Ex. 1. Translate the following sentences into English:
Поможем в ✍️ написании учебной работы
Поможем с курсовой, контрольной, дипломной, рефератом, отчетом по практике, научно-исследовательской и любой другой работой

1. На стенах мастерской висели наброски и картины без рам, главным образом, копии с картин старых мастеров. 2. На мольберте возле стола стоял портрет молодой женщины. Это был портрет во весь рост. 3. К стене был прислонен холст, а на полу лежали кисти, тюбики с краской и палитра. 4. Он был мастером портрета и завоевал большую известность. 5. Он натянул холст, укрепил молберт и приготовил краски и палитру. 6. Художник считал целью своей жизни изображение человека и его характера. 7. Мальчик не знал, как трудно рисовать живую модель. 8. Если бы он хотел стать художником, он бы учился рисовать. 9. Сочетание света и тени в картине замечательно. 10. Микельанджело был изумительный мастер рисунка. 11. В XVII веке портрет был распространен во всей Европе. 12. Этот автопортрет написан художником в последние годы жизни. 13. Художник написал целую серию поясных портретов и портретов во весь рост. 14 . Жанровая живопись была особенно популярна в Голландии в XVII веке. Голландские живописцы писали жанровые сценки, архитектурные интерьеры, натюрморты из цветов, а также фруктов и утвари.

Art Movements

Part I


style - направление, школа (в искусстве)

to root in - укореняться в , пускать корни

religious devotion – религиозная преданность

arch - арка

stained glass – витраж, витражное стекло

illuminated manuscripts – рукописи, украшенные цветными рисунками

secular - мирской, светский (не религиозный)

perspective - перспектива.

advancement - продвижение, распространение

to succeed - следовать за чем-либо, сменять

circa 1500 AD – приблизительно, около 1500 г. нашей эры

to be notable for – быть известным чем-либо

patron of the arts – покровитель искусств

spirituality – духовность, одухотворенность

elaborate - тщательно разработанный, продуманный, изысканный

to inspire - вдохновлять

to fuel - возбуждать , разжигать эмоции

the key distinction – главное отличие

the key concept - основная концепция , понятие

to epitomize - воплощать,

the rigid academic standards - строгие академические стандарты

Byzantine Art . 5th century A.D. to 1453.

Byzantine art is the art of the Byzantine Empire, centered in Constantinople (now Istanbul). Byzantine art was completely focused on the needs of the Orthodox Church, in the painting of icons and the decoration of churches with frescoes and mosaics. The Byzantine style basically ended with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, during the European Renaissance. However, its influence continued for a considerable time in Russia and elsewhere where the Orthodox Church held sway.

Gothic Art. 5th century to 16th century A.D.

Gothic Art is the style of art produced in Northern Europe from the middle ages up until the beginning of the Renaissance. Typically rooted in religious devotion, it is especially known for the distinctive arched design of its churches, its stained glass, and its illuminated manuscripts.

In the late 14th century, anticipating the Renaissance, Gothic Art developed into a more secular style known as International Gothic. One of the great artists of this period is Simone Martini. Although superseded by Renaissance art, there was a Gothic Revival in the 18th and 19th centuries, largely rooted in nostalgia and romanticism.


The Early Renaissance centered in Italy, 15th Century.

The Renaissance was a period of great creative and intellectual activity, during which artists broke away from the restrictions of Byzantine Art. Throughout the 15th century, artists studied the natural world in order to perfect their understanding of such subjects as anatomy and perspective.  Among the many great artists of this period were Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Paolo Uccello and Piero della Francesca.  During this period there was a related advancement of Gothic Art centered in Germany and the Netherlands, known as the Northern Renaissance.  The Early Renaissance was succeeded by the mature High Renaissance period, which began circa 1500.

The High Renaissance. Centered in Italy, early 16th Century.

The High Renaissance was the culmination of the artistic developments of the Early Renaissance, and one of the great explosions of creative genius in history. It is notable for three of the greatest artists in history: Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael Sanzio and Leonardo da Vinci.  Also active at this time were such masters as Giorgione, Titian and Giovanni Bellini.


The Baroque Era.  Europe, 17th Century

Baroque Art developed in Europe around 1600, as a reaction against the intricate and formulaic Mannerism that dominated the Late Renaissance. Baroque art is less complex, more realistic and more emotionally affecting than Mannerist art.

This movement was encouraged by the Catholic Church, the most important patron of the arts at that time, being seen as a return to tradition and spirituality. One of the great periods of art history, Baroque Art was developed by Caravaggio, Gianlorenzo Bernini and Annibale Carracci, among others. This was also the age of Rubens, Rembrandt, Vermeer and Velázquez. In the 18th century, Baroque Art was replaced by the more elegant and elaborate Rococo art style.


