Exercise 18. Make a plan of the text.
Exercise 19. Shorten the text by way of shortening each paragraph (leaving out unnecessary sentences and even words) and be ready to summarize the text to the others in your group. Follow the plan:
1 The central idea of the reading passage is about... (it is devoted to... deals with... touches upon... the purpose of the text is to give the reader some information on )
2 Give a summary of the reading passage (no more than 15-20 sentences).
State the main problem discussed in the reading passage and mark off the passages that seem important to you.
3 Look for minor peculiarities of the reading passage.
4 Point out the facts that turned out to be new for you.
5 Look through the reading passage for figures, which are important for general understanding.
6 State what places of the reading passage contradict your former views.
7 State the questions that remained unanswered and if it is possible, add some ideas.
8 Speak on the conclusion the author comes to.
9 Express your own point of view on the problem(s) discussed.
1 Study the first paragraph – what advertising media do you think to be unusual? Can you add anything to this list?
2 Speak about traditional advertising media – newspapers, radio, television. Give some positive and negative aspects of placing an advertisement within the traditional media.
3 Speak about types of billboard advertising.
4 Speak about electronic advertising and its perspectives.
5 Give your opinion about covert advertising.
6 Speak about positive and negative aspects of celebrity endorsement.
Exercise21. Write an ad about a product – use pictures, slogans and text to make it as interesting as possible !
The following points should be included:
· what is good about the product
· why people should buy it
· why it is better than a different product
· the price.
· What in your opinion are the current trends in advertising? Try to think of 2 or 3 trends.
· What is the most interesting advertising you have recently seen/heard?
· What is the worst/least successful advertising you have seen/heard?
Exercise 1. Find the pronunciation of the following words.
|1 dawn (para1)|
|2 message (para2)|
|3 controversial (para5)|
|4 execution (para7)|
|5 insight (para8)|
|6 unaware (para11_|
|7 justice (para15)|
|8 obesity (para16)|
|9 gauge (para20)|
Exercise 2. . Give Russian equivalents of the following words, mind the context:
|1 commonplace (para1)|
|2 competition (para4)|
|3 domestic (para6)|
|4 destination (para12)|
|5 mitigate (para13)|
|6 blight (para14)|
|7 exacerbate (para16)|
|8 consent (para18)|
|9 offense (para18)|
|10 bypass (para19)|
|11 entail (para20)|
|12 advance (para21)|
Exercise 3. Find the following words in the text and decide whether they are nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Give Russian equivalents. Use the dictionary where necessary.
|Word||Part of speech||Meaning|
|1 blanket (para2)|
|2 causes (para3)|
|3 counter (para9)|
|4 ban (para15)|
|5 fine (para 18)|
|6 advance (para21)|
Exercise 4. Find the English equivalents in the text to the following Russian words and phrases.
|Russian word||English equivalent|
|1 вызванный (para2)|
|2 смениться, уступить место (para4)|
|3 долгосрочный (para5)|
|4 реализация (para6)|
|5 выбирать, предпочитать (para9)|
|6 преднамеренный (para12)|
|7 поддерживать (para17)|
|8 опасность для здоровья (para19)|
Exercise 5. Look back at the text to find the definitions of the following words and phrases:
|1 outsourcing (para4)||a. intuitive understanding and insight|
|2 rank (para4)||b. spoken communication as a means of transmitting information|
|3 word-of-mouth (para5)||c. a sudden large increase|
|4 economies of scale (para6)||d. to warn|
|5 evidence (para10)||e. the practice of buying goods and services from outside suppliers, rather than producing them within a firm.|
|6 perception (para12)||f. the financial advantages that a company gains when it produces large quantities of products|
|7 decent (para17)||g. a strong effect or influence|
|8 to caution (para19)||h. anything that you see, experience, read, or are told that causes you to believe that something is true or has really happened.|
|9 impact ((para19)||i. not likely to shock or embarrass others|
|10 surge (para21)||j. a position within the hierarchy of an organization or society|
Exercise 6. Find some information in the Internet about the following items, mentioned in the text.
1 pop-up, pop-under;
2 the theory of Long Tail
4 AdU Network
Reading for gist
Exercise 7. Read the text once, try not to spend more than 10 minutes.
This reading passage describes
A. some new advertising techniques
B. advertising industry regulations
C. research techniques and advertising education
D. all of the above
Rise in new media
(1)With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Popup, Flash, banner, Popunder, advergaming, and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace. Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. In general, the advertising community has not yet made this easy, although some have used the Internet to distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them. In 2009, mobile and internet advertising grew by 18.1% and 9.2% respectively. Older media advertising saw declines: −10.1% (TV), −11.7% (radio), −14.8% (magazines) and −18.7% (newspapers).
