Portrait      landscape              still life abstract      detailed      traditional  original          colourful
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Vocabulary

1. genres            engravingetchingoil-painting pastellandscape / scenerymarine-painting/seascapesketchfrescowater-colourstudycartoongenre-paintingstill-lifepen-and-ink drawingblack-and-white drawinghistorical paintingbattle piece /painting flower piece subject picture 2. oilswater-colourscrayonseaselpalettecanvasvarnishframebrushIndian ink 3.to drawto paint in oil/water-coloursto pictureto portrayto depictto execute a paintingto do portraitsto produce portraitsto sketchto transcribe on the canvas what one observes in lifeto accentuate smthto emphasizeto focus on to paint from nature/ memory / imaginationto paint mythological/historical subjectsto specialize in portraiture / still life etc. 4. painter / artistcraftlandscape paintermarine painterportrait painter/portraitistanimalistgenre painterbattle painterengravercartooniststudioa fashionable/mature/self-taught/ artist to develop one’s own style of painting to conform to the taste of the period to break with the traditions to be in advance of one’s time to become famous overnight   to die forgotten and penniless 5. colour schemecolouringsubtle / delicate colouringintricate and somber colouringcolourswarm / hot / cold / coolfresh / fading primary / secondary colours/pre/dominant colourssparkling and harmonious vivid / bright / intensive clashing / inharmonious/gaudy   muted in colour restful   agitated soft delicate   dull oppressive harsh brilliantly contrasting colours more intensive colour areas done in a wide colour range done in blacks, greys and whitesdelicately blended dark greens soft mellow tonessilvery half-tonesrange of tonesthickly applied paints light and shade blur / smudge / patchhuehuge volumes of spacethe illusion of aerial distance to convey a sense of space to set off smth 6. clear-cut linesrhythmic flow of simple linescrude linesflowing lineslines and colours are subdued the convergence of lines   7. composition in the foreground / background in the centre foreground / background on the right / left of the picture to the right / left of the picture at the top / bottom in the left / right hand corner to arrange symmetrically /asymmetrically   in a pyramid / in a vertical format to divide the picture space diagonally/horizontally   the skyline / horizon to define the nearer figures more sharply to emphasize the contours purposely   to place the figures against the landscape background   to be posed / silhouetted against an open sky / classic pillar / snow   to blend with the landscape to be scarcely discernible sweeping landscape multitude of fine details painstaking precision carefully drawn details   combination of space and light   dynamic arrangement of characters   to stand out sharply   sitter to sit / to pose full-length (life- size) portrait   half (knee, shoulder) length portrait to be represented standing / sitting / talking   8. to depict a person/ scene of common life/ the mood of…   to portray people /emotions with moving sincerity /with restraint   to render / to interpret the personality to reveal the person’s nature   to capture the sitter’s vitality/ transient expression   to expose the dark sides of life 1.жанрыгравюраофорткартина, написанная масломпастельпейзажморской пейзажнабросокфрескаакварельэтюд, эскизкарикатуражанровая живописьнатюрмортрисунок перомкарандашный рисунокисторическая картинакартина, изображающая сражениекартина с изображением цветовсюжетная картина 2.масляные краскиакварельные краскицветные мелкимольбертпалитраполотнолакрамакистьтушь   3. рисовать писать маслом / акварелью изображать на картине писать (портрет) изображать выполнить картину писать портреты создавать портреты делать набросок переносить на полотно то, что видишь в жизни aкцентировать ч-л выделить поставить в центр внимания писать с натуры/по памяти/ по воображению писать на мифологические/ исторические сюжеты   специализироваться в портрете, натюрморте   4 4. художник ремесло, искусство пейзажист маринист портретист анималист жанрист баталист гравер карикатурист мастерская художника модный, зрелый художник / самоучка развить свой собственный стиль соответствовать вкусу времени порывать с традициями опережать свое время стать известным в одночасье умереть забытым и нищим   5. цветовая гамма колорит утонченный колорит сложный и мрачный колорит цвета теплые / горячие / холодные свежие / блеклые тона основные / дополнительные преобладающие цвета сверкающие и гармоничные яркие, интенсивные дисгармонирующие кричащие, бесвкусные приглушенные цвета беспокойныe взволнованныe , возбужденныe мягкиe, нежныe утонченныe, изысканныe, нежныe тусклыe угнетающиe, гнетущиe грубыe, жесткиe ярко контрастирующие цвета более интенсивные цветовые области выполненный в широкой цветовой гамме выполненный черными, серыми и белыми красками искусно переходящие друг в друга темно-зеленые цвета мягкие сочные тона серебристые полутона диапазон тонов краски, нанесенные толстым слоем светотень пятно оттенок изобилие пространства впечатление воздушного пространства передать ощущение пространства оттенять что-то 6. четкие линии ритмическое течение простых линий грубые линии плавные линии линии и цвета приглушены схождение линии 7. композиция на переднем / заднем плане   в центре переднего/ заднего плана   справа / слева на картине справа / слева на картине вверху / внизу в левом / в правом углу организовать симметрично / несимметрично   пирамидально / вертикально разделить картину по диагонали горизонтально линия горизонта / горизонт обозначить ближние фигуры более четко намеренно выделить контуры   расположить фигуры на фоне пейзажа   расположить на фоне открытого неба / классической колонны / снега слиться с пейзажем быть едва различимым широкий пейзаж множество мелких деталей кропотливая точность тщательно выписанные детали соединение пространства и света   динамическое расположение фигур   резко выступать, выделяться натурщик позировать портрет в натуральную величину портрет в половину роста/до колен, до плеч быть изображенным стоя / сидя / разговаривая   8. изобразить человека/сцену из простой жизни/настроение изображать людей/эмоции с трогательной искренностью/ сдержанно   передать личность / вскрыть природу (характер) человека   уловить жизненность модели/ мимолетное выражение лица обличать темные стороны жизни

PAINTERS AND THEIR CRAFT:

avant-garde - авангард

be in advance of one's time -

опережать свое время

be taught painter - выучиться на художника

become famous overnight – стать известным за одну ночь

break with the tradition - порвать с традицией

canvas - картина , полотно

capture the sitter's vitality, transient expression - передать энергию модели , мимолетное выражение лица

conform to the taste of the period - соответствовать вкусу эпохи

depict a person, a scene of common life, the mood of... - изображать человека ,

бытовую сцену, настроение

develop one's own style of painting - выработать собственный стиль письма

die forgotten and penniless - умереть в бедности и безызвестности

do a painting - написать картину

expose the dark sides of life -

изображать темную сторону жизни

fashionable artist - модный художник

mature artist - зрелый художник

nude model - обнаженная модель

paint from nature, memory - писать с натуры / по памяти

paint mythological, historical subjects - писать на мифологические, исторические сюжеты

painting - \) живопись, 2) картина

picture - 1) картина, 2) фотография

portrait/landscape painter -

портретист / пейзажист

portray people, emotions with moving sincerity/restraint - изображать людей, эмоции с трогательной искренностью / сдержанностью render, interpret the personality of... - передавать характер...

 reveal the person's nature раскрыть характер

self-taught artist - художник -самоучка

specialize in portraiture, still life -специализироваться в написании портретов , натюрмортов


DRAWING INSTRUMENTS:

brush - кисть

canvas - холст

chalk - мел

charcoal - угольный карандаш

colour box / palette - палитра

crayon - цветной карандаш, мелок

drapery - драпировка

easel - мольберт

enamel - эмаль, финифть encaustic - энкаустика

frame - рама

frescо - фреска, фресковая живопись

gouache - гуашь

ink - чернила

India ink — тушь

lacquer -лак, глазурь

liquid - 1)жидкость 2)жидкий oil paint - масляная краска paintbox - коробка с красками panel - тонкая доска для живописи, панно

pigment - пигмент tempera- темпера

to charcoal - рисовать углем

vehicle - растворитель

watercolour - акварель

PAINTERS. GENRES:

acrylic painting - живопись акриловой краской

bark painting - ж. на коре

battle piece - батальная ж .

caricature - карикатура

ceremonial portrait - парадный

портрет

collage - коллаж

drawing - рисунок

easel painting - станковая ж .

engraving - гравюра , эстамп

family group - семейный портрет

full-length portrait - портрет в полный рост

genre bas - « низкий жанр », бытовой жанр

genre painting - жанровая живопись

historical painting - историческая ж .

landscape - пейзаж

marine /seascape - морской пейзаж

miniature - миниатюра

mosaics - мозаика

mural - Фреска , настенная ж .

oil painting - картина маслом

pastel picture - рисунок пастелью

self-portrait - автопортрет

sketch - набросок , этюд

still life - натюрморт

tapestry - гобелен

wall / mural painting - настенная ж .

water-colour - ж . акварелью

COMPOSITION AND DRAWING:

accentuate something - подчеркнуть

arrange symmetrically, asymmetrically, in a pyramid, in a vertical format - расположить (а )симметрично , в форме пирамиды , вертикально

be scarcely discernible – едва различимый

blend with the landscape - сливаться , сочетаться с пейзажем

define the nearer figures more sharply – обозначить ближайшие фигуры более резко

emphasize contours purposely

преднамеренно акцентировать

контуры

in the background - на заднем плане

at the bottom - внизу

in the foreground - на переднем плане

in the left (right)-hand corner - в левом (правом ) углу

at the top - наверху

indicate the sitter's profession - указывать на профессию модели

perspective - перспектива

place the figures against the landscape background - располагать фигуры на

фоне пейзажа

COLOURING, LIGHT AND SHADE:

subtle/ gaudy colouring - нежные / кричащие цвета

to combine form and colour into harmonious unity – гармонично сочетать

brilliant/low keyed colour scheme where.... predominates - блестящая, сдержанная гамма, где преобладают

muted in colour - приглушенные цвета

delicacy of tones may be lost in a reproduction - утонченность цветов ьможет быть утеряна в репродукции

IMPRESSION. JUDGEMENT:

chaotic - хаотичный

cheap - дешевый

colourless daub of paint – бесцветная мазня

crude - кричащий

depressing - унылый , тягостный

disappointing- печальный

distinguished by a marvellous sense of colour and composition – отличается потрясающим чувством цвета и композиции

exquisite piece of painting - утонченное произведение

fake - подделка; подлог, фальшивка

forgery - подделка, подлог,

фальсификация, фальшивка

gaudy - яркий, безвкусный

lyrical - лиричный

masterpiece- шедевр

moving - трогательный

obscure - мрачный, тусклый

original - оригинальный

poetic - поэтичный

romantic - романтичный

unintelligible - неразборчивый

unsurpassed masterpiece

непревзойденный шедевр

vulgar - вульгарный

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN.

