mail.

4. There are a lot of strange shapes and sizes of digital cameras. However, the design doesn’t make any difference to the camera’s performance and you shouldn’t too influenced by this. Secondly, there is the cost. At the cheaper end of the market, there are the ‘point and shoot’ cameras. These cameras are fully automatic and anybody just starting digital photography should begin with one of these. They’re so simple that after only a couple of weeks, you should have learnt all you need to know about how to use the camera. For more money you can buy one of the megapixel cameras, which, as their name suggests, produce better quality photos by using more pixels. Some of these are a bit too complicated for everyday use. At the top end of the price scale are professional cameras and digital video cameras – very expensive and only necessary for the serious photographer.

5. If you’re buying a digital camera for the first time you can easily get confused. Will you be taking pictures indoors or out side? What kind of picture do you want to take – landscape, portraits, sport’s shots? Do you want to take pictures of things close up or far away? All these questions affect the kind of camera you should choose.

 

IX. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

 

1. What is a digital photograph?

2. What does the word pixel mean?

3. What are the advantages of using a digital camera?

4. How does digital camera work?

5. Which type of digital camera is the most expensive?

6. What kind of information is communicated in this way?

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Переведите предложения на русский язык и определите в них Participle I и Participle II.

 

1. The investigation made by him is of great value.

2. A little girl was punished by her parents because she had ruined her new clothes.

3. Not remembering her address, he had to ask her friend.

4. Three thousand people marched through the streets, protesting about the latest government laws.

5. I’ve never been so excited in all my life!

 

II. Определите функции Participle I и Participle II (определения, обстоятельства или части сказуемого) в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык.

 

1. The policemen has stopped a dangerous driver, exceeded the speed limit.

2. Though expected on Wednesday they arrived on Friday.

3. Learners starting to study two foreign languages find it difficult to memorize words.

4. While redecorating the house the day before yesterday he fell of the ledder and hurt his leg.

5. He was hurrying somewhere and didn’t notice me.

 

III. Употребите Participle I или Participle II в функции определения в следующих предложениях и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The police towed away the (parking/parked) cars because they were blocking the entrance.

2. The (frightening/frightened) people jumped into the lifeboats when notified that the ship was sinking.

3. The (boring/bored) film got the viewers to sleep.

4. The researchers (inviting/invited) to our plant are Cambridge graduates.

5. Our (crying/cried) baby awoke the neighbours sleeping next door to us.

IV. Проанализируйте следующие предложения: найдите группу определения с Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The data referred to in this paper showed that our conclusions were correct.

2. The technique employed used a single tube.

3. The method proposed by the young scientist was discussed at the meeting.

4. The temperature of the liquid obtained remained constant.

5. All the isotopes now produced by reactors can also be made in a cyclotron.

 

V. Определите тип причастного оборота (определительный, обстоятельственный, независимый) в следующих предложений и переведите их.

1. Phenomena occurring during solar flares are thoroughly investigated.

2. They are going to study mechanisms underlying photosynthesis.

3. We are not giving you any details, the enclosed letters containing the necessary information.

4. The match being very excited, it was difficult to get tickets.

5. Considered from this point of view the question will be of great interest.

 

VI. Прочитайте текст и переведите 1, 2 и 3 абзацы текста письменно.

 

WHAT CAUSED THE ACCIDENT?

1. NASA space shuttle consist of three major components: a winged orbiter that carries both crew and cargo, an external tank containing liquid hydrogen (fuel) and liquid oxygen (oxidizer) for the orbiter’s three main rocket engines, and a pair of large solid-propellant rocket boosters. On January 28, 1986, the Challenger shuttle and its crew of seven were destroyed shortly after launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The primary cause of the loss of the Challenger was the failure of an O-ring seal of a joint on one of the solid rocket boosters.

2. The solid rocket boosters are constructed in four cylindrical sections. These have to be sealed together completely to prevent the escape of the extremely hot by-products of the burning fuel during a launch. The O-rings are rubber rings that play a vital part in sealing the joints.

3. On the day of the launch, the weather was unusually cold and this caused the rubber of one of the O-rings on the joint between the bottom tow segments of the right the solid rocket booster to become brittle. This, combined with the faulty design of the joint, allowed hot gases burned through the metal that held the solid rocket booster in position. When the solid rocket booster broke off, it ruptured the side of the external fuel tank. This allowed the liquid hydrogen and oxygen to mix prematurely and this is what caused the explosion.

