The History of Russian Fine Arts
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Vocabulary


the Itinerants (the Peredvizhniks/ the Wanderers) – передвижники - painters of Russian realistic school with democratic tendencies.

the very essence – сама суть

artistic perception - художественное восприятие              

icon worshiping – преклонение перед иконописью

worship - культ; поклоняться, почитать

alongside with – наряду с

Byzantium - Византия

artistic technique –художественная техника

henceforth - с этого времени, впредь

to flourish - расцветать

a symbol of spiritual consent and unity – символ духовного согласия и единства

to undergo the influence of - подвергаться влиянию

temporal portrait – светский портрет

to conceive – зарождать, зачать, задумывать

to hold sway – иметь влияние

plot - фабула, сюжет

novelty of plot – новизна сюжета

gist – основное содержание рассказа

to be distinguished by - отличаться чем-либо

careful work at details – тщательная работа над деталями

the tendency to decoration and 'prettiness’ - тенденция к украшательству

verisimilitude - правдоподобие

representative of the trend - представитель направления

to be marked - быть отмеченным

to be characterized by - характеризоваться чем-либо

awakening interest in - пробуждающийся интерес к

the refinement of color - утонченность, изысканность чвета

academic manner - акдемическая манера

plastic – пластичный, гибкий

plastic art – искусство ваяния, скульптура

brilliant virtuosity - блестящая виртуозность, понимание тонкостей

sacrificial devotion to the idea – жертвенная преданность идее

to sacrifice - жертвовать

to shake the traditions of - потрясти традиции

dilettante - дилетант, любитель

a subtle observer - тонкий (острый) наблюдатель

a witty satirist – остроумный сатирик

to anticipate - предчувствовать

to acquire - приобретать

exposing character – обличающий характер

to result in – приводить к чему-либо

to exhibit - экспонировать

to oust - вытеснять

to strive for – стремиться к чему-либо

peculiar to – характерный для

to destroy artificial cultural barriers – разрушить искусственные культурные барьеры

Vanguard - авангард, авангардный

Baroque - барокко, барочныйClassicism - классицизмRomanticism - романтизм

 

In the history of Russian fine arts one can distinguish two periods. Peter the Great reforms marked the border between them. The difference is extremely deep and concerns the very essence of artistic perception of the world and a human being.

In Old Russia painting appeared and developed in a close connection with icon worshiping, the basis of which is the doctrine of Incarnation.

Alongside with Christianity the Russian masters adopted the Byzantium artistic style and technique developed through centuries.

Henceforth in Russian principalities icon-painting schools having their own peculiarities of painting were formed (Novgorod, Pskov, Yaroslavl, Tver icon-painting schools).

The highest flourishing of Russian medieval painting refers to the 14th-15th centuries and it is reflected in the works of Pheophan Grek and Andrey Rublev. The top of Russian icon painting is “Trinity” (1422-1427) by A. Rublev, which he created as a symbol of spiritual consent and unity of Russian people.

Since the middle of the 16th century icon painting undergoes the influence of Western fine arts. Developed icon painting of the court school used Western European plot schemes.

The end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century is marked by the development of 'Stroganoff school' (despite the name it consisted mainly of court masters) that is distinguished by the refinement of color and careful working at details and by the tendency to some decoration and 'prettiness' of painting.

In the second half of the 17th century icons included the elements of Western European painting: oil colors and great verisimilitude in depicting people and nature. The most prominent representative of the trend is Simon Ushakov. The first attempts of creating a temporal portrait can also be referred to that time.

Until the 18th century in Russia, the reigning artistic influence was still the Middle Ages Byzantium style. Even to this day, Russian icons, with their soulful eyes, flattened perspective, elongated features and gold highlights, remain characteristic in the region's artistic output.

But in 1701 Tsar Peter Alexeevich - Peter the Great - set the foundation of a new Russian capital in St.Petersburg, as well as the foundation for a new culture and art forms conceived in imitation of Western European. Under his rule, artists were sent abroad to study, and painters from Western Europe were brought to work in Russia. A drawing school was established, and then many Academies were established.

The prevailing painting genre through the 18th century was portraiture, based primarily on classical aesthetics. In the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century fine arts in Russia, following cultural needs of the society, experiences all the main stages of Western art: Baroque, Classicism, Romanticism. Foreign painters and sculptors, invited to Russia, play an important role but very talented home masters appear. The highest achievement of the epoch is portrait painting in the works by I. Argunov, А.Antropov, F Rokotov, D. Levitskiy, V. Borovikovskiy, O. Kiprenskiy. The first great Russian master of a sculpture portrait was F.Shubin.