DESCRIBING A PICTURE:

abstract - абстрактный

abundance - обилие , изобилие

accuracy - точность

affirmation - утверждение

air - воздух

animation - живость

apotheosis - апофеоз

arrangement - расположение

at one stroke - мгновенно

austere - суровый , строгий

brilliance - яркость

brushstroke - мазок

candid glimpses - бледные отблески

colourful - яркий

colouring - колорит

combination of colours – сочетание цветов

complete command of colours -

великолепное владение цветом

conception - замысел

cone - конус

craftsmanship - мастерство

crystal-clear - чистый, прозрачный, ясный

cuboid - кубический

decorative - декоративный

decorativeness - декоративность

delicate colours - утонченные цвета

delineation - очертание, эскиз

density - плотность, густота

design - композиция

diffused light - рассеянный свет

drama - эффект, нечто броское, эффектное

effect - эффект, нечто броское, эффектное

emphasis -подчеркивание, акцент

expressiveness - выразительность

exquisite -утонченный

facial expression - выражение лица

finished technique - отточенная

техника

fluid, fluent - плавный

gamut - гамма

geometrical abstraction - геометрическая абстракция

harmony of colours - гармония цветов

highlights- яркие участки изображения

homogeneous form –однородная форма

hyperbole -гипербола, преувеличение

immediacy - непосредственность

individual traits - индивидуальные

черты

infinite - безграничный

intensity - глубина красок

intricate - запутанный, замысловатый

life-asserting art - жизнеутверждающее искусство

light and shade - светотень

line - линия

luminous - прозрачный, светлый

message - идейное содержание

original- 1) оригинал 2) оригинальный

out of value - слишком темное или слишком светлое

personification - олицетворение

primary colours (red, blue, yellow) - основные цвета

projection - проекция , отображение

pure, vivid, brilliant, intense - чистые , яркие , насыщенные краски

soft, delicate colours - мягкие , приглушенные тона

range of colours - гамма цветов

reproduction - репродукция

riot of colours - богатство красок

saturation - насыщенность

secondary colour - сложный цвет

semi-tones - полутона

silhouette - силуэт

simplicity - простота

skill - искусство, умение

sphere - сфера

spirituality- одухотворенность

splashes of colour - яркие краски

subdued colours - приглушенные

краски

subject - сюжет в живописи

subject matter - тема

texture - текстура

to acquire - овладеть

to affect - волновать

to anticipate - предвосхищать

to appeal - привлекать , влечь , взывать

to attain - достигать

to be silhouetted against - вырисовываться на фоне

to catch, capture, seize - схватить , передавать

to command attention – завладеть вниманием

to convey - передавать

to depict - изображать

to evoke - вызывать

to execute - исполнять

to fade - блекнуть

to frame - обрамлять

to glorify - прославлять

to grip - захватывать внимание

to penetrate - проникать , пронизывать

to portray - изображать

to produce impression – производить впечатление

to radiate - излучать

to render, represent - изображать

to restore - восстанавливать

to treat - трактовать

tone - тон

treatment - трактовка

EXHIBITION:

art gallery - художественная галерея

exhibit - экспонат

exhibition - выставка

art exhibition - художественная выставка

one-man exhibition - персональная в .

permanent exhibition - постоянная в .

special exhibition - специальная выставка

travelling exhibition - передвижная в .

exhibition about - в ., посвященная ...

exhibition hall - выставочный зал

exposition - экспозиция

to display - выставлять

to go to an exhibition - пойти на выставку

to put on exhibition/ stage an exhibition - устроить в .

1) The synonyms for 'pointing are 'picture', 'canvas'.

2) The name of the artist can be used like a common noun to denote a work by him.

A Picasso means a work by him.

3) A 'scene' is used in various expressions specifying the subject of the picture: street scene; city scene; country scene: hunting scene; historical scene; battle scene.

Scene is often followed by from ... life.

4) In the context of art landscape generally denotes a picture and not a view depicted there.

5) A piece is used as a general term meaning "work," "picture."

ART THROUGH THE AGES

Stone Age art - искусство Каменного Века

Classical Greek - древнегреческий

Byzantine - византийский

Flemish - фламандский

Gothic - готический

the Renaissance period - эпоха

Возрождения

the Baroque age - эпоха барокко

the Romantic era - эра Романтизма

the Neo-Classicists - неоклассицисты

the Itinerants - Передвижники

Impressionism - импрессионисты

The Symbolists - символисты

Expressionism - экспрессионизм

Cubism - кубизм

Pop art - поп -арт



Vocabulary Exercises

Ex. 1. Choose the right answer.

1. Mr Cheater made a living _________ works by famous painters.

a) devising b) faking    c) pretending         d) shamming

2. A sculpture by Rodin fetched more than two million dollars at the _________ last month.

a) auction   b) gallery   c) museum d) sale

3. The _________ of Rembrandt's paintings finishes next week.

a) demonstration   b) exhibition c) show      d) spectacle

4. They thought the painting was genuine but it turned out to be _________

a) a facsimile b) an imitation     с) a replica d) a reproduction

5. There was no _________ difference between the original and the copy.

a) discernible b) discoverable c) knowable d) understandable

6. Mr Adventurous has taken _________ painting since he retired.

a) down     b) in c) over        d) up

7. A young art student acted as our _________ when we visited the museum.

a)coach      b)conductor c)guide       d) lead

8. This self-portrait did not come to _________ until after the artist's death.

a) light       b) range       c) sight       d) view

9. Mr. Vernix is the greatest _________ expert on techniques of painting.

a) alive b) live         c) living      d) nowadays

10. Children and pensioners are admitted to the museum at _________ prices.

a) decreased          b) less         c) reduced  d) undercharged

11. On examination by experts, the picture turned out to be a _________

a) fabrication         b) fake       c) fraud      d) sham

12. In the _________ right-hand corner of the portrait there is a flower.

a) front       b) high       c) top         d) up

13. He is sometimes considered to be an outstanding artist, but I consider his work to be quite _________

a) common b) intermediate      c) mediocre d) moderate

14. All visitors are requested to _________ with the regulations.

a) agree      b) assent     c) comply   d) consent

15. He made some _________ sketches which would serve as guides when he painted the actual landscape.

a) elementary b) introductory      c) preliminary d) primary

16. Admission to the gallery is _________ except on Saturdays and Sundays when a charge of one dollar is made.

a) allowed  b) free        с) nothing  d) paid

17. The paintings are hung in heavy gold _________

a) easels     b) frames    c) fringes    d) rims

18. This beautiful portrait is _________ to Rubens.

a) assigned b) attached c) attributed           d) prescribed

19. He earns his living by _________ works of art.

a) recovering          b) renewing c) restoring d) reviving

20. That landscape is somewhat _________ of Rembrandt's early work.

a) memorable b) mindful  c) reminiscent        d) similar

21.The portrait you see here is a very good _________ of my mother.

a) appearance         b) likeness  c) reproduction     d) resemblance

22.I would love to go to the exhibition with you, but I'm afraid I can't _________

a)leave       b) lose        c) save        d)spare

23. He said he had never _________ across a painting which pleased him more.

a) come      b) happened           c) seen        d) viewed

24.I made it quite clear that I had no _________ of selling the portrait.

a) aim b) intention c) meaning d) purpose

Ex. 2. Match the terms on the left with their definitions on the right.

1. caricature a) a picture made with a pencil
2. cartoon b) a drawing showing the parts of something to explain how it works
3. collage c) a drawing showing by a line the connection between two quantities
4. diagram d) a rough drawing without many details
5. drawing e) a picture to go with the words of a book
6. fresco f) a picture in solid black
7. graph g) a picture painted in water colour on a surface of fresh wet plaster
8. illustration h) woven cloth hanging on a wall, with pictures woven from coloured wool or silk
9. mural i) a humorous drawing, often dealing with something of interest in the new and amusing way
10. silhouette j) a representation of a person made so that aspects of his or her appearance appear more noticeable than they really are
11. sketch k) a picture made by an unusual combination of bits of paper, cloth, metal, etc.
12. tapestry 1) a picture painted directly onto the wall

Ex. 3. Explain the meaning of the following words connected with painting and art in general

1) Easel, crayon, brush, paintbox; palette, charcoal, water-colour, oil, stretcher, canvas, drapery.

2) Art exhibitions, special exhibitions, permanent exhibitions, one-man exhibitions, travelling exhibitions.

3) Graphic art, sculpture, applied art.

4) Warm colours, cool colours, harsh colours, subdued colours, primary colours.

Ex. 4. Match the words and their definitions :

landscape 1) is a picturnhe on a wall or ceiling where a plaster is still wet or damp.
seascape 2) is a painting of such unanimated subjects as fruit, flowers and other decorative things.
portrait 3) is a painting which represents scenes from everyday life in a more or less realistic way.
still life 4) is a picture representing a tract of country with the various objects it contains.
fresco 5) is painting or other artistic representation of the sea.
genre painting 6) is a person who is having his portrait painted.
sitter, subject, model 7) is a painting, picture or representation of the person, especially of a face generally drawn from life.

Ex. 5. Put the words in order to make recommending expressions.

1. you're /OK/ it's / sort / if / into / thing / that / of

2. a / must / it's

3. recommend / really / I / it

4. you / give / if / were / miss / a / I'd / it / I

5. visit / well / it's / a / worth

6. entrance / not / it's / the / fee / worth

7. It's / my / tea / cup / of / really / not

Ex. 6. Use the words from the box to complete the sentences below.

To draw - to paint

1.She placed the paper and pencil before me and told me I could … anything I liked. 2. The picture was … so that the eyes seem to follow you no matter you are. 3. It was in Italy that Bryullov ... his immense canvas «The Last Day of Pompei». 4. He would have been a great artist, if he had only learned how to ... . 5. Only skilled artists should ... from live models. 6. In order to ... life one must understand not only anatomy, but what people feel and think about the world they live in. 7. As he had to ... a historical subject, he spent much time studying the literature of that period. 8. He ... portraits, genre paintings and still life alike.

Colour - paint

1.This possible picture she painted in glowing … , until the child’s pathetic dark eyes glistened with pleasure. 2. If you want cornflower blue you’d better mix these two … . 3. The warm … are red, yellow and orange. 4. In his work the still life objects seem to glow with a new intensity achieved through the blinding effects of light and ... . 5. His dark yet sumptuous … seems to disappear as … to dissolve into light, with infinite gradations of tones. 6. But these dark tones give even more power and force to the contrast of a new bright and brilliant … .

IN THE PAINTER'S STUDIO

THE RUDIMENTS OF PAINTING

As soon as Winslow* returned to New York, he looked up a genre and landscape painter by the name of Frederic Rondel, who gave lessons in his studio. While he was not a great painter, he had just been elected an Associate of the National Academy, which indicated that he had some reputation; yet he was not enough of a master to expect his pupils to be his disciples.