4. In early February in 1986, the creation of a Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident was announced. It took four months to complete and required the involvement of 6,000 people. Modifications were made both to shuttle hardware and to NASA’s safety and assurance procedures. While the space shuttle fleet was grounded, hundreds of modifications were incorporated into the shuttle system. The solid rocket boosters were completely redesigned and a new joint design was subjected to stringent examination and review.

5. The report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident was published and delivered to the president early June 1986.

6. Another tragic accident occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Columbia space shuttle broke up over north-central Texas at an altitude of about 40 miles (60 kilometers) as it was returning from an orbital mission. All seven crew members died in the accident.

 

VII. Прочитайте 1 параграф текста и выпишите три основные части космического корабля. Read the 1 paragraph of the text and, write out the tree main components of the space shuttle.

a)

b)

c)

 

VIII. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту. Answer the questions.

 

1) When and where did this accident take place?

2) What caused the accident?

3) How many lives were lost in the accident?

4) When was the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident created?

5) How long did the commission’s investigation take?

6) How many people were involved in the investigation?

7) When was the commission’s report published?

 

IX. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 1, 2, и 4 параграфы.

 

THE AMAZING POWER OF NATURE

1. Now that the human race has made great technological and scientific progress and is about to clone whatever or whoever it wants, it is very easy to forget about the forces of nature. Although the images of destruction which we have seen on our television screens are horrific, they are, in fact, just the tip of the iceberg compared to what nature can really do.

2. Tornadoes, which are the fastest and most violent winds on earth, can reach speeds of over 500kph. Roofs of houses, cars, animals, buses and people have been lifted into the air in this way. Those people whose lives have been put at risk by ‘twisters’ have described how helpless they felt in the face of such power.

3. A tornado is a violently spinning column of air that can start to form during a thunderstorm, of which there are about 45,000 a day worldwide. Of course, not all thunderstorms bring about total destructions. The most destructive ones occur in India, Bangladesh and ‘Tornado Alley’ in the USA. The worst ever ‘twister’ hit this area in March 1925, when a huge tornado travelled across Missouri, Illinois and India, killing 695 people and injuring further 2,027.

4. A blizzard is another natural phenomenon which affects North America. It is a deadly mixture of wind, snow and freezing temperatures. Muscles and internal organs then fail to work when body temperatures falls below 30 C. In the USA blizzards are quite common, with winds travelling at up to 65 kph.

5. It is believed that global warming, which is caused ice caps to melt, will be the cause of more blizzards in the future. Even Britain may experience blizzards as violent as the one which hit New York, Washington, Boston and Philadelphia in January, 1996. These cities became completely paralysed when snow up to 78cm deep and weighing a total of five billion tons covered an area 800 km long.

6. Apart from causing death and injury directly, tornadoes and blizzards can also cause floods. Naturally, floods are usually caused by heavy rainfall, but whichever way they are created, they can be very destructive. The most dangerous and dramatic ones are known as flash floods. In June 1976, hot air blew north from the Gulf of Mexico, bringing huge thunderstorms to the big Thompson Gorge, where they released 25 cm of rain in six hours. All the mountain streams filled up and met at the Big Thompson Gorge. The water then flowed through the canyon, removing everything in its path, killing 139 people and causing damage worth $ 36 million. Other floods on record have developed more slowly but have been equally destructive.

7. If we choose to ignore it and believe we are the supreme rulers of the planet, we may be in for a big surprise. Remember, lightning can strike twice in the same place.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА 6

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Употребите, где необходимо, частицу to перед инфинитивом и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. I can’t … go there now, I have … do my homework.

2. Make him … speak louder.

3. She asked me … read the letter carefully and … write an answer.

4. We had better … stop rest a little

5. We saw the ship … sail off.

II. Выберите эквивалент русского предложения из предложенных вариантов.

 

1. Мэри хочет обучать вас английскому.

a) Mary wants to teach you English.

b) Mary wants to be taught English.

2. Ему не нравится, когда вы его беспокоите.

a) He doesn’t like to be disturbed by you.

b) He doesn’t like to disturb you.

3. Статья должна быть переведена на испанский.

a) The article must translate into Russian.

b) The article must be translated into Russian.

4. Он сделал вид, что спит.

a) He pretended to be sleeping

b) He pretended to have been sleeping

5. Вероятно, я забыл портфель в магазине.

a) I might have left my bag in the shop.

b) I might leave my bag in the shop.

 

III. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом в функции подлежащего и обстоятельства.

