Buoyancy - плавучесть; способность держаться на поверхности воды
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8. to wear (wore, worn) одевать, носить 9. to abandon ship покидать судно 10. whistle свисток 11. alleyway коридор 12. self-regulating, self-righting самовыравнивающийся 13. to capsize переворачиваться 14. lifelines леерные ограждения 15. davit launched life raft плот, спускаемый шлюпбалкой 16. canopy тент, навес 17. fully manned полностью человекоуправляемый 18. gas accumulation газонакопление 20. inclined наклонный 21. inflatable надувной 22. radar responder or the aerial радиолокационный передатчик или антенна 23. rail леер 24. arrangement расположение 25. safety valve предохранительный клапан 26. feed and blowoff поддув и сдув


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text, paying attention to the words in italics.


Life-Saving Appliances

   Among the collective life-saving appliances the main ones are lifeboats, life rafts and life buoys. Lifeboats can be open, partially enclosed and totally enclosed type. Each type of lifeboats is used nowadays, but modern ships are equipped with glass-fibre reinforced ones because of their high corrosion resistance and low maintenance requirements.

  Cargo ships and passenger vessels as well as fishing crafts are equipped with approved life rafts. The number, type and carrying capacity derive from regulations and additional requirements. Life rafts are automatically inflatable and can be launched either automatically thrown overboard or manually. 

Life buoy is a life saving buoy designed to be thrown to a person in the water, to provide buoyancy, to prevent drowning. Some modern life buoys are fitted with a seawater-activated light or lights to aid rescue at night. The life buoy usually is ring-shaped (круглой формы) or horseshoe-shaped (в форму подковы) and has a connecting line allowing the casualty to be pulled to the rescuer.

Personal life-saving appliances include lifejackets, immersion suits and some other personal floatation devices (PFD’s in short).

A lifejacket can be made from solid material self-inflated, plastic, etc. Lifejackets use air or gas to keep the water afloat (держаться на плаву) and must be inflated before they provide buoyancy. Each crewmember should check how a lifejacket is put on and inflated before having to use in emergency. It should be mentioned that inflatable (working) lifejackets will also be required to be worn in certain situations when working at or near the ship’s sides or stern and not only before abandoning ship or operating on the open deck under poor weather condition. Standard lifejackets must be orange, yellow or red, and have a whistle attached. The lifejacket is stowed in a cabin wardrobe. Instructions for putting it on are on the inside of the door to the wardrobe and/or on display cards on alleyway bulkheads.

An approved PFD is designed to keep man afloat in the water. PFDs are generally smaller, less bulky and more comfortable than lifejackets. They have less flotation than lifejackets and have limited turning capacity. An inflatable PFD is a type of personal flotation device that either automatically inflates when immersed in water, or is inflated by the wearer using an oral or manual inflation device. Most inflatable PFDs use a carbon dioxide cartridge to inflate. 


Exercise 3. Give brief answers to the following questions:


1. How many types of life-saving appliances do you know? 2. How many lifeboats are on a ship? 3. Where are they located? 3. What type of lifeboats is the most popular nowadays and why? 4. How can life rafts be activated? 5. What do you know about the lifejackets? 6. Where is lifejacket stored? 7. When should lifejacket be used? 8. What does the abbreviation PFD mean? 9. What document regulates the lifesaving appliance list? 10. Why should any crewmember know everything about the life-saving appliances and their operation?   

Exercise 4. Give equivalents:


· in Russian: life raft, enclosed lifeboat, to lower lifeboat, inflammable life raft, to put on lifejacket, afloat, to stow, under fair weather conditions, attached to, to immerse, flotation, to pull side-tapes down, manual inflation device, to ensure, ring-shaped, PFD, abandoning ship, to be belted, to launch lifeboat, under poor weather conditions, temperature range, alleyway bulkhead, to be inflated;


· in English: гидрокостюм для погружения, открытая шлюпка, надеть спасательный жилет, спустить шлюпку, клапан поддува, опрокидываться, шлюпбалка, отвечать требованиям, спасательный леер, приводить в движение, камера плавучести, быть рассчитанным, спасательный надувной плот, обслуживание, предохранительный клапан, зависеть от, малые суда, сбросить на воду, быть оснащенным.


Exercise 5. Match the answer with the question. Get ready to speak about life-saving appliances.