There were several other students taking lessons in the big untidy studio, and Rondel, a Frenchman, who had immigrated to Boston, where he had lived before coming to New York, was showing them how to handle a brush when Winslow joined the group. From the large canvas on the outsized easel Winslow saw that Rondel had an honest approach toward his work in spite of the fact that he painted in the current sentimental style. He was satisfied that this Frenchman could help him with practical instruction. For four Saturdays in one month Winslow walked over to Rondel's studio, where he learned the rudiments of painting—how to hold the brush in different ways for different strokes: how to set his palette, using the primary colours with white, and raw sienna—a formula he hardly changed throughout his career; how to adjust an easel, how to stretch a canvas. He had watched his mother**—and recently his fellow artists— but he had never performed the simplest procedure of painting. His observation stood him in good stead***, however; after four or five lessons with Rondel he was ready to start out on his own.****

* Winslow Homer (1836-1910) – an American painter;

** Homer’s mother was a paintress;

*** to stand smb in good stead – пригодиться, оказаться полезным кому-либо;

**** on his own – самостоятельно.

(Jean Gould, Winslow Homer)

Art Movements

Part I

Vocabulary

style - направление, школа (в искусстве)

to root in - укореняться в , пускать корни

religious devotion – религиозная преданность

arch - арка

stained glass – витраж, витражное стекло

illuminated manuscripts – рукописи, украшенные цветными рисунками

secular - мирской, светский (не религиозный)

perspective - перспектива.

advancement - продвижение, распространение

to succeed - следовать за чем-либо, сменять

circa 1500 AD – приблизительно, около 1500 г. нашей эры

to be notable for – быть известным чем-либо

patron of the arts – покровитель искусств

spirituality – духовность, одухотворенность

elaborate - тщательно разработанный, продуманный, изысканный

to inspire - вдохновлять

to fuel - возбуждать , разжигать эмоции

the key distinction – главное отличие

the key concept - основная концепция , понятие

to epitomize - воплощать,

the rigid academic standards - строгие академические стандарты

Byzantine Art . 5th century A.D. to 1453.

Byzantine art is the art of the Byzantine Empire, centered in Constantinople (now Istanbul). Byzantine art was completely focused on the needs of the Orthodox Church, in the painting of icons and the decoration of churches with frescoes and mosaics. The Byzantine style basically ended with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, during the European Renaissance. However, its influence continued for a considerable time in Russia and elsewhere where the Orthodox Church held sway.

Gothic Art. 5th century to 16th century A.D.

Gothic Art is the style of art produced in Northern Europe from the middle ages up until the beginning of the Renaissance. Typically rooted in religious devotion, it is especially known for the distinctive arched design of its churches, its stained glass, and its illuminated manuscripts.

In the late 14th century, anticipating the Renaissance, Gothic Art developed into a more secular style known as International Gothic. One of the great artists of this period is Simone Martini. Although superseded by Renaissance art, there was a Gothic Revival in the 18th and 19th centuries, largely rooted in nostalgia and romanticism.

 

The Early Renaissance centered in Italy, 15th Century.

The Renaissance was a period of great creative and intellectual activity, during which artists broke away from the restrictions of Byzantine Art. Throughout the 15th century, artists studied the natural world in order to perfect their understanding of such subjects as anatomy and perspective.  Among the many great artists of this period were Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Paolo Uccello and Piero della Francesca.  During this period there was a related advancement of Gothic Art centered in Germany and the Netherlands, known as the Northern Renaissance.  The Early Renaissance was succeeded by the mature High Renaissance period, which began circa 1500.

The High Renaissance. Centered in Italy, early 16th Century.

The High Renaissance was the culmination of the artistic developments of the Early Renaissance, and one of the great explosions of creative genius in history. It is notable for three of the greatest artists in history: Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael Sanzio and Leonardo da Vinci.  Also active at this time were such masters as Giorgione, Titian and Giovanni Bellini.

 

The Baroque Era.  Europe, 17th Century

Baroque Art developed in Europe around 1600, as a reaction against the intricate and formulaic Mannerism that dominated the Late Renaissance. Baroque art is less complex, more realistic and more emotionally affecting than Mannerist art.

This movement was encouraged by the Catholic Church, the most important patron of the arts at that time, being seen as a return to tradition and spirituality. One of the great periods of art history, Baroque Art was developed by Caravaggio, Gianlorenzo Bernini and Annibale Carracci, among others. This was also the age of Rubens, Rembrandt, Vermeer and Velázquez. In the 18th century, Baroque Art was replaced by the more elegant and elaborate Rococo art style.

 

Victorian Classicism. Britain, Mid to Late 19th Century.

Victorian Classicism was a British form of historical painting inspired by the art and architecture of Classical Greece and Rome.  In the 19th century, an increasing number of Western Europeans made the "Grand Tour" to Mediterranean lands. There was a great popular interest in the region's lost civilizations and exotic cultures, and this interest fuelled the rise of Classicism in Britain, and Orientalism, which was mostly centered in continental Europe.  The Classicists were closely associated with the Pre-Raphaelites, many artists being influenced by both styles to some degree. Both movements were highly romantic and were inspired by similar historical and mythological themes - the key distinction being that the Classicists epitomized the rigid Academic standards of painting, while the Pre-Raphaelites were initially formed as a rebellion against those same standards.  Frederick Leighton and Lawrence Alma-Tadema were the leading Classicists, and in their lifetimes were considered by many to be the finest painters of their generation.

Ex. 1. Find synonyms

trend, spreading, to follow, about the year 1500, to be famous for, complicated, protector, exquisite, specific feature, the main idea, to embody, strict rules

Ex. 2. Find in the text the key phrases, characterizing each art movement. Give your own laconic definition of it.

Part II

Vocabulary

restrictions - ограничения

conventions - обычаи, традиции, устои

to render in a realistic manner – передать в реалистичной манере

straightforward – прямой, простой, откровенный

the excesses - избытки, излишки, крайности

to become disillusioned - разочароваться, утратить иллюзии

the artifice - изобретение, выдумка, хитрость

the Salon - ежегодная выставка изобразительного искусства в Париже

to be a guiding influence on smth - оказывать ведущее влияние на

polished style - изысканный ( элегантный, безупречный) стиль

to submit - представлять на рассмотрение

display - показ, демонстрация, выставка

down-to-earth treatment - преземленная трактовка, (подход)

commonly landscapes - обычные (привычные) пейзажи

the hallmark of the style - отличительный признак (критерий) стиля

the core - суть, ядро, сердцевина

identifiable - узнаваемый

to fade - постепенно исчезать, вянуть

to branch into - разветвляться на

successive movements - последующие направления

to encompass - заключать в себе

idyllic - идиллический

emotionally charged – эмоционально заряженный

an offshoot - ответвление, боковая ветвь

to categorize - распределять по категориям, зд. определять

the focal point - центральное место

an emphasis on - особое внимание

with respect to - что касается, зд. относительно

in a collaboration between – в сотрудничестве

to dispute - подвергать сомнению, противиться

to dispute with (against) smb on (about) smth - спорить с кем-либо о чем-либо

long-lived - долговечный

to resonate through - резонировать, отдаваться

Realism. Mid-19th Century.

Realism is an approach to art in which subjects are depicted in as straightforward a manner as possible, without idealizing them and without following rules of formal artistic theory.  The earliest Realist work began to appear in the 18th century, in a reaction to the excesses of Romanticism and Neoclassicism. This is evident in John Singleton Copley's paintings, and some of the works of Goya. But the great Realist era was the middle of the 19th century, as artists became disillusioned with the artifice of the Salons and the influence of the Academies.  Realism came closest to being an organized movement in France, inspiring artists such as Camille Corot, Jean-Francois Millet and the Barbizon School of landscape painters. Besides Copley, American Realists included the painters Thomas Eakins, and Henry Ossawa Tanner, both of whom studied in France.  French Realism was a guiding influence on the philosophy of the Impressionists. The Ashcan School artists, the American Scene painters, and, much later, the Contemporary Realists are all following the American Realist tradition.

Academic Art. The 19th century.

Academic Art is art of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of the Academies in Europe and especially France, where many artists received their formal training. It is characterized by its highly polished style, its use of mythological or historical subject matter, and its moralistic tone. Neoclassical Art was also closely associated with the Academies. The term "Academic Art" is associated particularly with the French Academy and the 19th century salons at which art was submitted for display and prizes were awarded. Artists such as Jean-Leon Gerome and Bouguereau epitomize this style.

Impressionism. France, 1860's to 1880's.

Impressionism is a light, spontaneous manner of painting which began in France as a reaction against the restrictions and conventions of the dominant Academic art. Its naturalistic and down-to-earth treatment of its subject matter, most commonly landscapes, has its roots in the French Realism of Camille Corot and others.  The movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, 'Impression: Sunrise', which was singled out for criticism by Louis Leroy upon its exhibition. The hallmark of the style is the attempt to capture the subjective impression of light in a scene. The core of the earliest Impressionist group was made up of Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Others associated with this period were Camille Pissarro, Frederic Bazille, Edgar Degas, Gustave Caillebotte, Edouard Manet, and the American Mary Cassatt. The Impressionist style was probably the single most successful and identifiable "movement" ever, and is still widely practiced today. But as an intellectual school it faded towards the end of the 19th century, branching out into a variety of successive movements which are generally grouped under the term Post-Impressionism.

Post-Impressionism. France, 1880's to 1900.

Post-Impressionism is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of artists who were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in other directions.  There is no single well-defined style of Post-Impressionism, but in general it is less idyllic and more emotionally charged than Impressionist work.  The classic Post-Impressionists are Paul Gauguin, Paul Cezanne, Vincent van Gogh, Henri Rousseau and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. The Pointillists and Les Nabis are also generally included among the Post-Impressionists

Pointillism. France, 1880's.

Pointillism is a form of painting in which tiny dots of primary-colors are used to generate secondary colors. It is an offshoot of Impressionism, and is usually categorized as a form of Post-Impressionism. It is very similar to Divisionism, except that where Divisionism is concerned with color theory, Pointillism is more focused on the specific style of brushwork used to apply the paint.

The term "Pointillism" was first used with respect to the work of Georges Seurat, and he is the artist most closely associated with the movement. The relatively few artists who worked in this style also included Paul Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross.

Pointillism is considered to have been an influence on Fauvism.

Cubism. Europe, 1908-1920.

Cubism was developed between about 1908 and 1912 in a collaboration between Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. Their main influences are said to have been Tribal Art (although Braque later disputed this) and the work of Paul Cezanne. The movement itself was not long-lived or widespread, but it began an immense creative explosion which resonated through all of 20th century art. The key concept underlying Cubism is that the essence of an object can only be captured by showing it from multiple points of view simultaneously. Cubism had run its course by the end of World War I, but among the movements directly influenced by it were Orphism, Precisionism, Futurism, Purism, Constructivism, and, to some degree, Expressionism.

 

Ex. 3. Find synonyms

to disappear gradually, to show in the picture, to concentrate, in regard to, mutual wok, to discuss, recognizable, the following trends, the essence, to grasp, to present, to exhibit, approach, to be disappointed, traditions, limits.

 

Ex. 4. Find in the text the key phrases, characterizing each art movement. Give your own laconic definition of it.

