Exercise 2. Read and translate the text, paying attention to the words in italics.
General Description of a Ship
The main body of a ship is called a hull. The hull is divided into three main parts: the foremost part is called the bow and the rearmost part is called the stern; the part in between is called amidships. The hull is the main part of the ship. This is the area between the main deck, the sides (port and starboard) and the bottom. It is made up of frames covered with plating. The part of the hull below water is the ship's underwater body. The distance between the waterline and the main deck is the vessel's freeboard. The hull is divided up into a number of watertight compartments by decks and bulkheads. Bulkheads are vertical steel walls going across the ship and along.
The hull contains the engine room, cargo space and a number of tanks. The engine is fitted near the bottom of the ship in the engine room. In dry cargo ships the cargo space is divided into holds. Openings giving access to holds are called hatches. In liquid cargo vessels the cargo space is divided into tanks. At the fore end of the hull are the forepeak tanks, and at the after end are afterpeak tanks. They are used for fresh water and fuel. If a ship has double sides, the space between the sides contains wing tanks. The space between the tank top and the space contains double bottom tanks.
All permanent housing above the main deck is known as superstructure. Nowadays, cargo vessels are normally built with the after location of the engine room and bridge superstructure to gain more space for cargo. The forward raised part of the deck is called the forecastle and its after raised part is the poop. On deck there are cargo handling equipment, such as cranes, winches, derricks and etc.
Other parts and equipment of a ship include funnels (smokestacks) situated near the bridge to discharge smoke and exhaust fumes, an anchor on the left and right sides of the bow, and enough lifeboats to hold all persons onboard. Modern ships have power-driven winches to raise or lower the anchors and to bring in or let out the mooring lines used to tie vessels at a pier. Power-driven winches also operate the cranes for loading and unloading cargo. The cargo is loaded and discharged to the holds through the cargo hatches. Booms that are fitted to the masts are called derricks', they are necessary for cargo operations, especially if there is no possibility to use harbour's cranes
Modem ships also have high-speed pumps to pump out ballast water or to pump up seawater in case of fire. Radio-telegraph equipment keeps ships in constant touch with the rest of the world. The maximum breadth of a ship is the beam. The total length measured from the foremost to the aftermost points of a ship's hull is called the length overall. The draught is the depth of the ship's bottom or keel below the water surface. The forward draught is measured at the bow and the draught aft at the stern.
Exercise 3. Give brief answers to the following questions:
1. What is the hull? 2. What are the bulkheads? 3. What does the hull contain? 4. What is the main deck? 5. What is the superstructure? 5. What is the bow? 6. What is stern? 7. What the other parts and equipment do you know? 8. How is the cargo loaded and discharged? 9. What is the function of the winches/anchors? 10. Do you know the ship’s overall dimensions? 11. What are the main parts of a ship? 12. What is the difference between a dry cargo ship and a liquid cargo ship?
Exercise 4. Give equivalents:
· in Russian: bulkhead, port side, to discharge, cargo space, stern, screw, weather deck, merchant ship, forecastle, hatches, underwater body, power-driven winches, anchor, wing tanks, double bottom, poop, pitching, overall dimensions, beam, plating, freeboard, ladder, crane, at a stern, on the main deck, superstructure, starboard side;
· in English: нос, водонепроницаемый отсек, загружать, правый борт, укреплять (груз), трюм, шлюпка, вытравливать (якорь), надстройка, винт, бортовая качка, откачивать, турбина, сухогруз, габаритные размеры, обшивка, теплоход, топливная цистерна (танк), корма, неправильная погрузка, пробоина, кран-стрела, грузовое пространство, танкер.
Exercise 5. Match the term with its definition.
|1. bulkheads||a. a permanent covering over a compartment or a hull of a ship|
|2. port side||b. the watertight body of a ship or boat|
|3. tank 4. deck||c. an enclosed space on a boat or on a ship d. special coverings or doors over the holds|
|5. cabin||e. the total length|
|6. hull 7. underwater body 8. overall length 9. hatch 10. freeboard||f. the distance from waterline to the bottom of a ship g. the height of a ship's deck above the water level. h. an accommodation i. the vertical surfaces dividing the internal space j. a left side of a ship|
Exercise 6. Read the dialogue and then make up your own one.