1 What advantages have totally enclosed lifeboats? a Approved ones are life rafts thrown overboard type, life rafts davit launched type and life rafts without any protection.
2 Why should a lifeboat leave the damaged ship as quickly as possible? b The weight of a life raft lies between 100 kg and 185 kg, it withstands all weather conditions at sea for 30 days, and it is operable over an air temperature range – 30 and +60 degrees of Celsius. 
3 What kinds of life rafts are approved? c Instructions for putting them on are on the inside of the door on display cards on alleyway bulkheads and/or to the wardrobe
4 Where life rafts usually stowed? d Totally enclosed boats are self-righting.
5 How are life rafts packed? e The biggest danger to the boat and its occupant comes from the damaged and sinking ship itself by its capsizing and by explosions etc.
6 What are the main characteristics of life rafts? f Life rafts are packed tightly folded (сложенный) in plastic containers.
7 Where can instructions for putting on lifejackets be found out? g Life rafts are almost always stowed on swinging-out storage frames, inclined ramps or equipment appliances.


Exercise 6. Read an abstract of the conversation between Port Inspector and Watch officer and then make up your own dialogue.

A: I am authorized to inspect your ship’s safety equipment. Show me your ship’s International Certificate issued to you under SOLAS Convention.

B: Here you are. I think everything is all right, as we were surveyed only a year ago.

A: Let me have a look. Well, all certificates are valid. And now if you don’t mind I’d like to make survey of your ship’s safety equipment. Will you show me to the boat-deck?

B: This way, please. We are on the boat-deck.

A: I see all boats are available here and provided with proper supplies and equipment. You’ve got only 7 life buoys, but under SOLAS Convention you are to have 8 ones. You should get the missing life buoy within 1-2 days through your agent.

B: So it will not delay our departure, won’t it?

A: Certainly, it won’t. I’ll visit you before the ship’s departure and check the availability of all lifesaving appliances once more.

B: Good. Settled.


Exercise 7. Choose the right variant.


1. Replace the life raft ___ the next port.        a) within b) in c) through d) from


2. Jump ___ the water and board the life raft. a) near b) off c) into d) above


3. The life buoys are ____ the deck railing.     a) through b) on c) from d) in


4. ___ each other when entering lifeboat.               

    a) Are not pushing b) Have not pushed c) Do not push d) Does not push


5. ____ the new crew members instructed on occupational safety?

       a) Has                         b) Had                    c) Are            d) Is


6. You ___ your immersion suit.             

a) brings b) is bringing c) must bring d) to bring


7. ____ to your lifeboat stations.           a) To go b) Go c) Goes d) Going


8. Lifejackets _____ in your cabins.          

a) storing b) to store c) are stored d) is stored


9. Only twelve people ____ in the lifeboat.

a) is fitting b) can be fitting c) fits d) can fit


10. The safety manuals ____ last month.

   a) issued     b) has been issued   c) was issued   d) were issued




Exercise 8. Look through the text and complete the following sentences.


1. Nowadays most of lifeboats are of …

2. Partially enclosed lifeboats are not suitable for …

3. Rescue boats can in calm water reach speeds of …

4. For launching life rafts they may be …

5. The main characteristics of the life rafts …

6. In case of flooding or abandoning a ship the seamen should …

7. … can be of different shapes, for example, … to keep a man afloat.

8. An Inflatable PFD is …

9. Modern ships are equipped with…

Types of Lifeboats

There are several types of lifeboats that are used on large and small ships. The material of this safety equipment can be wood, steel or aluminum, plastics and even rubber. Wooden or metal lifeboats require significant maintenance. Metal boats tend to corrode quickly if neglected, wooden ones can dry out and then become leaky. Glass-fiber carbon reinforced plastic lifeboats on the other hand have a high corrosion resistance and a low maintenance requirement.

Let’s speak about other classification of lifeboats. Totally enclosed lifeboats are self-regulating if all openings are closed watertight and the persons on board are belted into their seats. That is the normal condition even at launch. If a totally enclosed boat capsizes with the across or ventilation openings open it still possible to leave it above water. In open lifeboats everyone holds onto the lifelines. Before climbing into free-fall boats (спасательная шлюпка свободного падения), lifejackets are taken off and stowed in the boat.

Partially enclosed lifeboats are also used, particularly on passenger vessels. They are not suitable for free-fall launching.

 Free-fall boats are totally enclosed lifeboats stowed on specially designed launching appliance at the stern.

Rescue boats may be of rigid or inflatable construction or of combination of both. Rescue boats have either an inboard or an outboard motor. That enables them to achieve a speed of at least 6 knots running and 2 knots towing.   


Life Rafts

Each ship no matter its size is equipped with approved life rafts. Regulations and some additional requirements determine the number, type and carrying capacity of such a safety equipment.