Part III

Vocabulary

to express the inner state – выразить внутреннее состояние

inner life – духовный мир

emotionally-charged – эмоционально заряженный

to overlap - частично совпадать, частично покрывать

decorative - декоративный

stylized angular forms - стилизованные формы в виде углов

the angle of view - угол изображения

to be related to - относиться, касаться

the wake of innovators - пробудить новаторов

urban - городской

rural - сельский, деревенский

narrative - рассказ, изложение фактов, сюжетно-тематическая картина

to evolve towards - развиваться, эволюционировать по направлению

imagery – собир. образы , образность

image - 1) образ, изображение 2) изображать

imagination - воображение

imaginative - одаренный богатым воображением

consumer culture - потребительская культура

comic strips - газетные комические рассказы в картинках

Expressionism. Centered in Germany, from 1905 to 1940's.

Expressionism is a style in which the intention is not to reproduce a subject accurately, but instead to portray it in such a way as to express the inner state of the artist. The movement is especially associated with Germany, and was influenced by such emotionally-charged styles as Symbolism, Fauvism, and Cubism. There are several different and somewhat overlapping groups of Expressionist artists, including Der Blaue Reiter ("The Blue Rider"), Die Brücke ("The Bridge"), Die Neue Sachlichkeit ("The New Objectivity") and the Bauhaus School. Leading Expressionists included Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, George Grosz and Amadeo Modigliani. In the mid-20th century, Abstract Expressionism (in which there is no subject at all, but instead pure abstract form) developed into an extremely influential style in the United States.

Art Deco. 1920's to 1930's.

Art Deco is an elegant style of decorative art, design and architecture. It is characterized by the use of angular, symmetrical geometric forms. One of the classic Art Deco themes is that of 1930s-era skyscrapers such as New York's Chrysler Building and Empire State Building. The former, designed by architect William Van Alen, is considered to be one of the world's great Art Deco style buildings.  The Art Deco look is related to the Precisionist art movement, which developed at about the same time. Well-known artists within the Art Deco movement included Tamara de Lempicka, fashion illustrator Erte, glass artist Rene Lalique and graphic designer Adolphe Mouron (known professionally Cassandre).

Precisionism. America, 1920's to 1930's.

Precisionism (or Cubist Realism) is a style of representation in which an object is rendered in a realistic manner, but with an emphasis on its geometric form. An important part of American Modernism, it was inspired by the development of Cubism in Europe, and by the rapid growth of industrialization of North America in the wake of innovators such as Henry Ford. In its emphasis on stylized angular forms it is also visually somewhat similar to Art Deco. Charles Demuth and Charles Sheeler are the artists most closely associated with Precisionism. The urban works of Georgia O'Keeffe are also highly typical of this style. Dealing as it did with pure form more than with any type of narrative or subject matter, Precisionism gradually evolved towards Abstraction, and faded away as an important influence.

Contemporary Realism. America, Emerged in the Late 1960's/Early 1970's.

Contemporary Realism is the straightforward realistic approach to representation, which continues to be widely practiced in this post-abstract era. It is different from Photorealism, which is somewhat exaggerated and ironic and conceptual in its nature.

Contemporary Realists form a disparate group, but what they share is that they are literate in the concepts of Modern Art but choose to work in a more traditional form. Many Contemporary Realists actually began as abstract painters. Among the best-known artists associated with this movement are William Bailey, Neil Welliver and Philip Pearlstein.

Pop Art. 1950's to 1960's

Pop Art is a style of art which explores the everyday imagery that is so much a part of contemporary consumer culture. Common sources of imagery include advertisements, consumer product packaging, celebrity photographs, and comic strips.  Leading Pop artists include Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, and Roy Lichtenstein

Ex. 5. Find synonyms

newspaper cartoons, gist, to prettify, to develop, to coincide partly, living in the country, living in town. Ex. 6. True/ false statements.

1. In the late 14th century Gothic Art developed into a more secular style known as International Gothic.

2. The Early Renaissance was succeeded by the mature Late Renaissance period, which began circa 1500.

3. The High Renaissance is notable for three of the greatest artists in history: Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael Sanzio and Leonardo da Vinci.

4. In the 17th century, Baroque Art was replaced by the more elegant and elaborate Rococo art style.

5. 19th Century there was a great popular interest in the region's lost civilizations and exotic cultures, which fuelled the rise of Classicism in Britain, and Orientalism.

6. The earliest Realist work began to appear in the 18th centuryas a reaction to the excesses of Romanticism and Spiritualism.

7. Academic Art is the painting and sculpture produced under the influence of the Academies in Europe and especially France.

8. The Post-Impressionism movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, 'Impression: Sunrise'.

9. The Impressionist style is still widely practiced today.

10. The Pointillists are also generally included among the Post-Impressionists

11.  Pointillism is a form of painting in which tiny dots of primary-colors are used to generate secondary colors.

12.  The key concept of Cubism is that the essence of an object can only be captured by showing it from a single point of view.

13.  Expressionism is a style in which the intention is to express the inner state of the artist.

14.  An important part of American Modernism was inspired by the development of Cubism in Europe.

15.  Contemporary Realists are illiterate in the concepts of Modern Art and choose to work in a more traditional form.

16.  Common sources of Pop Art imagery include people in their natural environment.

Ex. 7. Find in the following text the key phrases, characterizing each art movement. Give your own laconic one-sentence definition of them. Retell the text.

Ex. 8. Match the name of the style with its description and identify the missing style

Ancient Greek art Religious in focus, often funded by the Church, lack of realism, trying to send a religious message with clear iconic images instead of precisely rendered ones.
Renaissance Stone vaulting, thick, load-bearing walls with few windows, a heavy-looking and simple style.
Ancient Roman art employing distortion of light and spatial frameworks in order to emphasize the emotional content of a painting and the emotions of the painter
Impressionism Depicting gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features, commemorating great events in the life of the state and to glorifying the emperors rather than recording the inner life of man and expressing ideas of beauty and nobility
Mediaeval Art Focused on the use of color and motion in order to portray emotion, used Greek and Roman mythology and tradition as an important source of symbolism, emphasis on nature and portraying the power and beauty of the natural world.
Expressionism emphasizing detail, movement, lighting, and drama in search for beauty, the emphasis is placed on grandeur, love for detail, often considered overly-ornate and gaudy
Mannerism Engraved and painted cave paintings using red ochre and black pigment and showing horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting.
Pre- historic art Accurate portrayal of the conditions and hardships of the poor in the hopes of changing society, offered a stark vision of poverty and despair, portrayed life in the depths of an urban wasteland.
Baroque Enhancing realism of the work by using new techniques in perspective, thus representing three dimensions more authentically, using new techniques in the manipulation of light and darkness, rediscovering many ancient techniques such as contrapposto. More secular in subject matter, depicting ancient mythology in addition to Christian themes.
Neo-classicism Romanticism A veneration of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Survived most successfully in the forms of sculpture and architecture, as well as in such minor arts as coin design, pottery and gem engraving.
Ancient Egyptian art The use of light in painting in an attempt to capture light as seen from the human eye.
Fauvism The art of transposing a three-dimensional reality onto a flat canvas
Characterized by the idea of order. Clear and simple lines combined with simple shapes and flat areas of color help to create a sense of order and balance, use of vertical and horizontal reference lines in order to maintain the correct proportions, symbolism, highly realistic.
Romanesque Painting the canvases in bright, wild hues
Cubism Evoking emotion through objective works of art

DEGAS

Though he is known to be the painter of ballet subjects, Edgar-Hilaire-Germain Degas (1834-1917) was far more than that. He was a portraitist of subtlety and distinction, a draftsman of infinite resource and one of the most exciting sculptors of his century. Though he first tried to paint historical subjects in the approved manner, giving them what he called a touch of "modern feeling" by choosing more realistic models and arranging them in less formal poses, he soon gave up this idea and began to concentrate on portraits. Degas was a superb portrait painter; in his early canvases he immediately showed his skill in capturing the inner life of his sitters. A born psychologist, he enjoyed the play of one personality upon another. We see also his dependence on the clear structure and incisive drawing of earlier masters, combined with a feeling for discreet colour and delicate effects of light. For all his portraits Degas made many drawings from life, then recreated his sitters from sketches and memory. As he progressed, his touch became lighter and he grew more able to catch the fleeting pose and transient expression. He never accepted a commission and never finished a portrait when he grew bored.

After the war of 1870, in which Degas served, he returned to find that the old society which he had loved was breaking apart. He looked around for new subjects and discovered them in the opera-house and ballet. Here was the fluid movement, the flash of colour and arresting play of light that he loved. At the same time, Degas became friendly with a group of young painters, among them Manet, Renoir, Ваzillе, Monet and Pissarro. He took part in their discussions centering round painting modern life rather than literary subjects and stressing more and more daring effects of colour. Degas disagreed, however, with these men who were to join with him in founding the group of Impressionists when they insisted on painting out-of-doors. There was more to art than surrendering oneself to nature, he said; one built a work of art mentally; through patient observation and style one carried it out. When he first visited the ballet, he recorded it in precise detail; soon he was changing and heightening his effects and substituting pastel for oil. Pastel allowed him to draw as he painted, and satisfied his desire for brilliant, more vaporous colour.

At the same time, Degas sought new and surprising angles of composition. He tilted the floor of a rehearsal room; he peered down from opera boxes; he stood in the wings and glimpsed fresh, unforseen slices of life. Part of this originality came from his study of Japanese art which was then the rage of Paris. From Japanese prints Degas learned to cut his figures abruptly, to overlap one by another—such devices being used to increase the apparent spontaneity of his vision, which actually was calculated down to the last millimeter. From photography, which he ardently practised, Degas further discovered the close-up, the blurred background, and the sudden sharp detail, all of which he used for artistic purposes. And in his studies of dancers he re-created not only glamorous moments on the stage but also the hours of strain and ennui of the young girls exercising or waiting in the wings...

(Daniel Catton Rich, Degas)

IMPRESSIONISM

Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists who began publicly exhibiting their art in the 1860s. The name of the movement is derived from Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant). Critic Louis Leroy inadvertently coined the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.

The influence of Impressionist thought spread beyond the art world, leading to Impressionist music and Impressionist literature.

Characteristics of impressionist painting include visible brushstrokes, light colors, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles.

Impressionism also describes art done in this style, but outside of the late 19th century time period.

Radicals in their time, early impressionists broke the picture-making rules of academic painting. They began by painting driven by colours, rather than by line, drawing from the work of painters such as Eugene Delacroix. They also began from unique working methods, such as painting outside of the studio for subjects such as the still life and portrait. The techniques of impressionism gradually grew more specific to the movement, and encompassed what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing. They painted "en plein air" (outdoors) rather than in a studio as was the custom, capturing the momentary and transient aspects of sunlight.

By the last years of the 19th century, the public came to believe that these artists had captured a fresh and original vision that was highly skilled, even if it did not meet with approval of the artistic establishment. The impressionists looked to beauty in candid poses and compositions, in the play of light and in a bright and varied use of colour.

Impressionist paintings feature short, "broken" brush strokes of pure, untinted and unmixed colour. Compositions are simplified and innovative, and the emphasis is on overall effect rather than upon details. The brushstrokes increasingly became visible and part of the composition, as opposed to the then current technique of having an almost smooth surface of the canvas without visible brush strokes. Impressionism rose at the same time that other painters were also exploring methods of painting that moved away from the subjects, forms and norms that dominated the art market at that time, for example Edvard Munch.