Victorian Classicism. Britain, Mid to Late 19th Century.

Victorian Classicism was a British form of historical painting inspired by the art and architecture of Classical Greece and Rome.  In the 19th century, an increasing number of Western Europeans made the "Grand Tour" to Mediterranean lands. There was a great popular interest in the region's lost civilizations and exotic cultures, and this interest fuelled the rise of Classicism in Britain, and Orientalism, which was mostly centered in continental Europe.  The Classicists were closely associated with the Pre-Raphaelites, many artists being influenced by both styles to some degree. Both movements were highly romantic and were inspired by similar historical and mythological themes - the key distinction being that the Classicists epitomized the rigid Academic standards of painting, while the Pre-Raphaelites were initially formed as a rebellion against those same standards.  Frederick Leighton and Lawrence Alma-Tadema were the leading Classicists, and in their lifetimes were considered by many to be the finest painters of their generation.

Ex. 1. Find synonyms

trend, spreading, to follow, about the year 1500, to be famous for, complicated, protector, exquisite, specific feature, the main idea, to embody, strict rules

Ex. 2. Find in the text the key phrases, characterizing each art movement. Give your own laconic definition of it.

Part II


restrictions - ограничения

conventions - обычаи, традиции, устои

to render in a realistic manner – передать в реалистичной манере

straightforward – прямой, простой, откровенный

the excesses - избытки, излишки, крайности

to become disillusioned - разочароваться, утратить иллюзии

the artifice - изобретение, выдумка, хитрость

the Salon - ежегодная выставка изобразительного искусства в Париже

to be a guiding influence on smth - оказывать ведущее влияние на

polished style - изысканный ( элегантный, безупречный) стиль

to submit - представлять на рассмотрение

display - показ, демонстрация, выставка

down-to-earth treatment - преземленная трактовка, (подход)

commonly landscapes - обычные (привычные) пейзажи

the hallmark of the style - отличительный признак (критерий) стиля

the core - суть, ядро, сердцевина

identifiable - узнаваемый

to fade - постепенно исчезать, вянуть

to branch into - разветвляться на

successive movements - последующие направления

to encompass - заключать в себе

idyllic - идиллический

emotionally charged – эмоционально заряженный

an offshoot - ответвление, боковая ветвь

to categorize - распределять по категориям, зд. определять

the focal point - центральное место

an emphasis on - особое внимание

with respect to - что касается, зд. относительно

in a collaboration between – в сотрудничестве

to dispute - подвергать сомнению, противиться

to dispute with (against) smb on (about) smth - спорить с кем-либо о чем-либо

long-lived - долговечный

to resonate through - резонировать, отдаваться

Realism. Mid-19th Century.

Realism is an approach to art in which subjects are depicted in as straightforward a manner as possible, without idealizing them and without following rules of formal artistic theory.  The earliest Realist work began to appear in the 18th century, in a reaction to the excesses of Romanticism and Neoclassicism. This is evident in John Singleton Copley's paintings, and some of the works of Goya. But the great Realist era was the middle of the 19th century, as artists became disillusioned with the artifice of the Salons and the influence of the Academies.  Realism came closest to being an organized movement in France, inspiring artists such as Camille Corot, Jean-Francois Millet and the Barbizon School of landscape painters. Besides Copley, American Realists included the painters Thomas Eakins, and Henry Ossawa Tanner, both of whom studied in France.  French Realism was a guiding influence on the philosophy of the Impressionists. The Ashcan School artists, the American Scene painters, and, much later, the Contemporary Realists are all following the American Realist tradition.

Academic Art. The 19th century.

Academic Art is art of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of the Academies in Europe and especially France, where many artists received their formal training. It is characterized by its highly polished style, its use of mythological or historical subject matter, and its moralistic tone. Neoclassical Art was also closely associated with the Academies. The term "Academic Art" is associated particularly with the French Academy and the 19th century salons at which art was submitted for display and prizes were awarded. Artists such as Jean-Leon Gerome and Bouguereau epitomize this style.

Impressionism. France, 1860's to 1880's.

Impressionism is a light, spontaneous manner of painting which began in France as a reaction against the restrictions and conventions of the dominant Academic art. Its naturalistic and down-to-earth treatment of its subject matter, most commonly landscapes, has its roots in the French Realism of Camille Corot and others.  The movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, 'Impression: Sunrise', which was singled out for criticism by Louis Leroy upon its exhibition. The hallmark of the style is the attempt to capture the subjective impression of light in a scene. The core of the earliest Impressionist group was made up of Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Others associated with this period were Camille Pissarro, Frederic Bazille, Edgar Degas, Gustave Caillebotte, Edouard Manet, and the American Mary Cassatt. The Impressionist style was probably the single most successful and identifiable "movement" ever, and is still widely practiced today. But as an intellectual school it faded towards the end of the 19th century, branching out into a variety of successive movements which are generally grouped under the term Post-Impressionism.