A: So, this is a cargo ship, isn’t it?
B: Yes. It’s a general cargo ship. Now we are on the navigating bridge. This is the place where the captain and his mates control the ship. If we look forward we’ll see the main deck and the forecastle. The main deck (or we can call it weather deck) covers the cargo spaces or holds. There are openings cut in the decks, and those openings are the hatches, one to each hold.
A: How do you load the cargo into the hold and discharge it?
B: We use derricks. A derrick is a strong boom (грузовая стрела) made of steel and wood, that can swing from side to side. But a lot of ships are fitted with cranes.
A: How many holds are there on the ship?
B: There are four on the main deck forward and one right aft. We number them from one to five. And each hold is served by two derricks.
A: You’ve mentioned the forecastle, haven’t you?
B: Yes, right so. The forecastle is that small extra deck above the main deck, forward of number one hold, right up in the bow. It carries the anchors and their cables. I’ll take you up there in a few minutes.
Exercise 7. Choose the right variant.
a) пустые отсеки b) водонепроницаемый отсек c) танк для жидких грузов
a) надстройка b) полубак c) ют
a) полубак b) ют c) постройка
Double bottom tank
a) танк двойного дна b) двойная цистерна c) второй танк
a) закрытые танки b) боковые цистерны c) топливные танки
a) hold b) poop c) derrick
a) accommodation spaces b) engine room c) cargo spaces
a) galley b) kitchen c) diner
Кают - кампания
a) cabin b) dinning-room c) mess-room
a) accommodation b) cargo spaces c) living-room
Exercise 8. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The raised part of the deck in the ship’s bow is called the forecastle and its raised part at the stern of weather deck is the poop.
2. Decks and bulkheads divide the hull up into several of watertight compartments.
3. The hull is divided into three main parts such as the bow, the stern and the part in between that is called amidships.
4. The after location of the engine room and bridge superstructure to gain more space for cargo are the most common on modern cargo ships.
5. If water floods one compartment because of an accident, closing the doors will trap the water there and prevent it from flooding other compartments.
6. On a diesel-electric ship, the engine turns a generator that supplies current to an electric motor connected to the propeller shaft.
7. Radio-telegraph equipment keeps ships in constant touch with the rest of the world.
8. Steam produced in the boilers through a series of gears drives the propeller shaft and makes the propeller revolve.
9. Different cranes, derricks and booms are necessary for cargo operations, especially if there is no possibility to use harbour's cranes.
10. The draught is the depth of the ship's bottom or keel below the water surface.
Exercise 9. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Чтобы обеспечить прочность и увеличить безопасности плавания корпус судна разделяется водонепроницаемыми переборками на ряд отсеков.
2. Форпик и ахтерпик используются обычно для забортной воды (балласта).
3. Отсеки, предназначенные для приема, воды, жидкого топлива или жидкого груза, называются цистернами или танками .
4. Отсеки судна, расположенные между вторым дном и нижней палубой и предназначенные для перевозки грузов, называются грузовыми трюмами.
5. На грузопассажирских судах в твиндеках размещают жилые помещения (accommodation).
6. Носовая приподнятая часть палубы называется полубак, а кормовая – ют.
7. На палубе грузовых судов размещено погрузочно-разгрузочное оборудование, например, лебедки, деррики, краны и т.д.
8. * Большинство современных судов оснащены разными системами, которые помогают эффективно использовать судно.
9. * Самые распространенные двигатели на судах – это газовые и паровые турбины, а также дизельные установки.
10. * Во время постановки судна к причалу используются механизированные лебедки, которые автоматически подают швартовы.
Exercise 8. Look through the text and then decide which statement is TRUE/FALSE.
· In case of flooding the watertight compartments allow a ship to be afloat with a hole.
· Bulkheads are the special decks.
· All the structures below the main deck make up the superstructure.