(2)Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of the niche market using niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of The Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass-market audience possible.
(3)However, the use of tracking, customer profiles and the growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything - from blogs to social networking sites - provide advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined. This leads to ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing products. Among others, Comcast Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in their video on demand menus. These advertisements are targeted to a specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice at any time, right from their home. This causes the viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements they want to view.
(4)Crowdsoursing means the practice of outsourcing a job or task that is traditionally performed by employees or a contracted company to a non-organized, usually large group of people, generally in the form of an open call or competition. The concept of crowdsourcing has given way to the trend of user-generated advertisements. User-generated ads are created by consumers as opposed to an advertising agency or the company themselves, most often they are a result of brand sponsored advertising competitions. For the 2007 Super Bowl, the Frito-Lays division of PepsiCo held the Crash the Super Bowl contest, allowing consumers to create their own Doritos commercial. Chevrolet held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs. Due to the success of the Doritos user-generated ads in the 2007 Super Bowl, Frito-Lays re-launched the competition for the 2009 and 2010 Super Bowl. The resulting ads were among the most-watched and most-liked Super Bowl ads. In fact, the winning ad that aired in the 2009 Super Bowl was ranked by the USA Today Super Bowl Ad Meter as the top ad for the year while the winning ads that aired in the 2010 Super Bowl were found by Nielsen's BuzzMetrics to be the "most buzzed-about".
(5)This trend has given rise to several online platforms that host user-generated advertising competitions on behalf of a company. Founded in 2007, Zooppa has launched ad competitions for brands such as Google, Nike, Hershey’s, General Mills, Microsoft, NBC Universal, and Mini Cooper. Crowdsourced advertisements have gained popularity in part due to its cost effective nature, high consumer engagement, and ability to generate word-of-mouth. However, it remains controversial, as the long-term impact on the advertising industry is still unclear.
(6)Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic, export, international, multi-national, and global. For global advertisers, there are four, potentially competing, business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising:
· building a brand while speaking with one voice,
· developing economies of scale (эффект масштаба ; повышение эффективности от роста масштабов производства) in the creative process,
· maximizing local effectiveness of ads, and
· increasing the company’s speed of implementation.
(7)Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions:
· exporting executions,
· producing local executions, and
· importing ideas that travel.
(8)Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how economies of scale are maximized. Once one knows what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. Market research measures, such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Emotion and Branding Moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual, not verbal, elements of the ad.
(9)The ability to record shows on digital video recorders allow users to record the programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward through commercials. Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded box sets of television programs are offered for sale, fewer people watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that these sets are sold, means the company will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets. To counter this effect, many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV shows like Survivor.
(10)Evidence-based advertising refers to advertising principles, which have been proven through experimental studies. They can be applied to an advertising campaign with high confidence of increasing persuasiveness regardless of time and place. Principles are usually accompanied with various conditions, which must be taken into consideration when applying them. According to Professor J. Scott Armstrong from The Wharton School, evidence-based principles “draw upon typical practice, expert opinion, factual evidence and empirical evidence.”
Foreign public messaging
(11)Foreign governments, particularly those that own marketable commercial products or services, often promote their interests and positions through the advertising of those goods. The target audience is largely unaware foreign messaging, It is willing to receive the message while in a mental state of absorbing information from advertisements during television commercial breaks, while reading a periodical, or while passing by billboards in public spaces. A prime example of this messaging technique is advertising campaigns to promote international travel.
(12)While advertising foreign destinations and services may stem from the typical goal of increasing revenue by drawing more tourism, some travel campaigns carry the additional or alternative intended purpose of promoting good sentiments or improving existing ones among the target audience towards a given nation or region. It is common for advertising promoting foreign countries to be produced and distributed by the tourism ministries of those countries, so these ads often carry political statements and/or depictions of the foreign government's desired international public perception.
(13)Additionally, a wide range of foreign airlines and travel-related services which advertise separately from the destinations, themselves, are owned by their respective governments; examples include, though are not limited to, the Emirates airline (Dubai), Singapore Airlines (Singapore),Qatar Airways, China Airlines(Taiwan Republic of China), and Air China (People's Republic of China). By depicting their destinations, airlines, and other services in a favorable and pleasant light, countries market themselves to populations abroad in a manner that could mitigate prior public impressions.