There are different life rafts, they are thrown overboard type, davit launched type and large life rafts without any protective canopy and usable either way up.

Life rafts are automatically inflammable. For launching they may be thrown overboard or designed and positioned near launching appliances for launching fully manned.

All life rafts are so installed that they can be launched quickly, securely and safely – if possible by one man – even with 20° list, over the high side. For that reason life rafts are nowadays almost always stowed on swinging-out storage frames, inclined ramps or equivalent appliances.

Depending on the size of the raft the weight of a life raft including its packing and full distress equipment lies between 100 kg and 185 kg.

Every inflatable life raft afloat withstands all weather conditions at sea for 30 days. It can be thrown into water in its container and it has adequate stability in a seaway when inflated, the floor is waterproof and can be inflated for installation against cold. Life raft has a light on the top, inside and outside, an arrangement for collecting rainwater and a fitting for the radar responder or the aerial of the portable radio apparatus.

* the translation of the words in italics can be found in the exercise 1.


Exercise 9. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Life raft has a light on the top, inside and outside, an arrangement for collecting rainwater and a fitting for the radar responder or the aerial of the portable radio apparatus.

2. Some modern life buoys are fitted with a seawater-activated light, or lights, to aid rescue at night.

3. The material of the lifeboats safety equipment can be wood, steel or aluminum, plastics and even rubber.

4. Standard lifejackets must be orange, yellow or red, and have a whistle attached.

5. Life rafts are automatically inflatable and can be launched either automatically thrown overboard or by manually. 

6. Most inflatable PFDs use a carbon dioxide cartridge to inflate. 

7. Lifejackets use air or gas to keep the water afloat and must be inflated before they provide buoyancy.

8. Instructions for putting a lifejacket on are on the inside of the door to the wardrobe and/or on display cards on alleyway bulkheads.

9. Among the collective life-saving appliances the main ones are lifeboats, life rafts and lifebuoys.

10. Glass-fiber reinforced plastic lifeboats on the other hand have a high corrosion resistance and a low maintenance requirement.


Exercise 10. Translate the sentences into English


1. Спасательная шлюпка должна отвечать всем требованиям Морского Регистра.

2. Открытые шлюпки приводятся в движение с помощью двигателя и вдоль бортов шлюпки есть спасательные леера с деревянными или пластмассовыми ручками, за которые может ухватиться человек, находящийся в воде.

3. При опрокидывании полностью закрытая шлюпка самостоятельно возвращается в нормальное положение.

4. Плоты рассчитаны на 6 или 10 человек, они с наружной и внутренней сторон окрашены в оранжевый цвет.

5. Спасательные шлюпки изготавливаются из металла или стеклопластика.

6.  Современные суда оснащены только полностью закрытыми шлюпками.

7. Спасательные плоты - очень эффективное спасательное средство, а на малых судах - основное.

8. Количество спасательных кругов зависит от длины судна. 

9. Применение надувных жилетов на танкерах и пассажирских судах запрещено.

10. * Спасательный надувной плот состоит из основной камеры плавучести овальной формы, разделенной посредине на две равные по объему автономные секции.

11. * На внутренней стороне тента помещены: инструкция по первоочередному обслуживанию плота, схема расположения клапанов (предохранительных, поддува и сдува) и знаки азбуки Морзе.

12. * В случае аварии плот сбрасывается на воду, где с помощью механизма газонаполнения в течение нескольких минут приводится в рабочее состояние.

Lesson Five. General Drills


Exercise 1. Read and learn the following words and expressions:


1. general drills общесудовые учения
2. to excuse (from) освобождать от (работы, обязанности)
3. muster list расписание по постам (на случай аварийной или пожарной тревоги и шлюпочных учений)
4. emergency station аварийный пост
5. crew on watch or watchkeepers члены экипажа, находящиеся на вахте/вахтенные
6. fire drills пожарные учения
7. boat drills шлюпочные учения
8. life raft спасательный плот
9. life buoy спасательный буй
10. lifejacket , immersion suit спасательный жилет, гидрокостюм для погружения
11. general alarm bell общесудовой сигнал тревоги
12. to extinguish, extinguisher тушить, огнетушитель
13. Emergency squad аварийная команда/партия
14. port иллюминатор, лацпорт
15. air shaft вентиляционная шахта
16. fan, blower вентилятор, воздуходувка или компрессор
17. fire hose пожарный шланг  
18. to lead out разносить
20. affected area аварийная зона
21. rank должность, звание
22. fire and emergency station пост по пожарному и аварийному расписанию
23. embarkation ladder посадочный трап (шторм-трап)
24. general announcing system общесудовая система оповещения
25. to stand by стоять наготове, приготовиться к
26. boat stations места по расписанию по шлюпочной тревоге

Exercise 2. Read and translate the text, paying attention to the words in italics.