 

1. To drive a car in a big city is very important.

2. To run modern machines workers must be educated/

3. To solve the problem you have to make a great many experiments.

4. To get to the earth the rays of the sun have to travel during 8 minutes.

5. To calculate the age of our planet requires much knowledge in different branches of science.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом и определите его функцию в предложении (подлежащее, часть сказуемого, дополнение, определение, обстоятельство, вводный член предложения)

 

1. To enter the university one have to take entrance exams.

2. To be sure, a great progress in chemistry has been made in the last few decades.

3. There are many examples to illustrate the rule.

4. Whether to take part in the conference or not has not been decided yet.

5. The latest paper by this scientist is rather difficult to understand.

 

V. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе сложного дополнения (Complex Object).

 

1. I know him to be an experienced writer.

2. During the experiment we saw the temperature fall rapidly.

3. Everybody was waiting for him to announce his decision.

4. They consider themselves to be right.

5. Do you expect the documents to be signed tomorrow?

 

VI. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе сложного подлежащего (Complex Subject).

 

1. There happened to be a surgeon among them.

2. The radius of our orbit is believed to be increasingly very slowly.

3. The experiment is believed to be a failure.

4. Light is to be considered as some kind of wave motion of electromagnetic origin.

5. He is unlikely to come to the meeting tomorrow.

VII. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на тип инфинитивной конструкции, и определите этот тип (Complex Subject or Complex Subject).

 

1. He heard somebody mention his name at the last meeting.

2. They are certain to cope with the problem facing them.

3. This pipeline is thought to be built next autumn.

4. We want you to see the new university building.

5. The engineers of the plant are said to have constructed a new device.

 

VIII. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 2 и 4 абзацы текста.

 

OLYMPIC GAMES

1. Why are the Olympic Games so called? Why is the Greek word "stadium" understood by people who speak different languages? Why always sportsmen from Greece open a holiday?

2. Why do they bring Olympic fire from Greece? The first Olympic Games took place in Greece, in the city of Olympia, in 773 BC. (before the new era) in honor of the god Zeus. In Olympia there were beautiful white buildings, there was a large stadium, several schools where athletes could engage. Once in four years Olympia hosted the most famous sports competitions in Olympia. Thousands of men, old people, children from cities and villages came to Olympia. Many people came on foot. Only men and boys from Greece could participate in the competition. Each Greek city sent athletes to the competitions. The Olympic flame was burning for five days, the Olympic Games continued for five days, and there was a holiday in Greece. The Olympic Games united all Greek cities, wars ended, and peace ensued in the country. Every city was waiting for news from Olympia. And in Olympia itself at the stadium thousands of people watched the competitions and knew how to "hurt" in the same way as millions of people "get sick" in the stadiums now, in our time. Five days later people left and athletes left Olympia, athletes returned home to their cities. Olympic winners were welcomed as heroes. They sang songs about them and wrote poems.

3. Time has destroyed Olympia. Only in 1875, scientists found this place on earth. Then they decided to resume the Olympic Games again. The first "new Olympic Games" took place in 1896 in their homeland in Greece. Just like 2000 years ago, they take place every four years. These competitions unite people. Their symbol is peace and friendship.

4. The Olympic Games are great sporting events. In different countries, athletes dream of participating in the Olympic Games, because these are not just competitions, but big holidays for young people from Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia. The Olympic Games occur every four years. Thousands of people come to the city where games are played. Everyone is waiting for the holiday. And here comes the first day. People gather at the biggest stadium. They stand in the stands and look to where athletes should come from. Music is playing. Athletes from different countries come to the stadium. And always ahead are athletes from Greece. And then one of the sportsmen appears at the stadium. He has an Olympic flame in his hands. Many people in different countries carried this fire from Greece. And now the best sportsman of their country, in which the Olympic Games are taking place, brought it to the stadium. The Olympic flame is burning. A white Olympic flag is hoisted, on which five rings are blue, black, yellow, red and green. In each national flag there is one of these colors. Athletes leave the stadium. The next day, competitions begin. They last for several days, and there are always a lot of athletes involved in them. "The main thing is not to win, the main thing is to participate," they say about the Olympic Games around the world.