(14)In the US many communities believe that many forms of outdoor advertising blight the public realm. As long ago as the 1960s in the US there were attempts to ban billboard advertising in the open countryside. Cities such as São Paulo have introduced an outright ban with London also having specific legislation to control unlawful displays.
(15)There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and the influence of advertising. Some examples are: the ban on television of tobacco advertising imposed in many countries, and the total ban of advertising to children under 12 imposed by the Swedish government in 1991. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating within the country, it has been weakened by the European Court of Justice, which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming, including those from neighboring countries or via satellite. Greece’s regulations are of a similar nature, “banning advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm and a total ban on advertisement for war toys".
(16)In Europe and elsewhere, there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to children should be regulated. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested fast food advertising that targets children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States.
(17)In New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and many European countries, the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation. Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal, decent, honest and truthful'. Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry, but remain independent, with the intent of upholding the standards or codes like the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK.
(18)In the UK most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning system. Currently the display of an advertisement without consent from the Planning Authority is a criminal offense liable to a fine of £2,500 per offence. All of the major outdoor billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this nature.
(19)Naturally, many advertisers view governmental regulation or even self-regulation as intrusion of their freedom of speech or a necessary evil. Therefore, they employ a wide-variety of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g. printing English words in bold and French translations in fine print to deal with the Article 120 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the use of English in French advertising). The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms are subject to government regulation in many countries. For instance, the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements.
(20)Advertising research is a specialized form of research that works to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising. It entails numerous forms of research that employ different methodologies. Advertising research includes pre-testing (also known as copy testing) and post-testing of ads and/or campaigns—pre-testing is done before an ad airs to gauge how well it will perform and post-testing is done after an ad airs to determine the in-market impact of the ad or campaign on the consumer. Continuous ad tracking and the Communicus System are competing examples of post-testing advertising research types.
(21)Advertising education has become widely popular with bachelor, master and doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis. A surge in advertising interest is typically attributed to the strong relationship advertising plays in cultural and technological changes, such as the advance of online social networking. A unique model for teaching advertising is the student-run advertising agency, where advertising students create campaigns for real companies. Organizations such as American Advertising Federation and AdU Network partner established companies with students to create these campaigns.
Exercise 7.Read the article again and underline words and phrases that you do not know. Write your own definitions. Use a dictionary if necessary.
Exercise 8 Find two examples of portmanteau words See part B, exercise 11.
Scanning for information
Exercise 9. What do the following figures and dates mean?
3 1991, 12
4 7am – 10pm
6 120, 1994
Reading for detail
Exercise 10. Answer the following questions.
1 What new advertising techniques does the Internet produce?
2 Why do some people may wish to sent an ad to a friend? Have you ever done this?
3 What makes niche advertising possible?
4 Is the task of niche ads to cover the largest audience possible?
5 What is crowdsourcing?
6 What was the aim of the Crash the Super Bowl contest held PepsiCo in 2007?
7 Was the resulting ad successful? What makes you think so?
8 Why do crowdsourced ads gain popularity? Is this a positive development?
9 What market research measures, such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Emotion and Branding Moments are used for?
10 Why do many advertisers choose to have product placement in such shows like Survivor?
Exercise 11. .Choose the correct option:
1. Foreign governments, particularly those that own marketable commercial products or services, often promote their interests and positions
a. through the advertising of those goods.
b. through political debates.
2. The main example of such messaging technique is advertising campaigns
a. to promote international travel.
b. to caution consumers about the health hazards of their products.
3. Some travel campaigns carry the additional purpose of
a. developing economies of scale.
b. promoting good sentiments towards a given nation or region.
4. Advertising promoting foreign countries is produced by
a. the tourism ministries of those countries.
b. global advertisers.
5. Countries market themselves to the people abroad in a manner that could mitigate unfavorable public impressions by
a. market research measures.
b. depicting their destinations, airlines, and other services in a favorable and pleasant light.
Exercise 12 Are the following statements true or false?
1 The efforts to regulate the content of advertising are made to protect the public interest.
2 The total ban of advertising to children under 12 was imposed by the Greek government in 1991.
3 Sweden bans advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm and there is a total ban on advertisement for war toys".
4 Fast food advertising that targets children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States.
5 The Advertising Standards Authority in the UK is funded by the UK advertising industry.
6 Many advertisers view governmental regulation as the manifestation of their freedom of speech.
Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 150.