By placing the center of artistic creation as the eye that views the subject, rather than the subject, and by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism became seminal to various movements in painting which would come after, including Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism and individual painters that were not part of an exact school, such as Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Cezanne.

Impressionist techniques

· Short, thick strokes of paint in a sketchy way, allowing the painter to capture and emphasize the essence of the subject rather than its details.

· They left brush strokes on the canvas, adding a new dimension of familiarity with the personality of the artist for the viewer to enjoy.

· Colors with as little pigment mixing as possible, allowing the eye of the viewer to optically mix the colors as they looked at the canvas, and providing a vibrant experience for the viewer.

· Impressionists did not shade (mix with black) their colours in order to obtain darker pigments. Instead, when the artists needed darker shades, they mixed with complementary colours. (Black was used, but only as a colour in its own right.)

· They painted wet paint into the wet paint instead of waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and intermingling of color.

· Impressionist avoided the use of thin paints to create glazes which earlier artists built up carefully to produce effects. Rather, the impressionists put paint down thickly and did not rely upon layering.

· Impressionists discovered or emphasized aspects of the play of natural light, including an acute awareness of how colours reflect from object to object.

· In outdoor paintings, they boldly painted shadows with the blue of the sky as it reflected onto surfaces, giving a sense of freshness and openness that was not captured in painting previously. (Blue shadows on snow inspired the technique.)

· They worked "en plein air" (outdoors)

Previous artists occasionally used these techniques, but impressionists employed them constantly. Earlier examples are found in the works of Frans Hals, Peter Paul Rubens, John Constable, Theodore Rousseau, Gustave Courbet, Camille Corot, Eugene Boudin, and Eugène Delacroix.

Impressionists took advantage of the mid-century introduction of premixed paints in tubes (resembling modern toothpaste tubes) which allowed artists to work more spontaneously both outdoors and indoors. Previously, each painter made his or her own paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil.

1. What is Impressionism?

2. Where is the name of the movement derived from?

3. What are the characteristics of impressionist painting?

4. What were the changes that early impressionists brought to art?

5. How was what they did different from the previous styles?

6. Was their work approved by the public?

7. What do impressionist paintings feature?

8. What contribution did they make for the future movements?

The Impressionist Palette

This new intensive study of colour brought about a new pal­ette and a new technique. For centuries all painting had been based on three primary colours: red, blue and yellow, but sci­ence now taught the painters that though these might be prima­ry colours in pigment, they were not primary colours in light. The spectroscope and the new science of spectrum-analysis made them familiar with the fact that white light is composed of all the colours of the rainbow, which is the spectrum of sunlight. They learnt that the primary colours of light were green, orange-red, blue-violet, and that yellow — though a primary in paint was a secondary in light, because a yellow light can be produced by blending a green light with an orange-red light. On the other hand green, a secondary in paint because it can be produced by mixing yellow with blue pigment, is a primary in light. These discoveries revolutionised their ideas about colour, and the Im­pressionist painters concluded they could only hope to paint the true colour of sunlight by employing pigments which match­ed the colours of which sunlight was composed, that is to say, the tints of the rainbow. They discarded black altogether, for, modified by atmosphere arid light, they held that a true black did not exist in nature, the darkest colour was indigo, dark green, or a deep violet. They would not use a brown, but set their pal­ette with indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red, and violet, the nearest colours they could obtain to the seven of the solar spectrum.

The Impressionist Technique

Further, they used these colours with as little mixing as possible. Every amateur in water-colour knows that the more he mixes his paints, the more they lose in brilliancy. The same is true of oil paints. By being juxtaposed rather than blended, the colours achieved a scintillating fresh range of tones — the high-keyed radiance of daylight rather than the calculated chiaroscuro of the studio. And the transmission of light from the canvas is greatly increased. The Impressionists refrained, therefore, as much as possible from mixing colours on their palettes, and ap­plied them pure in minute touches to the canvas. If they wanted to render secondary or tertiary colours, instead of mixing two or three pigments on the palette, they would secure the desired ef­fect by juxtaposed touches of pure colours which, at a certain dis­tance, fused in the eye of the beholder and produced the effect of the tint desired. This device is known as optical mixture, because the mixing is done in the spectator's eye. Thus, whereas red and green pigment mixed on a palette will give a dull grey, the Im­pressionists produced a brilliant luminous grey by speckling a sky; say, with little points of yellow and mauve which at a dis­tance gave the effect of a pearly grey. Similarly the effect of a brilliant brown was given by the juxtaposition of a series of min­ute touches of green, red, and yellow; and this association of minute touches of three pure colours set up a quivering vibra­tion which had greater luminosity than any streak of brown pig­ment. It was an endeavour to use paints as if they were coloured light.

Various names have been given to this technique. It has been called Divisionism, because by it the tones of secondary and ter­tiary colours were divided into their constituent elements. It has been called Pointillism, because the colour was applied to the canvas in points instead of in sweeping brush strokes. It has been called Luminism, because the aim of the process is prima­rily to express the colour of light with all its sparkle and vibra­tion. This last is the best name of all, because it serves to empha­sise the new outlook of the new painters. The tendency before the Impressionists was to regard colour from the standpoint of black and white. Thus, in considering a grey, it would have been asked is it a dark grey or a light grey, does it approach black or white? The Impressionists took quite a different atti­tude and asked whether it was a bluish grey or a greenish grey or a purplish grey, or a reddish grey: in a word, not whether it was light or dark, but which colour in the solar spectrum it came closest to.

To the Impressionists shadow was not an absence of light, but light of a different quality and of different value. In their ex­haustive research into the true colours of shadows in nature, they conquered the last unknown territory in the domain of Re­alist Painting.

To sum up, then, it may be said that Impressionist Paint­ing is based on two great principles:

1. The substitution of a Simultaneous Vision that sees a scene as a whole in place of Consecutive Vision that sees nature piece by piece.

2. The substitution of a Chiaroscuro based on the colours of the solar spectrum for a Chiaroscuro based on Black and White.

This new technique, with all the research and experiment which it implies, was not the invention of one man but the out­come of the life studies of a whole group of men. Most prominent among those who brought Impressionist painting to perfection in theory and practice were Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet, and Auguste Renoir.

Vocabulary


the Itinerants (the Peredvizhniks/ the Wanderers) – передвижники - painters of Russian realistic school with democratic tendencies.

the very essence – сама суть

artistic perception - художественное восприятие              

icon worshiping – преклонение перед иконописью

worship - культ; поклоняться, почитать

alongside with – наряду с

Byzantium - Византия

artistic technique –художественная техника

henceforth - с этого времени, впредь

to flourish - расцветать

a symbol of spiritual consent and unity – символ духовного согласия и единства

to undergo the influence of - подвергаться влиянию

temporal portrait – светский портрет

to conceive – зарождать, зачать, задумывать

to hold sway – иметь влияние

plot - фабула, сюжет

novelty of plot – новизна сюжета

gist – основное содержание рассказа

to be distinguished by - отличаться чем-либо

careful work at details – тщательная работа над деталями

the tendency to decoration and 'prettiness’ - тенденция к украшательству

verisimilitude - правдоподобие

representative of the trend - представитель направления

to be marked - быть отмеченным

to be characterized by - характеризоваться чем-либо

awakening interest in - пробуждающийся интерес к

the refinement of color - утонченность, изысканность чвета

academic manner - акдемическая манера

plastic – пластичный, гибкий

plastic art – искусство ваяния, скульптура

brilliant virtuosity - блестящая виртуозность, понимание тонкостей

sacrificial devotion to the idea – жертвенная преданность идее

to sacrifice - жертвовать

to shake the traditions of - потрясти традиции

dilettante - дилетант, любитель

a subtle observer - тонкий (острый) наблюдатель

a witty satirist – остроумный сатирик

to anticipate - предчувствовать

to acquire - приобретать

exposing character – обличающий характер

to result in – приводить к чему-либо

to exhibit - экспонировать

to oust - вытеснять

to strive for – стремиться к чему-либо

peculiar to – характерный для

to destroy artificial cultural barriers – разрушить искусственные культурные барьеры

Vanguard - авангард, авангардный

Baroque - барокко, барочныйClassicism - классицизмRomanticism - романтизм

 

In the history of Russian fine arts one can distinguish two periods. Peter the Great reforms marked the border between them. The difference is extremely deep and concerns the very essence of artistic perception of the world and a human being.

In Old Russia painting appeared and developed in a close connection with icon worshiping, the basis of which is the doctrine of Incarnation.

Alongside with Christianity the Russian masters adopted the Byzantium artistic style and technique developed through centuries.

Henceforth in Russian principalities icon-painting schools having their own peculiarities of painting were formed (Novgorod, Pskov, Yaroslavl, Tver icon-painting schools).

The highest flourishing of Russian medieval painting refers to the 14th-15th centuries and it is reflected in the works of Pheophan Grek and Andrey Rublev. The top of Russian icon painting is “Trinity” (1422-1427) by A. Rublev, which he created as a symbol of spiritual consent and unity of Russian people.

Since the middle of the 16th century icon painting undergoes the influence of Western fine arts. Developed icon painting of the court school used Western European plot schemes.

The end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century is marked by the development of 'Stroganoff school' (despite the name it consisted mainly of court masters) that is distinguished by the refinement of color and careful working at details and by the tendency to some decoration and 'prettiness' of painting.

In the second half of the 17th century icons included the elements of Western European painting: oil colors and great verisimilitude in depicting people and nature. The most prominent representative of the trend is Simon Ushakov. The first attempts of creating a temporal portrait can also be referred to that time.

Until the 18th century in Russia, the reigning artistic influence was still the Middle Ages Byzantium style. Even to this day, Russian icons, with their soulful eyes, flattened perspective, elongated features and gold highlights, remain characteristic in the region's artistic output.

But in 1701 Tsar Peter Alexeevich - Peter the Great - set the foundation of a new Russian capital in St.Petersburg, as well as the foundation for a new culture and art forms conceived in imitation of Western European. Under his rule, artists were sent abroad to study, and painters from Western Europe were brought to work in Russia. A drawing school was established, and then many Academies were established.

The prevailing painting genre through the 18th century was portraiture, based primarily on classical aesthetics. In the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century fine arts in Russia, following cultural needs of the society, experiences all the main stages of Western art: Baroque, Classicism, Romanticism. Foreign painters and sculptors, invited to Russia, play an important role but very talented home masters appear. The highest achievement of the epoch is portrait painting in the works by I. Argunov, А.Antropov, F Rokotov, D. Levitskiy, V. Borovikovskiy, O. Kiprenskiy. The first great Russian master of a sculpture portrait was F.Shubin.