 

IX. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

 

1. When did the first Olympic Games take place?

2. Who could take part in the competition?

3. How long did the competition last?

4. How did the winners of the Olympic Games meet?

5. Why do athletes dream of participating in the Olympic Games?

6. How often do the Olympic Games take place?

7. Why are there five rings of blue, black, yellow, red and green colors on the Olympic flag?

8. What is the main slogan of the Olympic Games?

 

X. Прочитайте текст и переведите письменно 1 часть текста.

 

YELLOW STORK

1. They say that once lived in Fuzhou, one poor student. He was so poor that he could not even pay for a cup of tea. His name was Mi. He would have died of hunger, if not for one master of tea. He pitied Me and drank, and fed it for free. But one day, Mi came to the master and said:

- I'm leaving. I do not have the money, and I can not pay for everything I drank and ate here. But I do not want to be ungrateful. Here look!

And he took a piece of yellow chalk from his pocket and drew a yellow stork on the wall. The stork was just as alive.

"This stork," said Mi, "will bring you ten times more money than I owe." Every time people gather in your tea room, you must clap three times. Then the stork will come off the wall and will dance. But you should never make a stork dance for one person. If you make him dance for one person, he will dance for the last time.

2. The next day, when a lot of people gathered in the tea-room, the owner clapped his hands three times, and the stork came off the wall and began to dance. The guests were surprised and did not believe their eyes. Since then, the tea room has always attracted a lot of visitors and the owner has become very rich.

But one day a rich man went into the tea-room. He came to look at the storks, of which he heard a lot. He put a lot of money on the table and forced the master to drive out all the people from the tea-room.

"I want to look at the stork alone," he said. The owner saw the money and forgot what the student told him. He clapped his hands three times, and the stork came off the wall. He looked unhappy and sick. He danced only one dance and went back. The owner was angry, shouted, but could do nothing.

And at night someone knocked at the door of the tea-room. The master opened the door and saw: there was a student Mi and was silent. Then student Mi took a pipe out of his pocket, played on it and went away. The stork came off the wall and went after him. Since then, no one has ever seen a student Mi and his yellow stork.

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Употребите, где необходимо, частицу to перед инфинитивом и переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Let me … help you with your work.

2. She ought … take care of her health.

3. You must make him …practice … playing piano at least two hours a day.

4. He was seen … leave the house.

5. I am very tired. I would rather not … go out this evening, if you don’t mind.

 

II. Выберите эквивалент русского предложения из предложенных вариантов.

 

1. Почему ты ушел и не попрощался со мной.

a) You could say goodbye to me.

b) You could have said goodbye to me.

2. Питер рад, что его пригласили на вечеринку.

a) Peter is happy to have invited us to the party.

b) Peter is happy to have been invited to the party.

3. Наши дети любят, чтобы им читали.

a) Our children like to read

b) Our children like to be read to.

4. Она хочет, чтобы ее информировали о его приезде.

a) She wants to be informed of his arrival.

b) She wants to be informed of his arrival.

5. Она должно быть подготовилась очень хорошо.

a) She must be studying very well.

b) She must have studied very well.

 

III. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом в функции подлежащего и определения.

 

1 To drive a car in a big city one must be an experienced driver.

2. To run modern machines workers must be very educated.

3. To solve this problem you have to make great many experiments.

4. To avoid the accident the cars had to move slowly.

5. To find the mass of the electron numerous experiments had to be made.

 

IV. Переведите следующие предложения с инфинитивом и определите его функцию в предложении (подлежащее, часть сказуемого, дополнение, определение, обстоятельство, вводный член предложения)

 

1. To give a true picture of the surrounding matter is the task of natural science.

2. He is to prepare the income statement by Monday.

3. They are happy to have passed all the exams successfully.

4. The first scientist to discover this phenomenon was Lavoiser.

5. Laws were not made to be broken, laws were made to stay within.

 

V. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе сложного дополнения (Complex Object).

 

1. They noticed him leave the room.

2. They thought us to be experienced enough to carry out the work.

3. Examination with X-rays has shown the halogen even in the solid state to possess diatomic molecules.

4. They found radon to be three times as heavy as hydrogen.

5. One may safely expect this prediction to be quite reliable.

 

VI. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе сложного подлежащего (Complex Subject).

 

1. The delegation was expected to arrive the next day.

2. They seemed to have quite forgotten their quarrel.

3. Many buildings were reported to have been damaged by the fire.

4. The weather can’t be expected to change tomorrow.

5. They are unlikely to complete the work in time.

 

VII. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на тип инфинитивной конструкции, и определите этот тип (Complex Subject or Complex Subject).

