Places of interest and entertainment
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sightseeing places, sights

historical places, historic places

monument, memorial

botanical garden, park, amusement park,

dancing hall, disco / discotheque, night club

Rentals

rental agency; car rental, video rental

real estate agency, house rental, apartment rental

Beauty shops

hair salon / hairdresser’s, barber shop

beauty parlour / beauty salon / beauty shop

massage parlour

Services and repair

laundry, laundromat, dry cleaner’s

automobile repair shop / auto repair shop / car repair shop / garage

bicycle repair shop, computer repair workshop

locksmith’s shop, home repair shop

Sports facilities

health club, fitness centre, gym

tennis club, golf club, country club

playground, sports ground, basketball ground, tennis court, golf course

skating rink, boxing ring, wrestling ring

football field, stadium, sports arena

racetrack, racecourse

Educational facilities

kindergarten, nursery school, elementary school, high school

college, university, academy

business school, vocational school, music school, medical school, law school

Banks

bank, ATM (automatic teller machine), cash machine; currency exchange

Health facilities

hospital, clinic, polyclinic, health centre

hospital clinic, outpatient clinic / outpatients’ department

dental clinic / the dentist’s

ambulatory surgical centre

surgery (department), cardiology (department)

waiting room, consulting room, emergency room, operating room, hospital ward

the ambulance

Other places

police / police department; prison / jail; fire department; post office

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1

Where should we go if:


… our car is broken;

… we have a toothache;

… we want to cross the road;

… we want to withdraw some money;

… we want to see the animals;

… we want to go abroad;

… we want to play tennis;

…we want to dance;

… we want to pray;

… we are not healthy.




Exercise 2

Make up as many word combinations as possible with the following words:

Shop, store, building, road, ring, room, school, club, ground, market, fair, way.

 

Exercise 3

Match the words from two columns to make up word combinations:


art

skating

parking

bus

beauty

railway

concert

shopping

rink

salon

hall

gallery

stop

meter

station

mall


THE 'PRIVILEGE' OF LIVING IN A CITY

«Avoid the rush hour» must be a slogan of large cities the world over. If it is, it's a slogan no one takes the least notice of. Twice a day, with predictable regularity, the pot boils over. Wherever you look there are people, people, people. The trains, which leave or arrive every few minutes, are packed: an endless procession of human sardine tins. The streets are so crowded there is hardly room to move on the pavements. The queues for buses reach staggering proportions. It takes ages for a bus to get to you because the traffic on the roads has virtually come to a stand still. Even when a bus does at least arrive, it is so full, it cannot take any more passengers. This whole crazy system of commuting stretches man's resources to the utmost. The smallest unforeseen event can bring about conditions of utter chaos. A power cut, for instance, exceptionally heavy snowfall or a minor derailment must always make city-dwellers realize how precarious the balance is. The extraordinary thing is not that people put up with these conditions, but that they actually choose them in preference to anything else.

Large modern cities are too big to control. They impose their own living conditions on the people who inhabit them. City-dwellers are obliged by their environment to adopt a wholly unnatural way of life. They lose touch with the land and the rhythm of nature. It is possible to live such an air-conditioned existence in a large city that you are barely conscious of the seasons. A few flowers in a public park may remind you that it is spring or summer. All the simple, good thing of life like the sunshine and fresh air are at a premium. Tall building block out the sun, traffic fumes pollute the atmosphere. The funny thing about it all is that you pay dearly for the «privilege» of living in a city. The demand for accommodation is so great, that it is often impossible for ordinary people to buy a residence of their own. Exorbitant rents must be paid for tiny flats, which even country hens would disdain to live in. Accommodation apart the cost of living is very high. Just about everything you buy is like more expensively that it would be in the country.

In addition to all this, city-dwellers live under constant threat. The crime rate in most cities is very high. Houses are burgled with alarming frequency. Cities breed crime and violence and are full if places you would be afraid to visit at night. If you think about it, they're not really fit to live in at all. Can anyone really doubt that the country is what man was born for and where he truly belongs?



Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

быть переполненным, двигаться по тротуарам, очередь, пассажиры, полный хаос, горожане, населять, выхлопные газы, спрос на жилье, крошечные квартиры, жить под постоянной угрозой, уровень преступности.

 

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. … must be a slogan of large cities the world over.

2. Wherever you look there are …

3. The streets are so crowded there is …

4. It takes ages for a bus to get to you because …

5. The funny thing about it all is that …

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What is the main slogan of large cities all over the world?

2. What can you tell about public transport in large cities?

3. Is it easy to live in large cities? Why?

4. The cost of living is very high in the city, isn’t it?

5. Why do city-dwellers live under constant stress?

 

 

KILLING THE GOOSE

Tourism has grown so quickly during the last quarter of a century that it has become a problem in both industrialised and developing nations. And it is only during the 1980s that the problems of poor, or non-existent planning have been seen and tackled. In short the problem is this: tourism as it developed in the sixties and seventies is self-destructive. It destroys the very things tourists come for. It is a classic case of killing the goose that lays the golden egg.

In Europe the damage is largely environmental: polluted beaches and lakes, erosion of mountain paths, traffic jams, air pollution and unsympathetic architecture. But there has also been a negative impact on the cultural and social life of communities. Some of the best-known and obviously visible examples are certain Mediterranean resorts. Previously quiet fishing villages have been overrun with poorly planned and shoddily built hotels and apartment blocks, which are now just twenty years later - no longer acceptable or fashionable. The life-style of the locals has changed beyond recognition, and although many are richer, they are not necessarily happier as a result.

Environmental damage caused by tourism manifests itself in many different ways. Skiing, now a major winter sport in Europe, is causing many problems in the Alps. Hundreds of square kilometres of forest have been destroyed to make way for ski pistes, cable cars, buildings and access roads. Pollution of the Mediterranean caused at least partly but untreated sewage from tourist developments, makes it a potential health hazard in some areas. This undermines the very notion of a beach holiday and in Hungary, tourism and industrial development around the shores of Lake Balaton have rendered the lake biologically dead. Fishing is one activity no longer on the tourist agenda.

The potential for damage in the Third World is infinitely greater than that in the industrialised nations. Environmental issues are really high on the lists of Third World governments, many of which have viewed tourism as a panacea for economic ills - often with disastrous results.

Tourism seems on the face of it to be a big earner of foreign currency, but the effective economic gains by the host nations are usually rather less than might be expected. This is particularly true of mass package organised from industrialised countries. Valuable foreign exchange is lost by importing foreign foods, drinks and other luxury goods. This ”leakage“ of foreign exchange is very difficult to quantify but can mean that the host nation ends up with practically no gain. An analysis of 1980 data by the World Bank showed that on average only 9.1 per cent of all gross foreign exchange earnings were retained in the host country when typical ”leakage“ was taken into account.

It is the change in traditional lifestyles that alarms many anthropologists. Even small-scale development of tourism in some societies can have an adverse effect on local population. The young are keen to adopt the ”Coca-cola culture“, and leave behind their rural homes and traditional lifestyle. Yet it is often these traditional lifestyles, arts, crafts, and culture which tourists come to see.

In some cases tourism can help a country rediscover and focus on its own heritage, and can revitalise Indigenous arts and crafts by providing new markets. But ”culture“ in this sense becomes divorced from its true role as part of everyday life. And it's worst, it can become fossilised and adapted to suit the needs of tourists.

Tourists generally learn very little about what real everyday life is like.

Exercise 1

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions:

уничтожить источник своего же богатства, загрязненные пляжи и озера, размывание (разрушение) горных тропинок, дорожные пробки, негативное влияние, катастрофические результаты, возрождать местные ремесла, оказывать неблагоприятное воздействие.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. Tourism has grown so quickly that has become a problem in ….