The flourishing of an academic school refers to the first half of the 19th century. K. Brullov’s canvases are characterized by the combination of academic Classicism with Romanticism, by novelty of plots, by the theatrical effect of plastic and lighting, by complex composition and by brilliant virtuosity of a painter's brush. A. Ivanov added some character of sacrificial devotion to the idea and he managed to overcome lots of patterns referring to academic technique. At that time P.Fedotov followed his own way. He was considered to be a brilliant dilettante, a subtle observer and a witty satirist, who anticipated further trends of Russian genre-painting.

Social aspiration of 1860-1870s awakes the painters' interest in the themes connected with people's life. In 1872 in contrast to the Academy of Arts the Association of traveling art exhibition is founded (I. Kramskoy, G. Myasoedov, K. Savitskiy, I. Pryanishnikov, V. Makovskiy, I. Yaroshenko, V. Perov, etc). The Itinerants (or The Peredvizhniks) became serious rivals to Academy-trained artists, and by 1870 had become the key force in Russian art. They emphasized realistic, socially concerned images of Russian life. Genre painting acquires some exposing character in their works.

The appeal to national themes resulted in unprecedented flourishing of historical and battle painting. V. Surikov, I. Repin, N.Ghe, V. Vasnetsov, V. Vereschagin, F. Rubo created real masterpieces in those genres. The first Russian Art Galleries were opened during those years; the works of Russian painters were exhibited regularly in international exhibitions and foreign art salons.

The end of the 19th century is also marked by awakening interest in an icon as 'a great world art' (E.Trubetskoy). It was possible thanks to clearing of ancient samples grown dark and discovering their real color. Artistic principles of icon painting were used creatively by both single Russian icon-painters (V. Vasnetsov, M. Nesterov, K. Petrov-Vodkin, foreign ones (A.Matisse) and by the whole trends and vanguard schools.

Having achieved independence in their creative activity landscape painting is ousting genre painting. Since the end of the 19th century Russian painting follows the same European course of fine arts. Striving for depicting air and light, peculiar to Impressionism, can also be found in the works of F. Vasilyev, I. Levitan, V. Serov, K. Korovin, A. Arkhipov, etc.

The 1910s are marked by the appearance of Russian vanguard, as an aspiration to rebuild the very essence of art up to the denial of art itself. A number of artists and creative associations set new schools and new trends, which influenced radically the development of world's fine arts - Supermatism (K. Malevich), 'the style of improvisation' and abstract art (V. Kandinskiy).

"Bytovoi zhanr", the painting of everyday life, particularly depicting serfs in the country, remained influential through the Soviet years.

The Renaissance of Russian vanguard is referred to 1960s. So-called “allowed”, but not the official part of Russian art of the 1960s is represented by the works of the masters of “severe style” (T.Salakhov, S.Popkov). In 1970-1980s the works of Soviet painters (R.Bichuns, P.Tordia, D.Zhilinsky, E.Shteinberg, M.Romadin, M.Leis, V.Kalinin, etc.) were generally recognized. Those painters proved that there existed not only 'propaganda' in the USSR.

Crash of Communism in the USSR destroyed artificial cultural barriers between Russia and the rest of the world. Nowadays Russian art is a welcome visitor almost on every part of the world. This inspires optimism as cross-cultural communication is a real sign showing the state of world's art.

Ex. 1. Choose the answer (a, b, c) which you think fits best according to the text 1. In Old Russia painting appeared and developed in a close connection with a) portrait paintingb) icon worshiping c) intensive study of the human body2. The highest flourishing of Russian medieval painting refers to a) the 14th-15th centuries b) the 10th-11th centuries c) the 12th-13th centuries 3. The end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century is marked by the development of a) Leonardo’s schoolb) Rublev’s school c) Stroganoff ‘s school

 4. The highest achievement of the 18th century is

a) historical painting

b) landscape painting

c) portrait painting

5. K Brullov’s canvases are characterized by the combination ofa) careful working at details and by the tendency to some decoration b) academic Classicism with Romanticismc) independence in his creative activity and classical aesthetics6. The traveling art exhibition was founded in a) 1782 b) 1872c) 19877. Social aspiration of 1860-1870s awakes the painters' interest in the themes connected with a) people's lifeb) nature lifec) Middle Ages Byzantium style8. Since the end of the 19th century Russian painting followsa) unique Russian course of fine artsb) Renaissance stylec) the same European course of fine arts9. The influence of Imporessionism can be found in the works by a) A. Vrubelb) V. Kandinskiyc) I. Levitan and K. Korovin10. K Malevich is considered to be a representative of the trend, calleda) Supermatism b) Symbolismc) Abstract art

Describing a picture

Ex. 1. Here are a few examples of how pictures can be described, analyzed, inter­preted and evaluated.

A

"Lady Elizabeth Delme and Her Children" by Reynolds is a typ­ical family group portrait in the Grand Style of English portrait painting. Lady Delme was the wife of a member of Parliament and belonged to the privileged class of the landed nobility. Here, with an air of apparently casual informality, she is shown on the terrace before her country-house, while behind stretch the broad acres of her family estate.

Reynolds has taken care that the gestures, facial expressions, and poses of his subjects are appropriate to their age, character, and social status. "The joy of a monarch," Dryden once wrote, "for the news of a victory must not be expressed like the ecstasy of a harlequin on the receipt of a letter from his mistress." So, in this portrait, Lady Delme is dignified and gracious, secure in the knowledge of her beauty and wealth. Her son John, aged five, as if sensing the responsibilities of manhood, gazes sternly toward the distant horizon. Her other son, Emelias Henry, in unmasculine skirts as befits his three years, is coy and winsome. The fourth member of the group, the unkempt Skye terrier, is the embodiment of loyal affection. Note the simplicity of the pyramidal design and the low-keyed colour scheme. These features were for Reynolds symbols of dignity and good taste.

B

The "Mrs. Sarah Siddons” by Gainsborough has the distinction of being not only a remarkable work of art, but a unique interpretaion of a unique personality. It is not only one of the artist's finest portraits, but also one of the best of the many likenesses of the great tragic actress, who sat to most of the celebrated masters of her day- It was painted in 1783—1785, when the queen of the tragic drama was in her twenty-ninth year and at the zenith of her fame.

An enthusiastic admirer who saw it in the Manchester exhibi­tion of 1857 wrote as follows: "The great tragic actress, who inter­preted the passions with such energy and such feeling, and who felt them so strongly herself, is better portrayed in this simple half-length in her day dress, than in allegorical portraits as the Tragic Muse or in character parts. This portrait is so original, so individu­al, as a poetic expression of character, as a deliberate selection of pose, as bold colour and free handling, that it is like the work of no other painter.

C

"Dedham Lock and Mill" (1820)

This is a brilliant example of Constable's view painting at its complete maturity. The salient features of the landscape are treat­ed in sharp relief— even those not strictly necessary— yet they merge perfectly under a serene, perfect light. This painting con­tains, in synthesis, all the elements of landscape which Constable loved best: the river, the boats, the soaked logs, the river vegeta­tion, the sun shining through the foliage of the tall trees, the scenes of rural life and, above all, Dedham Mill. The cultural origins of this work are apparent in the traditional composition, in the use of chiaroscuro, in the way the landscape fades into the distance, after the Dutch manner, and in the complex, laboured palette. The com­pact tree mass in the foreground is blocked in against a sky filled with movement, reflected in the calm and transparent waters over which plays a pallid sun, as we find in Ruisdael.

D

For Constable I have an affection that goes back to my earliest recollections. In the first years of my childhood, there hung in the halls of my father's house a large steel engraving of "The Corn­field". Often in the long hot summers of the Middle West, I used to lie on the floor, gazing for hours into this English landscape carried from the dry and burning world around me into a vista of blessed coolness, thick verdure, dampness and everlasting peace.

I lived in that picture. To me it was more beautiful than a dream: the boy, flat on the ground drinking from a running brook; the sheep dog waiting patiently with turned head; the ambling flock; the old silent trees; the fat clouds reeking moisture...

Some years later, when I went to London to study pictures, I saw "The Cornfield" and many others by Constable, and my first impressions were confirmed. In his grasp of the stable, one might almost say formidable, repose that man feels in the presence of nature, and in communicating the spiritual contentment induced by companionships with nature, Constable is the master of the English school.

E

Vladimir Lukich Borovikovskii: “Portrait of Madame Lopukhina” (1797 ).

This portrait is one of the most famous Russian paintings of the 18th century. Every aspect of it is carefully controlled and directed to produce a certain effect, to create an atmosphere that is both in accord with, and slightly differing from, the prevailing neoclassical style of the day. This is reflected in the subtle natural background, the classic simplicity of Madame Lopukhina's dress, and the cool sense of decorum, individual calm, and quiet assurance that is transmitted through the combined effect of these and other details. At the same time, Madame Lopukhina's image reflects many characteristics of Borovikovskii's style that depart from standard neoclassical practice. This portrait, for instance, is far less ceremonial than many that were produced at the time. Madame Lopukhina is not decked out in her finest clothing, she is not depicted among rich surroundings, neither is she stiff and artificially posed. Rather, she is dressed unostentatiously and placed in an obscure natural background, which while it conforms to the neoclassical idea of nature's secondary position, contrasts with the formality often associated with neoclassic 'symbolic' portraits. Her pose, too, though it may not be natural, at least seems to be so. The "languid" position of her body, her facial expression, the tilt of her head, all combine to create a sense of individual character. Madame Lopukhina is here at ease, in her natural state of mind and a psychologically revealing pose. Her gaze is familiar, her eyes expectant, her mouth bantering, while her posture indicates a relaxed, confident poise (осанка, посадка головы).

One of the most noticeable elements of Borovikovskii's technique in this painting, which contrasts with common neoclassical practice and some of of his other works, is the soft-focus nature of the portrait. Even more obvious is his delicate use of color to create a harmonious atmosphere in which, again, Madame Lopukhina's presence is a natural occurrence. The cool tones of the background, her dress, and her sash are softly contrasted with the warmer tones of her face and neck. Though aesthetically pleasing on its own, the color scheme has a more important place in this portrait, accentuating her figure through an elegant luminescence that is only heightened by the dimming of the corners. Together these elements may create a slightly 'sentimental' portrait, but one that is nevertheless effective, and testifies to Borovikovskii's skill and importance as an 18th century Russian painter. At the same time, it reflects the "elegance" typical of the best 18th century Russian painting and supports the idea that Borovikovskii "was at heart a realist who never failed . . . to create a likeness"

F

“Портрет Е.А.Нарышкиной” (1799)

Портрет Елены Александровны Нарышкиной (1785–1855) – один из лучших женских портретов, написанных Боровиковским в конце XVIII века. Нарышкина – дочь обер-камергера А.Л.Нарышкина. В первом браке она была замужем за сыном генералиссимуса А.В.Суворова графом А.А.Суворовым-Рымникским; овдовев, вышла вторично замуж за князя В.С.Голицына. Е.А.Нарышкина обладала хорошими музыкальными способностями. Итальянский композитор Дж. Россини написал в ее честь кантату. Она была дружна с поэтами В.А.Жуковским и И.И.Козловым. Художник изобразил еще юную очаровательную девушку, с томной улыбкой взирающую на зрителя. Героиня одета в изысканно-скромное платье, по плечам небрежно рассыпались кудри. В портрете ощущается влияние эстетики позднего классицизма – четкий рисунок, определенность контуров, колорит, тяготеющий к локальным цветам.