General Drills

General drills aboard ship are designed to prepare the crew to handle emergencies. By using a standard system of drills it is possible for a sailor to move from one ship to another and know what to do in an emergency. Any crewmember should know where his station is and what his duty is for each drill or emergency. This information is stated on the Muster List.

No one is excused from any drill unless permission has been granted by the department head. All crewmembers must familiarize themselves with the location and duties of their emergency stations upon reporting on board. Each crewmember is provided with an individual muster list card, which shows in detail the special duties to perform. Watchkeepers will remain on watch on signal to Emergency Drill.

Depending on the ship’s type and company’s safety policy fire drills are held once a week or once a month. The main function of each drill is to check the state of fire-fighting equipment and to improve the skills of the crewmembers during such an emergency. Fire drills are normally held in conjunction with boat drills.

During boat drills the special attention should be paid to the location of all lifeboats, life rafts, lifebuoys and lifejackets on board. Each boat drill must be entered in the logbook.

Any crewmembers must consult the Muster List immediately upon joining the ship.

It should be mentioned that all crewmembers must be instructed in the performance of their special duties. So, drills are held to train seaman to cope with real emergencies.


Exercise 3. Give brief answers to the following questions:

1. What is the function of general drills? 2. Where can any crewmember find any information about emergencies and his behaviour during them? 3. Who can leave a crewmember from participating in the drills? 4. Should you find out the particularities of new ship and its organization, if you join the ship? 5. Does crew on watch take part in the drills? 6. How many types of drills do you know? 7. What is the function of fire drills? 8. How often is fire drill carried out? 9. What is the equipment that is used during boat drills? 10. What is the main thing that should be mentioned about boat drills? 11. What is the logbook? 12. How often are boat drills carried out? 13. What is the difference between lifeboats and life rafts, if any? 14. Where are the lifejackets stored? 15. What do you know about the fire-fighting equipment? 

Exercise 4. Give equivalents:


· in Russian: life rafts, to be on watch, joining the ship, general announcing system, oiler, rank, officer in charge of, to familiarize oneself, wiper, muster list, to be instructed, to grant permission, department head, boat station, ordinary seaman, to ensure, fire extinguisher, to lead out, helmsman, to keep the watch, boat drills, to give the alarm, emergency station;   


· in English: шлюпочные учения, спустить шлюпку, пожаротушения, карточка со сведениями из аварийного расписания, общесудовая система оповещения, тревога, спасательный плот, разнести пожарный шланг, принимать участие в общесудовых учениях, получить разрешение, вахтенный, каюта, аварийный трап, иллюминатор, одеть спасательный жилет, поднять шлюпку, сделать запись в судовой журнал, покидать судно, спасательный буй, аварийный пост, ознакомиться с, освобождать от.


Exercise 6. Read the dialogue and then make up your own one.

A: You joined our ship only two days ago. A crewmember should be ready for general drills. 

B: Thanks for your help. I have already got and learned my muster list card. But…

A: First of all, the locations of lifejackets and lifeboats should be known. Check the best way to get muster station and be ready to use fire extinguisher.  

B: I see. By the way, how often are boat drills carried out?

A: They should be held with fire drills, but in practice we’ll take part in fire drills once a week, in boat drills and the exercise of man overboard one time in four months or when more than 5 crewmembers join the ship.

B: It means that next Sunday as far as I know next fire drill will be held together with boat drill.

A: yes, you are right.

Exercise 5. Match the term with its definition.


term definition
1. muster or emergency station a. It’s the place assigned to crew where they have to meet before they will be ordered to enter the lifeboats.
2. boat station b. A sound signal of seven blasts and one long blast given with the vessel’s sound system. This alarm is sounded to make aware the crew on board that an emergency has occurred.
3. blast c. It is sounded as continuous ringing of ship’s electrical bell or continuous sounding of ship’s horn.
4. fire alarm d. Place on deck that is assigned to crew where they have to meet according to the muster list when the corresponding alarm is released or announcement made
5. general emergency alarm e. A sound signal made with the whistle of the vessel.


Exercise 7. Choose the right variant.