The flourishing of an academic school refers to the first half of the 19th century. K. Brullov’s canvases are characterized by the combination of academic Classicism with Romanticism, by novelty of plots, by the theatrical effect of plastic and lighting, by complex composition and by brilliant virtuosity of a painter's brush. A. Ivanov added some character of sacrificial devotion to the idea and he managed to overcome lots of patterns referring to academic technique. At that time P.Fedotov followed his own way. He was considered to be a brilliant dilettante, a subtle observer and a witty satirist, who anticipated further trends of Russian genre-painting.

Social aspiration of 1860-1870s awakes the painters' interest in the themes connected with people's life. In 1872 in contrast to the Academy of Arts the Association of traveling art exhibition is founded (I. Kramskoy, G. Myasoedov, K. Savitskiy, I. Pryanishnikov, V. Makovskiy, I. Yaroshenko, V. Perov, etc). The Itinerants (or The Peredvizhniks) became serious rivals to Academy-trained artists, and by 1870 had become the key force in Russian art. They emphasized realistic, socially concerned images of Russian life. Genre painting acquires some exposing character in their works.

The appeal to national themes resulted in unprecedented flourishing of historical and battle painting. V. Surikov, I. Repin, N.Ghe, V. Vasnetsov, V. Vereschagin, F. Rubo created real masterpieces in those genres. The first Russian Art Galleries were opened during those years; the works of Russian painters were exhibited regularly in international exhibitions and foreign art salons.

The end of the 19th century is also marked by awakening interest in an icon as 'a great world art' (E.Trubetskoy). It was possible thanks to clearing of ancient samples grown dark and discovering their real color. Artistic principles of icon painting were used creatively by both single Russian icon-painters (V. Vasnetsov, M. Nesterov, K. Petrov-Vodkin, foreign ones (A.Matisse) and by the whole trends and vanguard schools.

Having achieved independence in their creative activity landscape painting is ousting genre painting. Since the end of the 19th century Russian painting follows the same European course of fine arts. Striving for depicting air and light, peculiar to Impressionism, can also be found in the works of F. Vasilyev, I. Levitan, V. Serov, K. Korovin, A. Arkhipov, etc.

The 1910s are marked by the appearance of Russian vanguard, as an aspiration to rebuild the very essence of art up to the denial of art itself. A number of artists and creative associations set new schools and new trends, which influenced radically the development of world's fine arts - Supermatism (K. Malevich), 'the style of improvisation' and abstract art (V. Kandinskiy).

"Bytovoi zhanr", the painting of everyday life, particularly depicting serfs in the country, remained influential through the Soviet years.

The Renaissance of Russian vanguard is referred to 1960s. So-called “allowed”, but not the official part of Russian art of the 1960s is represented by the works of the masters of “severe style” (T.Salakhov, S.Popkov). In 1970-1980s the works of Soviet painters (R.Bichuns, P.Tordia, D.Zhilinsky, E.Shteinberg, M.Romadin, M.Leis, V.Kalinin, etc.) were generally recognized. Those painters proved that there existed not only 'propaganda' in the USSR.

Crash of Communism in the USSR destroyed artificial cultural barriers between Russia and the rest of the world. Nowadays Russian art is a welcome visitor almost on every part of the world. This inspires optimism as cross-cultural communication is a real sign showing the state of world's art.

Ex. 1. Choose the answer (a, b, c) which you think fits best according to the text 1. In Old Russia painting appeared and developed in a close connection with a) portrait paintingb) icon worshiping c) intensive study of the human body2. The highest flourishing of Russian medieval painting refers to a) the 14th-15th centuries b) the 10th-11th centuries c) the 12th-13th centuries 3. The end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century is marked by the development of a) Leonardo’s schoolb) Rublev’s school c) Stroganoff ‘s school

 4. The highest achievement of the 18th century is

a) historical painting

b) landscape painting

c) portrait painting

5. K Brullov’s canvases are characterized by the combination ofa) careful working at details and by the tendency to some decoration b) academic Classicism with Romanticismc) independence in his creative activity and classical aesthetics6. The traveling art exhibition was founded in a) 1782 b) 1872c) 19877. Social aspiration of 1860-1870s awakes the painters' interest in the themes connected with a) people's lifeb) nature lifec) Middle Ages Byzantium style8. Since the end of the 19th century Russian painting followsa) unique Russian course of fine artsb) Renaissance stylec) the same European course of fine arts9. The influence of Imporessionism can be found in the works by a) A. Vrubelb) V. Kandinskiyc) I. Levitan and K. Korovin10. K Malevich is considered to be a representative of the trend, calleda) Supermatism b) Symbolismc) Abstract art

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 391.