Social English

 



Expressing likes

I like … very much indeed

I (really) enjoy …

I’ve always liked/ loved

There is nothing I like/enjoy more than…

I’m really very fond of…

…is really terrific/great, etc  

It’s too lovely for words

It’s awesome!

I’d like to point out

Expressing dislikes

(I am afraid) I don’t like …

I’ve never liked…, I’m afraid

…is not one of my favourite…

I really hate …

I think… is pretty awful/really unpleasant

I’m not (really) very keen on…

… is ghastly/ rubbish

I can’t say… appeals to me very much

I must say, I’m not too fond of …

Expressing Indifference

I can’t say I am interested

I am sorry to disagree with you

The whole thing bores me to death

I couldn’t care less

I don’t mind what you say (do)

Expressions to remember

What a dull picture!

Why there is no colour in it?

Each to your own opinion, dear.

I hate it like hell.

For me it’s just phoney

Isn’t that lovely?

I did like it. I haven’t seen a picture for years I have liked so much.

I think that one’s got something



Vocabulary

1. genres            engravingetchingoil-painting pastellandscape / scenerymarine-painting/seascapesketchfrescowater-colourstudycartoongenre-paintingstill-lifepen-and-ink drawingblack-and-white drawinghistorical paintingbattle piece /painting flower piece subject picture 2. oilswater-colourscrayonseaselpalettecanvasvarnishframebrushIndian ink 3.to drawto paint in oil/water-coloursto pictureto portrayto depictto execute a paintingto do portraitsto produce portraitsto sketchto transcribe on the canvas what one observes in lifeto accentuate smthto emphasizeto focus on to paint from nature/ memory / imaginationto paint mythological/historical subjectsto specialize in portraiture / still life etc. 4. painter / artistcraftlandscape paintermarine painterportrait painter/portraitistanimalistgenre painterbattle painterengravercartooniststudioa fashionable/mature/self-taught/ artist to develop one’s own style of painting to conform to the taste of the period to break with the traditions to be in advance of one’s time to become famous overnight   to die forgotten and penniless 5. colour schemecolouringsubtle / delicate colouringintricate and somber colouringcolourswarm / hot / cold / coolfresh / fading primary / secondary colours/pre/dominant colourssparkling and harmonious vivid / bright / intensive clashing / inharmonious/gaudy   muted in colour restful   agitated soft delicate   dull oppressive harsh brilliantly contrasting colours more intensive colour areas done in a wide colour range done in blacks, greys and whitesdelicately blended dark greens soft mellow tonessilvery half-tonesrange of tonesthickly applied paints light and shade blur / smudge / patchhuehuge volumes of spacethe illusion of aerial distance to convey a sense of space to set off smth 6. clear-cut linesrhythmic flow of simple linescrude linesflowing lineslines and colours are subdued the convergence of lines   7. composition in the foreground / background in the centre foreground / background on the right / left of the picture to the right / left of the picture at the top / bottom in the left / right hand corner to arrange symmetrically /asymmetrically   in a pyramid / in a vertical format to divide the picture space diagonally/horizontally   the skyline / horizon to define the nearer figures more sharply to emphasize the contours purposely   to place the figures against the landscape background   to be posed / silhouetted against an open sky / classic pillar / snow   to blend with the landscape to be scarcely discernible sweeping landscape multitude of fine details painstaking precision carefully drawn details   combination of space and light   dynamic arrangement of characters   to stand out sharply   sitter to sit / to pose full-length (life- size) portrait   half (knee, shoulder) length portrait to be represented standing / sitting / talking   8. to depict a person/ scene of common life/ the mood of…   to portray people /emotions with moving sincerity /with restraint   to render / to interpret the personality to reveal the person’s nature   to capture the sitter’s vitality/ transient expression   to expose the dark sides of life 1.жанрыгравюраофорткартина, написанная масломпастельпейзажморской пейзажнабросокфрескаакварельэтюд, эскизкарикатуражанровая живописьнатюрмортрисунок перомкарандашный рисунокисторическая картинакартина, изображающая сражениекартина с изображением цветовсюжетная картина 2.масляные краскиакварельные краскицветные мелкимольбертпалитраполотнолакрамакистьтушь   3. рисовать писать маслом / акварелью изображать на картине писать (портрет) изображать выполнить картину писать портреты создавать портреты делать набросок переносить на полотно то, что видишь в жизни aкцентировать ч-л выделить поставить в центр внимания писать с натуры/по памяти/ по воображению писать на мифологические/ исторические сюжеты   специализироваться в портрете, натюрморте   4 4. художник ремесло, искусство пейзажист маринист портретист анималист жанрист баталист гравер карикатурист мастерская художника модный, зрелый художник / самоучка развить свой собственный стиль соответствовать вкусу времени порывать с традициями опережать свое время стать известным в одночасье умереть забытым и нищим   5. цветовая гамма колорит утонченный колорит сложный и мрачный колорит цвета теплые / горячие / холодные свежие / блеклые тона основные / дополнительные преобладающие цвета сверкающие и гармоничные яркие, интенсивные дисгармонирующие кричащие, бесвкусные приглушенные цвета беспокойныe взволнованныe , возбужденныe мягкиe, нежныe утонченныe, изысканныe, нежныe тусклыe угнетающиe, гнетущиe грубыe, жесткиe ярко контрастирующие цвета более интенсивные цветовые области выполненный в широкой цветовой гамме выполненный черными, серыми и белыми красками искусно переходящие друг в друга темно-зеленые цвета мягкие сочные тона серебристые полутона диапазон тонов краски, нанесенные толстым слоем светотень пятно оттенок изобилие пространства впечатление воздушного пространства передать ощущение пространства оттенять что-то 6. четкие линии ритмическое течение простых линий грубые линии плавные линии линии и цвета приглушены схождение линии 7. композиция на переднем / заднем плане   в центре переднего/ заднего плана   справа / слева на картине справа / слева на картине вверху / внизу в левом / в правом углу организовать симметрично / несимметрично   пирамидально / вертикально разделить картину по диагонали горизонтально линия горизонта / горизонт обозначить ближние фигуры более четко намеренно выделить контуры   расположить фигуры на фоне пейзажа   расположить на фоне открытого неба / классической колонны / снега слиться с пейзажем быть едва различимым широкий пейзаж множество мелких деталей кропотливая точность тщательно выписанные детали соединение пространства и света   динамическое расположение фигур   резко выступать, выделяться натурщик позировать портрет в натуральную величину портрет в половину роста/до колен, до плеч быть изображенным стоя / сидя / разговаривая   8. изобразить человека/сцену из простой жизни/настроение изображать людей/эмоции с трогательной искренностью/ сдержанно   передать личность / вскрыть природу (характер) человека   уловить жизненность модели/ мимолетное выражение лица обличать темные стороны жизни

PAINTERS AND THEIR CRAFT:

avant-garde - авангард

be in advance of one's time -

опережать свое время

be taught painter - выучиться на художника

become famous overnight – стать известным за одну ночь

break with the tradition - порвать с традицией

canvas - картина , полотно

capture the sitter's vitality, transient expression - передать энергию модели , мимолетное выражение лица

conform to the taste of the period - соответствовать вкусу эпохи

depict a person, a scene of common life, the mood of... - изображать человека ,

бытовую сцену, настроение

develop one's own style of painting - выработать собственный стиль письма

die forgotten and penniless - умереть в бедности и безызвестности

do a painting - написать картину

expose the dark sides of life -

изображать темную сторону жизни

fashionable artist - модный художник

mature artist - зрелый художник

nude model - обнаженная модель

paint from nature, memory - писать с натуры / по памяти

paint mythological, historical subjects - писать на мифологические, исторические сюжеты

painting - \) живопись, 2) картина

picture - 1) картина, 2) фотография

portrait/landscape painter -

портретист / пейзажист

portray people, emotions with moving sincerity/restraint - изображать людей, эмоции с трогательной искренностью / сдержанностью render, interpret the personality of... - передавать характер...

 reveal the person's nature раскрыть характер

self-taught artist - художник -самоучка

specialize in portraiture, still life -специализироваться в написании портретов , натюрмортов


DRAWING INSTRUMENTS:

brush - кисть

canvas - холст

chalk - мел

charcoal - угольный карандаш

colour box / palette - палитра

crayon - цветной карандаш, мелок

drapery - драпировка

easel - мольберт

enamel - эмаль, финифть encaustic - энкаустика

frame - рама

frescо - фреска, фресковая живопись

gouache - гуашь

ink - чернила

India ink — тушь

lacquer -лак, глазурь

liquid - 1)жидкость 2)жидкий oil paint - масляная краска paintbox - коробка с красками panel - тонкая доска для живописи, панно

pigment - пигмент tempera- темпера

to charcoal - рисовать углем

vehicle - растворитель

watercolour - акварель

PAINTERS. GENRES:

acrylic painting - живопись акриловой краской

bark painting - ж. на коре

battle piece - батальная ж .

caricature - карикатура

ceremonial portrait - парадный

портрет

collage - коллаж

drawing - рисунок

easel painting - станковая ж .

engraving - гравюра , эстамп

family group - семейный портрет

full-length portrait - портрет в полный рост

genre bas - « низкий жанр », бытовой жанр

genre painting - жанровая живопись

historical painting - историческая ж .

landscape - пейзаж

marine /seascape - морской пейзаж

miniature - миниатюра

mosaics - мозаика

mural - Фреска , настенная ж .

oil painting - картина маслом

pastel picture - рисунок пастелью

self-portrait - автопортрет

sketch - набросок , этюд

still life - натюрморт

tapestry - гобелен

wall / mural painting - настенная ж .

water-colour - ж . акварелью

COMPOSITION AND DRAWING:

accentuate something - подчеркнуть

arrange symmetrically, asymmetrically, in a pyramid, in a vertical format - расположить (а )симметрично , в форме пирамиды , вертикально

be scarcely discernible – едва различимый

blend with the landscape - сливаться , сочетаться с пейзажем

define the nearer figures more sharply – обозначить ближайшие фигуры более резко

emphasize contours purposely

преднамеренно акцентировать

контуры

in the background - на заднем плане

at the bottom - внизу

in the foreground - на переднем плане

in the left (right)-hand corner - в левом (правом ) углу

at the top - наверху

indicate the sitter's profession - указывать на профессию модели

perspective - перспектива

place the figures against the landscape background - располагать фигуры на

фоне пейзажа

COLOURING, LIGHT AND SHADE:

subtle/ gaudy colouring - нежные / кричащие цвета

to combine form and colour into harmonious unity – гармонично сочетать

brilliant/low keyed colour scheme where.... predominates - блестящая, сдержанная гамма, где преобладают

muted in colour - приглушенные цвета

delicacy of tones may be lost in a reproduction - утонченность цветов ьможет быть утеряна в репродукции

IMPRESSION. JUDGEMENT:

chaotic - хаотичный

cheap - дешевый

colourless daub of paint – бесцветная мазня

crude - кричащий

depressing - унылый , тягостный

disappointing- печальный

distinguished by a marvellous sense of colour and composition – отличается потрясающим чувством цвета и композиции

exquisite piece of painting - утонченное произведение

fake - подделка; подлог, фальшивка

forgery - подделка, подлог,

фальсификация, фальшивка

gaudy - яркий, безвкусный

lyrical - лиричный

masterpiece- шедевр

moving - трогательный

obscure - мрачный, тусклый

original - оригинальный

poetic - поэтичный

romantic - романтичный

unintelligible - неразборчивый

unsurpassed masterpiece

непревзойденный шедевр

vulgar - вульгарный

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN.