1. ____ the last man-overboard drill?                    a) Where are b) How is c) Why was d) When was  
2. Is extra power available _____ an emergency?                           a) above    b) near c) in          d) within  
3. _____ the company’s safety manual?                a) Have read b) Read c) Have you read d) Read you  

4. Have fire patrols ready ____ all areas.                  

a) through b) in c)over d)with

5. Operate the lifeboat engine and then ___ back to the bridge.

          a) reported     b) report  c)reporting       d)to report

6. ____ fire extinguishers are in the galley? 

          a) How long b) How far c) How much d) How many

7. Some fires _____ because of electrical faults. 

          a) occurs b) occur c) occurring d) does occur

8. ____ did the accident happen?               

a) That b) Which c) Who d) What time

9. Switch ___ the fire alarms.                            

a) at  b) from c)near d) off

10. Smoke is coming ____ the engine room.        

a) from b) for c) between d) on


Exercise 8. Choose one of the texts and translate it, then answer the questions. Be ready to make a brief report about the main sense of the text.


· What is the main function of the drills?

· What equipment is used during the drills?

· Who is responsible for the equipment?

· How often are the drills carried out?

· What is the signal to the beginning of the drills?

Text A. Fire Drills

Alarm for a real fire may be given at any time and it will be rapid ringing of the General Alarm Bells for a period of at least 10 seconds. An announcement is made twice over general announcing system.

For drill purposes, a fire may be in a specific place. The person who discovers an actual fire must give the alarm. Once the alarm has sounded personnel nearby should act to check or extinguish the fire. All other crewmembers respond to the alarm in accordance with the Muster List.

 Emergency squad or party will assemble with equipment immediately upon the Emergency Signal. Fire pumps must be started, all watertight doors, ports and air shafts must be closed, and all fans and blowers stopped. Fire hose must be led out in the affected area.

All fire-fighting equipment must be kept in good operating condition ready for immediate use. The deck department is responsible for the maintenance and care, inspection and refilling of all portable fire-fighting equipment: fire extinguishers, fire hoses, fire nozzles, etc. The engine department is responsible for the maintenance and care of all fixed fire-fighting systems, fire pumps, fire mains and fire hydrants and sand boxes in the boiler rooms. This equipment includes piping, valves, bottles, controls and alarms.

Fire drills are held weekly or monthly depending on the ship’s safety and company’s safety policy. At each drill, the crew is instructed in the proper use of the various types of fire-fighting equipment. 


Text B. Boat Drills

According the regulations boat drills should be held just before the departure of the ship, especially if new crewmembers have embarked, and at sea at least once a week.  

During boat drills new crewmembers are familiarized with the working of the life-saving equipment and each seaman has an opportunity to improve his skills. The Third Officer is in charge of the life-saving equipment. From time to time some drills should be held with the life saving equipment, such as lowering a lifeboat in the water. Crewmembers test the engines in the lifeboats and check the emergency radio equipment in the lifeboat. Also they are shown video’s about the use of the life rafts and demonstrated the use of marine pyrotechnics.

Upon emergency signal the crewmembers should go to the muster station, where the tasks and instructions are made by the officer in charge. He determines the order in which seamen embark.

Drills are to be carried out under the best possible conditions for supervision in still water. Boat drills are if possible to be held when the ship is loaded to its deepest draft. That above all reduces the danger form the propeller. Everyone in the boat wears an immersion suit or lifejacket. RT communication using VHF radiotelephones is established between the bridge and the officer in charge of the drill and is maintained throughout the drill.

* the translation of the words in italics can be found in the exercise 1.


Exercise 9. Study the abstracts of muster list with the help of the dictionary. Lean by heart the name of the emergency stations and duties of the crewmembers.

Muster List (extract)

Rank Fire and Emergency Station and Duty

Deck Department

7 Bosun Emergency squad. Provide life line. 8 Helmsman On the bridge. Relieve the wheelman. 9 Helmsman Emergency squad. Provide fire extinguisher. 10 Able Seaman Emergency squad. Provide extra length of hose and spanner. 11 Able Seaman Main deck forward fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose. 17 Ordinary Seaman On the bridge. Act as a messenger. 18 Ordinary Seaman Boat deck fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose.

Engine Department

27 Oiler Engine room. Assist at fire pumps. 30 Oiler Engine room. Stand by with foam fire extinguisher. 39 Wiper Main deck amidships. Outside fire hydrants. Starboard side. Stand by and assist.


life line – спасательный леер

length of hose – кусок/отрезок пожарного рукава

fire hydrant – пожарный кран

spanner – гаечный ключ

messenger - посыльный

foam extinguisher – пенный огнетушитель


Дата: 2018-12-21, просмотров: 186.