THE HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET
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If you want to know the truth, start with the alphabet. (Proverb)

The Russian alphabet, which we use today, came from the Slavic alphabet. His compilers were two priests - the brothers Constantine and Methodius. It was a long time ago - in the 9th century. On the border with Bulgaria was one of the largest Byzantine provinces, the capital was the city of Solun. In the family of a military official, who served in Solun, two sons grew up: Constantine and Methodius. The population there was - half Greeks, half Slavs, and in the family of boys the mother was a Greek, the father a Bulgarian, and therefore from their childhood they had two brothers - Greek and Slav. The characters of the brothers were very similar. Both read a lot, they liked to learn. Cyril (Constantine received this name at baptism) began to attend school at the age of eight. He diligently studied, mastered the Greek language, the account, mastered riding and military techniques. But his favorite occupation was reading books. He used his intelligence and diligence to surprise teachers.

Constantine received a brilliant education at the imperial palace in the capital of Byzantium - Constantinople. He quickly learned grammar, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, knew 22 languages. Interest in science, persistence in teaching, diligence - all this made him one of the most educated people of Byzantium. It is no accident that he was nicknamed the philosopher for his great wisdom.

In 863, ambassadors from the Khazars came to Constantinople to the Greek king, who asked to send teachers to explain the true faith. The Tsar invited Cyril to his place and said: "Go, Philosopher, to these people and with the help of the Holy Trinity, bless the doctrine of the Most Holy Trinity." Cyril agreed and persuaded Brother Methodius to go with him. They went together. Cyril and Methodius lived among the Slavs for 40 months, moving from one place to another, everywhere teaching the people in the Slavonic language.

May 24, 863 in the city of Pliska, which at that time was the capital of Bulgaria, the brothers Cyril and Methodius announced the invention of the Slavic alphabet. They translated the Gospel and other liturgical books into the Slavonic language. Since 1987, in our country on this day began to hold a festival of Slavic writing and culture.

After the death of Cyril and Methodius their disciples were expelled from Moravia and found shelter in Bulgaria. Here was created a new Slavic alphabet based on the Greek, was supplemented by letters borrowed from the Glagolitic alphabet. Since before his death Constantine had become a monk and assumed the name of Cyril, a new Slavic alphabet was named in memory of the man who first made it.

This new alphabet was called "Cyrillic" in honor of Cyril. From this alphabet our Russian alphabet (and also Ukrainian, Belarusian, Serbian and Bulgarian) also takes place.

 

1. Continue the proverb from the text: If you want to know the truth, ... ..

2. Name the names of the two priests who compiled the alphabet?

3. His favorite pastime in childhood was .........

4. Write the date of the celebration of the Day of Slavonic writing.

5. The new alphabet was called "Cyrillic" in honor of ...

 

X. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

People commonly complain that they never have enough time to accomplish tasks. The hours and minutes seem to slip away before many planned chores get done. According to time management experts, the main reason for this is that most people fail to set priorities about what to do first. They tied down by trivial, time-consuming matters and never complete the important ones.

One simple solution often used by those at the top is to keep lists of tasks to be accomplished daily. These lists order jobs from most essential to least essential and are checked regularly through the day to assess progress. Not only is this an effective away to manage time, but also it serves to give individuals a much-deserved sense of satisfaction over their achievements. People who do not keep lists often face the end of the work day with uncertainty over the significance of their accomplishments, which over time can contribute to serious problems in mental and physical health.

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на неопределенные и отрицательные местоимения.

1. Give me some water, please.

2. Have you bought any sugar?

3. Some people like hot tea and some don’t.

4. Anybody can do it.

5. You may play anything you like.

6. We saw nobody there.

7. There is nothing in the box.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, употребляя some, any, no.

1. We didn’t play … games in the garden because it was raining all day long.

2. There are … boys and girls in the garden now because they are at school.

3. Well, anyway, there is … need to hurry, now that we have missed the train.

4. Have you ever seen … of these photos before?

5. We couldn’t buy … cherries, so we bought … plums instead.

III. Переведите письменно следующие предложения на английский язык.

1. Он редко читает газеты; говорит, что некоторые новости его просто убивают. 2. Любой студент знает, как трудно учиться. 3. Никто не может быть в безопасности. Все что угодно может случиться. 4. Нам абсолютно некуда пойти. 5. Им нужен кто-нибудь, кто бы сделал эту работу. 6. Ничто не изменилось. 7. Давайте проведем вечер дома и никуда не пойдем.

IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов should, would.

 

1. We should invite our cousins to the party.

2. She shouldn’t go outside without an umbrella today.

3. Не would go there if he had time.

4. It is strange that she should have said it.

5. She tried to persuade us, but we wouldn't listen to her.

V. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы have to , has to или had to . Вставьте модальные глаголы.

1. Yesterday we … stay at work till midnight.

2. She … go now or she’ll miss the bus.

3. If I lose my job, I will … sell my jewellery.

4. I didn't know I ….. take the book home.

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы must , mustn ’ t .

1. You … brush your teeth before going to bed.

2. We … fasten our seatbelts in a car.

3. Children … play computer games and watch TV a lot.

4. You … light a fire in the forest.

5. You … be friendly to other people.

VII. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы mustn ’ t , don ’ t have to . Вставьте модальные глаголы.

 

1. She … pay now. She can pay online later.

2. This exhibition is free. We … buy any tickets.

3. This is my mum’s key. You … lose it. 4. You … make much noise. Little baby is sleeping.

5. It’s Sunday tomorrow. We … get up early.

VIII. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Раскройте скобки в условных предложениях 2 и 3 типа и поставьте глаголы в правильную форму.

 

1. Mike … (not be) so tired this day if he … (go to bed) early last night.

2. The children … (not get wet) if they … (take) an umbrella.

3. If my sister … (not open) the windows, our room … (not be) full of flies.

4. My cousin ... (not eat) much “fast food” if his wife … (cook) at home.

5. If they … (go) with us to Paris last month, they … (see) the Eifel Tower too.

6. We …..(make) the cake yesterday, if we …..(buy) some eggs.

IX. Прочитайте и выполните задания по тексту.

 

LANGUAGES LIVE AND DEAD.

Дата: 2019-02-25, просмотров: 147.