 

1. I hope you won’t think it very odd for a perfect stranger to talk to you like this.

2. The construction of that building is supposed be completed in a week.

3. Air was considered by the ancients to be an element.

4. Heat was for a long time thought to be an invisible all-pervading fluid.

5. The chemist wants the reaction to go as nearly to completion as possible.

 

VIII. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите 2 и 4 абзацы текста.

TRETYAKOV GALLERY

1. November 9, 1863 in St. Petersburg, the Academy of Arts, there was an unusual case: thirteen pupils refused to paint pictures on a topic that they were offered at the Academy. Usually the Academy offered a religious theme - one for all students who graduated from the Academy. Thirteen young artists were asked to allow them, independently choosing a topic, to tell about the life around them. They were not allowed. Then they left the Academy and organized an artel. They shared common interests and views on art. Together they worked together, helped each other with advice, artists created wonderful works. is he and painted portraits and paintings depicting Russian life. It was a new art expressing the interests and aspirations of the people. These artists had a great influence on the development of Russian art. Although the Academy continued to offer religious themes, more and more pictures appeared, in which artists tried to tell the truth about Russian life. The first such paintings, which appeared on the exhibition at the Academy of Fine Arts, were paintings by Fedotov and Perov.

2. A few years later, the best artists of Moscow and St. Petersburg, who created democratic art, began to travel around the cities of Russia and organize exhibitions of paintings in them. Often at these exhibitions one could meet a man with a narrow pale face and a dark beard, carefully considering the works of artists. It was Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov, a Moscow businessman. He loved painting and went to exhibitions to buy the best of paintings. Tretyakov lived in Moscow. In Lavrushinsky lane he built a building in which a large collection of paintings was collected. Artists who were friends with Tretyakov, helped him buy valuable paintings, painted portraits of the best Russian writers, scientists, artists for the gallery. They were proud when their works appeared in the halls of the Tretyakov Gallery. Tretyakov, who collected the best paintings, has retained the Russian school of painting. People who came to the gallery admired the beautiful works of Russian artists. Before his death Tretyakov donated his gallery to Moscow. Now in this gallery, which is one of the best collections of paintings by Russian artists, there are not only works that Tretyakov collected, but paintings of contemporary artists.



ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК

ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ

ИМЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ

 

 

НАРЕЧИЯ

 

СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ НАРЕЧИЙ

 

4. ОБОРОТ THERE + TO BE

ГЛАГОЛ

ГЛАГОЛ “TO BE”

ГЛАГОЛ “TO HAVE”

ПАССИВНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ

 


5.4. ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ SIMPLE


ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ CONTINUOUS

 

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT

 

СВОДНАЯ ТАБЛИЦА АНГЛИЙСКИХ ВРЕМЕН

 

 

КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ



НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

ГЕРУНДИЙ ( GERUND )

ИНФИНИТИВ (INFINITIVE)

Образование основных форм инфинитива

Infinitive

Active Voice

Passive Voice Indefinite

to do, to look, to tell, to know, to ask

to be done, to be looked, to be told, to be known, to be asked Continuous

to be doing, to be watching, to be saying, to be writing

– Perfect

to have done, to have asked, to have seen, to have worked

to have been done, to have been asked, to have been seen, to have been known Perfect Continuous

to have been doing, to have been watching, to have been painting, to have been laughing

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ

В настоящем учебно-методическом пособии все задания органически связаны между собой.

При этом соблюдается дидактический принцип построения материала от простого к сложному, что является одним из основных условий эффективного использования предложенного лексико-грамматического материала в устной и пись­менной речи, а также его аудиального и образного (визуального) распозна­вания.

В этом за­ключается необходимое условие достижения одной из главных целей на­стоящего пособия — научить выпускника вуза адекватно переводить современную научно-техническую литературу и компетентно излагать соответствующую информацию на ан­глийском языке.

Учебное пособие позволяет студентам совершенствовать знание английского языка и посредством интенсивной самостоятельной работы, как в аудиторное, так и внеаудиторное время.

Большинство заданий по своему характеру призваны развивать у сту­дентов аналитические и ассоциативные способности, формировать навы­ки системного подхода в изучении английского языка.

Одной из глав­ных целей настоящего учебно-методического пособия является предъявление студентам грамматического материала в виде схем и таблиц.

 Визуальная ин­формация значительно облегчает и ускоряет понимание и, следовательно, одновременное запоминание лексико-грамматического материала.

 

О.А. Гливенкова, О.Н. Морозова, Е.В. Евенко, В.И. Копельник

Английский язык:

Дата: 2019-02-25, просмотров: 313.