Post-Impressionism. France, 1880's to 1900.

Post-Impressionism is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of artists who were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in other directions.  There is no single well-defined style of Post-Impressionism, but in general it is less idyllic and more emotionally charged than Impressionist work.  The classic Post-Impressionists are Paul Gauguin, Paul Cezanne, Vincent van Gogh, Henri Rousseau and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. The Pointillists and Les Nabis are also generally included among the Post-Impressionists

Pointillism. France, 1880's.

Pointillism is a form of painting in which tiny dots of primary-colors are used to generate secondary colors. It is an offshoot of Impressionism, and is usually categorized as a form of Post-Impressionism. It is very similar to Divisionism, except that where Divisionism is concerned with color theory, Pointillism is more focused on the specific style of brushwork used to apply the paint.

The term "Pointillism" was first used with respect to the work of Georges Seurat, and he is the artist most closely associated with the movement. The relatively few artists who worked in this style also included Paul Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross.

Pointillism is considered to have been an influence on Fauvism.

Cubism. Europe, 1908-1920.

Cubism was developed between about 1908 and 1912 in a collaboration between Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. Their main influences are said to have been Tribal Art (although Braque later disputed this) and the work of Paul Cezanne. The movement itself was not long-lived or widespread, but it began an immense creative explosion which resonated through all of 20th century art. The key concept underlying Cubism is that the essence of an object can only be captured by showing it from multiple points of view simultaneously. Cubism had run its course by the end of World War I, but among the movements directly influenced by it were Orphism, Precisionism, Futurism, Purism, Constructivism, and, to some degree, Expressionism.


Ex. 3. Find synonyms

to disappear gradually, to show in the picture, to concentrate, in regard to, mutual wok, to discuss, recognizable, the following trends, the essence, to grasp, to present, to exhibit, approach, to be disappointed, traditions, limits.


Ex. 4. Find in the text the key phrases, characterizing each art movement. Give your own laconic definition of it.

Part III


to express the inner state – выразить внутреннее состояние

inner life – духовный мир

emotionally-charged – эмоционально заряженный

to overlap - частично совпадать, частично покрывать

decorative - декоративный

stylized angular forms - стилизованные формы в виде углов

the angle of view - угол изображения

to be related to - относиться, касаться

the wake of innovators - пробудить новаторов

urban - городской

rural - сельский, деревенский

narrative - рассказ, изложение фактов, сюжетно-тематическая картина

to evolve towards - развиваться, эволюционировать по направлению

imagery – собир. образы , образность

image - 1) образ, изображение 2) изображать

imagination - воображение

imaginative - одаренный богатым воображением

consumer culture - потребительская культура

comic strips - газетные комические рассказы в картинках

Expressionism. Centered in Germany, from 1905 to 1940's.

Expressionism is a style in which the intention is not to reproduce a subject accurately, but instead to portray it in such a way as to express the inner state of the artist. The movement is especially associated with Germany, and was influenced by such emotionally-charged styles as Symbolism, Fauvism, and Cubism. There are several different and somewhat overlapping groups of Expressionist artists, including Der Blaue Reiter ("The Blue Rider"), Die Brücke ("The Bridge"), Die Neue Sachlichkeit ("The New Objectivity") and the Bauhaus School. Leading Expressionists included Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, George Grosz and Amadeo Modigliani. In the mid-20th century, Abstract Expressionism (in which there is no subject at all, but instead pure abstract form) developed into an extremely influential style in the United States.

Art Deco. 1920's to 1930's.

Art Deco is an elegant style of decorative art, design and architecture. It is characterized by the use of angular, symmetrical geometric forms. One of the classic Art Deco themes is that of 1930s-era skyscrapers such as New York's Chrysler Building and Empire State Building. The former, designed by architect William Van Alen, is considered to be one of the world's great Art Deco style buildings.  The Art Deco look is related to the Precisionist art movement, which developed at about the same time. Well-known artists within the Art Deco movement included Tamara de Lempicka, fashion illustrator Erte, glass artist Rene Lalique and graphic designer Adolphe Mouron (known professionally Cassandre).

Precisionism. America, 1920's to 1930's.

Precisionism (or Cubist Realism) is a style of representation in which an object is rendered in a realistic manner, but with an emphasis on its geometric form. An important part of American Modernism, it was inspired by the development of Cubism in Europe, and by the rapid growth of industrialization of North America in the wake of innovators such as Henry Ford. In its emphasis on stylized angular forms it is also visually somewhat similar to Art Deco. Charles Demuth and Charles Sheeler are the artists most closely associated with Precisionism. The urban works of Georgia O'Keeffe are also highly typical of this style. Dealing as it did with pure form more than with any type of narrative or subject matter, Precisionism gradually evolved towards Abstraction, and faded away as an important influence.