DESCRIBING A PICTURE:

abstract - абстрактный

abundance - обилие , изобилие

accuracy - точность

affirmation - утверждение

air - воздух

animation - живость

apotheosis - апофеоз

arrangement - расположение

at one stroke - мгновенно

austere - суровый , строгий

brilliance - яркость

brushstroke - мазок

candid glimpses - бледные отблески

colourful - яркий

colouring - колорит

combination of colours – сочетание цветов

complete command of colours -

великолепное владение цветом

conception - замысел

cone - конус

craftsmanship - мастерство

crystal-clear - чистый, прозрачный, ясный

cuboid - кубический

decorative - декоративный

decorativeness - декоративность

delicate colours - утонченные цвета

delineation - очертание, эскиз

density - плотность, густота

design - композиция

diffused light - рассеянный свет

drama - эффект, нечто броское, эффектное

effect - эффект, нечто броское, эффектное

emphasis -подчеркивание, акцент

expressiveness - выразительность

exquisite -утонченный

facial expression - выражение лица

finished technique - отточенная

техника

fluid, fluent - плавный

gamut - гамма

geometrical abstraction - геометрическая абстракция

harmony of colours - гармония цветов

highlights- яркие участки изображения

homogeneous form –однородная форма

hyperbole -гипербола, преувеличение

immediacy - непосредственность

individual traits - индивидуальные

черты

infinite - безграничный

intensity - глубина красок

intricate - запутанный, замысловатый

life-asserting art - жизнеутверждающее искусство

light and shade - светотень

line - линия

luminous - прозрачный, светлый

message - идейное содержание

original- 1) оригинал 2) оригинальный

out of value - слишком темное или слишком светлое

personification - олицетворение

primary colours (red, blue, yellow) - основные цвета

projection - проекция , отображение

pure, vivid, brilliant, intense - чистые , яркие , насыщенные краски

soft, delicate colours - мягкие , приглушенные тона

range of colours - гамма цветов

reproduction - репродукция

riot of colours - богатство красок

saturation - насыщенность

secondary colour - сложный цвет

semi-tones - полутона

silhouette - силуэт

simplicity - простота

skill - искусство, умение

sphere - сфера

spirituality- одухотворенность

splashes of colour - яркие краски

subdued colours - приглушенные

краски

subject - сюжет в живописи

subject matter - тема

texture - текстура

to acquire - овладеть

to affect - волновать

to anticipate - предвосхищать

to appeal - привлекать , влечь , взывать

to attain - достигать

to be silhouetted against - вырисовываться на фоне

to catch, capture, seize - схватить , передавать

to command attention – завладеть вниманием

to convey - передавать

to depict - изображать

to evoke - вызывать

to execute - исполнять

to fade - блекнуть

to frame - обрамлять

to glorify - прославлять

to grip - захватывать внимание

to penetrate - проникать , пронизывать

to portray - изображать

to produce impression – производить впечатление

to radiate - излучать

to render, represent - изображать

to restore - восстанавливать

to treat - трактовать

tone - тон

treatment - трактовка

EXHIBITION:

art gallery - художественная галерея

exhibit - экспонат

exhibition - выставка

art exhibition - художественная выставка

one-man exhibition - персональная в .

permanent exhibition - постоянная в .

special exhibition - специальная выставка

travelling exhibition - передвижная в .

exhibition about - в ., посвященная ...

exhibition hall - выставочный зал

exposition - экспозиция

to display - выставлять

to go to an exhibition - пойти на выставку

to put on exhibition/ stage an exhibition - устроить в .

1) The synonyms for 'pointing are 'picture', 'canvas'.

2) The name of the artist can be used like a common noun to denote a work by him.

A Picasso means a work by him.

3) A 'scene' is used in various expressions specifying the subject of the picture: street scene; city scene; country scene: hunting scene; historical scene; battle scene.

Scene is often followed by from ... life.

4) In the context of art landscape generally denotes a picture and not a view depicted there.

5) A piece is used as a general term meaning "work," "picture."

ART THROUGH THE AGES

Stone Age art - искусство Каменного Века

Classical Greek - древнегреческий

Byzantine - византийский

Flemish - фламандский

Gothic - готический

the Renaissance period - эпоха

Возрождения

the Baroque age - эпоха барокко

the Romantic era - эра Романтизма

the Neo-Classicists - неоклассицисты

the Itinerants - Передвижники

Impressionism - импрессионисты

The Symbolists - символисты

Expressionism - экспрессионизм

Cubism - кубизм

Pop art - поп -арт



Vocabulary Exercises

Ex. 1. Choose the right answer.

1. Mr Cheater made a living _________ works by famous painters.

a) devising b) faking    c) pretending         d) shamming

2. A sculpture by Rodin fetched more than two million dollars at the _________ last month.

a) auction   b) gallery   c) museum d) sale

3. The _________ of Rembrandt's paintings finishes next week.

a) demonstration   b) exhibition c) show      d) spectacle

4. They thought the painting was genuine but it turned out to be _________

a) a facsimile b) an imitation     с) a replica d) a reproduction

5. There was no _________ difference between the original and the copy.

a) discernible b) discoverable c) knowable d) understandable

6. Mr Adventurous has taken _________ painting since he retired.

a) down     b) in c) over        d) up

7. A young art student acted as our _________ when we visited the museum.

a)coach      b)conductor c)guide       d) lead

8. This self-portrait did not come to _________ until after the artist's death.

a) light       b) range       c) sight       d) view

9. Mr. Vernix is the greatest _________ expert on techniques of painting.

a) alive b) live         c) living      d) nowadays

10. Children and pensioners are admitted to the museum at _________ prices.

a) decreased          b) less         c) reduced  d) undercharged

11. On examination by experts, the picture turned out to be a _________

a) fabrication         b) fake       c) fraud      d) sham

12. In the _________ right-hand corner of the portrait there is a flower.

a) front       b) high       c) top         d) up

13. He is sometimes considered to be an outstanding artist, but I consider his work to be quite _________

a) common b) intermediate      c) mediocre d) moderate

14. All visitors are requested to _________ with the regulations.

a) agree      b) assent     c) comply   d) consent

15. He made some _________ sketches which would serve as guides when he painted the actual landscape.

a) elementary b) introductory      c) preliminary d) primary

16. Admission to the gallery is _________ except on Saturdays and Sundays when a charge of one dollar is made.

a) allowed  b) free        с) nothing  d) paid

17. The paintings are hung in heavy gold _________

a) easels     b) frames    c) fringes    d) rims

18. This beautiful portrait is _________ to Rubens.

a) assigned b) attached c) attributed           d) prescribed

19. He earns his living by _________ works of art.

a) recovering          b) renewing c) restoring d) reviving

20. That landscape is somewhat _________ of Rembrandt's early work.

a) memorable b) mindful  c) reminiscent        d) similar

21.The portrait you see here is a very good _________ of my mother.

a) appearance         b) likeness  c) reproduction     d) resemblance

22.I would love to go to the exhibition with you, but I'm afraid I can't _________

a)leave       b) lose        c) save        d)spare

23. He said he had never _________ across a painting which pleased him more.

a) come      b) happened           c) seen        d) viewed

24.I made it quite clear that I had no _________ of selling the portrait.

a) aim b) intention c) meaning d) purpose

Ex. 2. Match the terms on the left with their definitions on the right.

1. caricature a) a picture made with a pencil
2. cartoon b) a drawing showing the parts of something to explain how it works
3. collage c) a drawing showing by a line the connection between two quantities
4. diagram d) a rough drawing without many details
5. drawing e) a picture to go with the words of a book
6. fresco f) a picture in solid black
7. graph g) a picture painted in water colour on a surface of fresh wet plaster
8. illustration h) woven cloth hanging on a wall, with pictures woven from coloured wool or silk
9. mural i) a humorous drawing, often dealing with something of interest in the new and amusing way
10. silhouette j) a representation of a person made so that aspects of his or her appearance appear more noticeable than they really are
11. sketch k) a picture made by an unusual combination of bits of paper, cloth, metal, etc.
12. tapestry 1) a picture painted directly onto the wall

Ex. 3. Explain the meaning of the following words connected with painting and art in general

1) Easel, crayon, brush, paintbox; palette, charcoal, water-colour, oil, stretcher, canvas, drapery.

2) Art exhibitions, special exhibitions, permanent exhibitions, one-man exhibitions, travelling exhibitions.

3) Graphic art, sculpture, applied art.

4) Warm colours, cool colours, harsh colours, subdued colours, primary colours.

Ex. 4. Match the words and their definitions :

landscape 1) is a picturnhe on a wall or ceiling where a plaster is still wet or damp.
seascape 2) is a painting of such unanimated subjects as fruit, flowers and other decorative things.
portrait 3) is a painting which represents scenes from everyday life in a more or less realistic way.
still life 4) is a picture representing a tract of country with the various objects it contains.
fresco 5) is painting or other artistic representation of the sea.
genre painting 6) is a person who is having his portrait painted.
sitter, subject, model 7) is a painting, picture or representation of the person, especially of a face generally drawn from life.

Ex. 5. Put the words in order to make recommending expressions.

1. you're /OK/ it's / sort / if / into / thing / that / of

2. a / must / it's

3. recommend / really / I / it

4. you / give / if / were / miss / a / I'd / it / I

5. visit / well / it's / a / worth

6. entrance / not / it's / the / fee / worth

7. It's / my / tea / cup / of / really / not

Ex. 6. Use the words from the box to complete the sentences below.

Portrait      landscape              still life abstract      detailed      traditional  original          colourful

1. I think his work is very individual, very ________. I've never seen anything else like it.

2. I've just been to a(n) ________ exhibition - it's something I've tried to do myself, but my apples always look like peaches!

3. We've got a(n) ________ of my great grand-father at home. He was a general in the army.

4. Renaissance paintings were always very ________. You could see all the stitches on the clothes.

5. His most famous ________ was a picture of the scenery around his home in Provence.

6.1 don't actually like modern art. I much prefer more ________ things.

7. I don't like paintings that are all greys and browns. I like really ________ things. You know, lots of bright greens and reds and yellows.

8. I don't understand her work at all. It's just too ________ for me.

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