Exercise 17. Speak about advertising in the ancient world and medieval period. Try to think of more examples from history
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Exercise 18. With your partner discuss how similar/different were the first advertising agencies established by Volney Palmer and N.W. Ayer with respect to modern advertising agencies.

Exercise 19. Imagine you have to give a short talk on the characteristic features of modern advertising. Think about 3 important points, be ready to give examples.


Exercise 20. Get back to paragraph 17 from the text. Write a short paragraph explaining the tendency (150words)

 (17)The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. For example, in the U.S. in 1925, the main advertising media were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By 1998, television and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2.4 percent.

Exercise 21. Give your own Russian equivalents of the following advertisements:

The skin you love to touch

Remember: This is the ad for a soap product using a sex sell (paragraph 10).

Think small

Remember: This is the Volkswagen ad campaign of 1960s, using a unique selling proposal. (paragraph 14) Be ready to explain your choice.

Text B


· What types of advertising do you know?

· What types of advertising are the most effective/ the least effective in your opinion?

· What types of advertising have you seen today/yesterday?

Before reading

Exercise 1. Find the pronunciation of the following words.

Word Pronunciation
1 virtually  
2 receipt  
3 purchase  
4 proponent  
5 vehicle  
6 aisle  
7 digital  
8 controversy  


Exercise 2. Look at some terms you’ll come across in the text and match the terms to their definitions.

1 A rack card a. is a form of online advertising on the World Wide Web intended to attract web traffic.
2 A flyer or flier, also called handbill or leaflet b. is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web delivered by an ad server. This form of online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser
3 Pop-up ad or pop-up (всплывающее окно ) c. is an officer of the court who makes public pronouncements as required by the court, can also make public announcements in the streets. They are often dressed elaborately, in a red and gold robe, white breeches, black boots and a tricorne hat.
4 A web banner or banner ad d. is a document used for commercial advertising, placed on a special rack frequently in convenience stores, hotels, landmarks, restaurants, rest areas and other locations that enjoy significant foot traffic.
5 A town crier e. is a short tune used in advertising and for other commercial uses. It contains meaning that explicitly promotes the product being advertised, usually through the use of one or more advertising slogans. It is a form of sound branding.
6 A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark f. is a form of paper advertisement intended for wide distribution and typically posted or distributed in a public place or through the mail.
7 A jingle g. is a trademark or brand name that has become the common name for, or synonymous with, a general class of products or service, represents a form of metonymy
8 Classified ad   h. (of newspaper or magazine advertisements) organized in categories according to what is being advertised  


Exercise 3. . Give Russian equivalents of the following words/word combinations .

Word/word combination Translation
1 average (para2)  
2 annual (para 2)  
3 event ticket (para1)  
4 insert (para 4)  
5 blank backdrops (para4)  
6 toll-free (para5)  
7 receive (para7)  
8 deliver a message (para9)  
9 spotlights (para11)  
10 retail (para13)  
11 embed (para14)  
12 digital (para19)  
13 pervasive (para21)  

Exercise 4. Find these highlighted words in the text and decide whether they are nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Then decide what they mean and check in a dictionary.

Word Part of speech Possible meaning
1 charge (para2)    
2 feature (para5)    
3 convention (para12)    
4 strewn (para11)    
5 covert (para14)    
6 share (para15)    
7 advances (19)    


Exercise 5. Find and list all the words and phrases in the text with a similar meaning to:

1 include (para8)  
2 objective or result(para12)  
3 A large shop(para12)  
4 the negative aspect of something (para16)  
5 become greater or more successful than (para17)  
6 Dispute, disagreement (para21)  
7 Excitement, expectations (para22)  

Exercise 6. Find the English equivalents to the following Russian words and phrases.

1 отраслевые журналы (para8)  
2 знаменитость (para15)  
3 продвигать (para15)  
4 неблагоприятный (para16)  
5 цифровые вывески (para19)  
6 точность (para 19)  
7 ракета-носитель (21)  
8 подсознательный (para21)  


Exercise 7. Look back at the text and match the word/phrase to its definition:

1 testimonial (para5) a. a passage between rows of seats in a building such as a church or theater, an airplane, or a train
2 fee (para8) b. irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of newsgroups or users
3 spam (para9) c. a payment made to a professional person or to a professional or public body in exchange for advice or services
4 dedicated (para11) d. a formal statement testifying to someone's character and qualifications
5 aisle (para1) e. not requested or invited  
6 endorse (para16) f. declare one's public approval or support of
7 unsolicited (para20) g. the most successful point; the culmination
8 pinnacle (para21) h. exclusively allocated to or intended for a particular purpose

Exercise 8. Find some information in the Internet about the following:

1. What do the brands mentioned in the text produce?


· Kellogg’s

2. How are the following film names translated into Russian?

· Minority Report

· Spaceballs

· Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer"

· Blade Runner

Reading for gist

Exercise 9. Read the text once to get the general idea and try not to spend more than 10 minutes. Complete the sentence as to the text:

The passage describes

    (A) the history of advertising from ancient times to most recent advertising innovations including the Internet.

    (B) covert advertising and celebrity endorsement.

    (C) different types of advertising and advertising media.

Text B

Types of advertising

(1)Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bathroom stalls, stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.


(2)The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009).

(3)The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product.

(4)Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. Virtual product placement is also possible.


(5)An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.

Radio advertising

(6)Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio.

(7)Radio advertisements are broadcasted as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the obvious limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage.

Press advertising

(8)Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service.

Online advertising

(9)Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.

Billboard advertising

(10)Billboards are large structures located in public places, which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums.

Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 149.