· Overloading and faulty loading can lead to severe damage of a ship.
· Usually cargo is stowed in the tanks.
The main parts of a ship are the hull, the engines, the propellers, and the rudder. The main body of a ship is called the hull. The hull is the watertight shell of a ship. It is divided into a number of horizontal surfaces called decks. Bulkheads are walls built between the decks, forming compartments. Each compartment has special doors that, when closed, make it watertight. Those dividing up compartments are known as tween decks* on which the cargo rests. If water floods one compartment because of an accident, closing the doors will trap the water there and prevent it from flooding other compartments. Watertight compartments enable a ship to float even with a hole in its hull. The hull is divided into three parts: fore end, amidships and after end. The deck at the top of the hull is called the main deck. This deck covers the holds where the cargo is stowed. Several more decks may be above it. All the structures above the main deck make up the superstructure. At the fore end is the forecastle. At the after end the bridge superstructure and the poop are combined.
The ship's position below water must be closely watched. The overall shape of a hull is designed to make the ship as stable (steady) as possible. A ship must not roll (rock from side to side) or pitch (rock from front to back) too much. Most modern ships also use stabilizing systems to reduce rolling.
The angle that a ship is making fore and aft with the water is known as trim. The levels are read by numbers painted on the ship’s stem and called draught marks. A list or inclination from one side to another, caused by faulty loading, is known as heel. In the course of loading load lines must be watched above all. The load lines are engraved and then painted on the both sides of ships. The divided circle on the left shows the depth to which the ship may be loaded in summer time. Below this line are, on the grid to the right, two lines. The one marked W means winter loading, the lower one marked WNA means the maximum depth to which the ship may be loaded if she is going across the North Atlantic in winter. The other marks above these are: T for tropical, F for fresh water. These lines are shown on the ship’s Load Line Certificate. In case of overloading a ship, so that these lines are under water, the penalties are severe.
* the translation of the words in italics can be found in the exercise 1.
Exercise 9. Translate the text and write down all the pieces of equipment and machinery.
To have more space for cargo the engine room is located at the aft and near the bottom. The engine drives the propeller at the stern of a ship. The engines of most ships are steam turbines, gas turbines, or diesel engines. The largest and fastest ships have steam turbines. Steam produced in the boilers spins the bladed wheels of the turbine. The turbine, through a series of gears, drives the propeller shaft and makes the propeller revolve. On turboelectric ships, the turbine turns a generator that produces electricity for a motor. The motor, in turn, drives the propeller. Almost all merchant ships use oil as the fuel to heat the boilers that create the steam. Many of the most advanced ships have gas turbines. Gas turbines work much like steam turbines but use hot gases instead of steam.
On a ship, the engine room or ER commonly refers to the machinery spaces of a vessel. To increase the safety and damage stability (аварийная остойчивость) of a vessel, the machinery necessary for operations may be separated into various spaces. The engine room is one of these spaces and is usually the largest compartment of the machinery space. The ER houses the vessel's power plant, usually some variations of a heat engine - diesel engine, gas or steam turbine. It should be mentioned that the engine room of cargo ships typically contains several engines for different purposes. On some ships, the machinery space may comprise more than one engine room, such as forward and aft, or port or starboard engine rooms, or may be simply numbered. On a steamship, power for both electricity and propulsion is provided by one or more large boilers giving rise to the alternate name boiler room.
On a large percentage of vessels, ships and boats, the engine room is located near the bottom, and at the rear end of the vessel, and usually comprises few compartments. This design maximizes the cargo carrying capacity of the vessel and situates the main engine close to the propeller. With the increased use of diesel electric propulsion packages, the engine room(s) may be located well forward, low or high on the vessel, depending on the vessel use.
If equipped with internal combustion or turbine engines, engine rooms employ some means of providing air for the operation of the engines and associated ventilation. If individuals are normally present in these rooms, additional ventilation should be available to keep engine room temperatures to acceptable limits.
to house – быть оборудованным,
to comprise - содержать
power plant – силовая установка, энергоустановка
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