Contemporary Realism. America, Emerged in the Late 1960's/Early 1970's.

Contemporary Realism is the straightforward realistic approach to representation, which continues to be widely practiced in this post-abstract era. It is different from Photorealism, which is somewhat exaggerated and ironic and conceptual in its nature.

Contemporary Realists form a disparate group, but what they share is that they are literate in the concepts of Modern Art but choose to work in a more traditional form. Many Contemporary Realists actually began as abstract painters. Among the best-known artists associated with this movement are William Bailey, Neil Welliver and Philip Pearlstein.

Pop Art. 1950's to 1960's

Pop Art is a style of art which explores the everyday imagery that is so much a part of contemporary consumer culture. Common sources of imagery include advertisements, consumer product packaging, celebrity photographs, and comic strips.  Leading Pop artists include Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, and Roy Lichtenstein

Ex. 5. Find synonyms

newspaper cartoons, gist, to prettify, to develop, to coincide partly, living in the country, living in town. Ex. 6. True/ false statements.

1. In the late 14th century Gothic Art developed into a more secular style known as International Gothic.

2. The Early Renaissance was succeeded by the mature Late Renaissance period, which began circa 1500.

3. The High Renaissance is notable for three of the greatest artists in history: Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael Sanzio and Leonardo da Vinci.

4. In the 17th century, Baroque Art was replaced by the more elegant and elaborate Rococo art style.

5. 19th Century there was a great popular interest in the region's lost civilizations and exotic cultures, which fuelled the rise of Classicism in Britain, and Orientalism.

6. The earliest Realist work began to appear in the 18th centuryas a reaction to the excesses of Romanticism and Spiritualism.

7. Academic Art is the painting and sculpture produced under the influence of the Academies in Europe and especially France.

8. The Post-Impressionism movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, 'Impression: Sunrise'.

9. The Impressionist style is still widely practiced today.

10. The Pointillists are also generally included among the Post-Impressionists

11.  Pointillism is a form of painting in which tiny dots of primary-colors are used to generate secondary colors.

12.  The key concept of Cubism is that the essence of an object can only be captured by showing it from a single point of view.

13.  Expressionism is a style in which the intention is to express the inner state of the artist.

14.  An important part of American Modernism was inspired by the development of Cubism in Europe.

15.  Contemporary Realists are illiterate in the concepts of Modern Art and choose to work in a more traditional form.

16.  Common sources of Pop Art imagery include people in their natural environment.

Ex. 7. Find in the following text the key phrases, characterizing each art movement. Give your own laconic one-sentence definition of them. Retell the text.

Ex. 8. Match the name of the style with its description and identify the missing style

Ancient Greek art Religious in focus, often funded by the Church, lack of realism, trying to send a religious message with clear iconic images instead of precisely rendered ones.
Renaissance Stone vaulting, thick, load-bearing walls with few windows, a heavy-looking and simple style.
Ancient Roman art employing distortion of light and spatial frameworks in order to emphasize the emotional content of a painting and the emotions of the painter
Impressionism Depicting gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features, commemorating great events in the life of the state and to glorifying the emperors rather than recording the inner life of man and expressing ideas of beauty and nobility
Mediaeval Art Focused on the use of color and motion in order to portray emotion, used Greek and Roman mythology and tradition as an important source of symbolism, emphasis on nature and portraying the power and beauty of the natural world.
Expressionism emphasizing detail, movement, lighting, and drama in search for beauty, the emphasis is placed on grandeur, love for detail, often considered overly-ornate and gaudy
Mannerism Engraved and painted cave paintings using red ochre and black pigment and showing horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting.
Pre- historic art Accurate portrayal of the conditions and hardships of the poor in the hopes of changing society, offered a stark vision of poverty and despair, portrayed life in the depths of an urban wasteland.
Baroque Enhancing realism of the work by using new techniques in perspective, thus representing three dimensions more authentically, using new techniques in the manipulation of light and darkness, rediscovering many ancient techniques such as contrapposto. More secular in subject matter, depicting ancient mythology in addition to Christian themes.
Neo-classicism Romanticism A veneration of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Survived most successfully in the forms of sculpture and architecture, as well as in such minor arts as coin design, pottery and gem engraving.
Ancient Egyptian art The use of light in painting in an attempt to capture light as seen from the human eye.
Fauvism The art of transposing a three-dimensional reality onto a flat canvas
Characterized by the idea of order. Clear and simple lines combined with simple shapes and flat areas of color help to create a sense of order and balance, use of vertical and horizontal reference lines in order to maintain the correct proportions, symbolism, highly realistic.
Romanesque Painting the canvases in bright, wild hues
Cubism Evoking emotion through objective works of art

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