2. In short the problem is this: ….

3. In Europe the damage is largely environmental: ….

4. Tourism seems on the face of it to be ….

5. The young are keen to…

6. In some cases tourism can help a country …

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Is tourism popular nowadays?

2. What does the expression ”killing the goose“ mean?

3. What negative effects does tourism have on the environment?

4. What alarms many anthropologists?

5. Is tourism a problem of developed and developing countries? Why? Do you see any way out?

 

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

A taxi, sometimes called a cab, is the most comfortable way to travel. You simply hail a taxi in the street or go to a taxi-rank where there are several taxis waiting, for example, at a station. At the end of your journey you can see how much the fare is by looking at the meter. You add a tip to this, and that’s all. Very simple. But expensive!

What about taking a bus? It has two floors, it's called a double-decker and you can get a good view from the top. If it has only one floor, it's called a single-decker. Most buses have a two-person crew: the driver who drives, of course, and the conductor (or the conductress if it is the woman) who takes your money. Keep your ticket because an inspector might want to check it. You catch a bus by waiting at the bus stop. You can see where a bus is going because the destination is written on the front. But try to avoid the rush hour.

Quicker then the bus is the underground (called the tube in London, the subway in New-York and the metro in Paris and many other cities). You buy your ticket at the (booking) ticket office. Go down to the platform on the escalator or on the lift. The train comes. The door opens. You get in. You look at the map or the underground system. Very simple.

For longer distances take a train or a long distance bus, usually called a coach which is slower but cheaper. The train is very fast. Put your luggage on the rack and sit and wait till you arrive.

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

стоянка такси; поймать такси; добавить чаевые; хороший вид сверху; пригородный автобус; маршрут; час пик; метро; билетная касса; спуститься на платформу на эскалаторе; положить свой багаж на полку.

 

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. A taxi, called sometimes a …, is the most comfortable way to travel.

2. At the end of the journey you can see how much the … is by looking at the meter.

3. If a bus has two floors, it is called a … and f it has only one floor it is called a … .

4. You can see where a bus is going because the … is written on the front.

5. To pay for bus transportation you have to drop money in the … … or you can buy a special … to be used for the day, week or month.

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What kinds of transport can you name?

2. What kind of transportation is the most comfortable in your opinion and why?

3. What can you say about buses as a kind of transportation?

4. What will you do if you have to take a taxi, but you cannot stop a cab?

5. What are the advantages of the underground?

6. What are the advantages of buses?

 

Discussion

Do yon agree or not? Comment on the following statements.

1. East or West, home is best.

2. When at Rome, do as the Romans do.

3. There is no place like home.

Role Play

Town Conflict

Setting: At the Town Meeting.

Situation: A small town is faced with a difficult decision: to allow a high-rise apartment to be built which will close a strip mall and take land away from a park. The land developer and construction company employ several townspeople and are depending on this contract to keep everyone working. If the high-rise is built, the small strip mall will be demolished and the small businesses will have to close. The park is an ideal location for kids to enjoy themselves and there is a group of citizens who wish to build a skate park for the children. What will be the outcome of this situation?

Characters:

Card I — The mayor. He is seeking re-election and don't want anything to risk losing the election. He avoids controversy in any way possible; he does not want to do anything to anger any group.

Card II — A citizen of the town. There is a park next to his neighborhood that is slated for a high-rise development for senior citizens, a convenience store, and a coffee shop. He does not want anything built there because he wants the park to be a city park developed with a skate park for the children of the community. He is leading a group of citizens against this development.

Card III – A land developer. He has deadlines to meet and 20 people on his payroll. He does not have time for delays.

Card IV— the city attorney. There is a legal problem because the mayor did not clear the land through all the proper channels, and as far as you're concerned, the land deal is not approved. Your job is to make certain the law is followed. Do not display leadership qualities. Keep repeating that the mayor has to resolve this, it's his problem, not yours.

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. The problems of modern cities.

2. The place I’d like to visit.

3. The city of my dream.

Unit 6

Дата: 2019-02-24, просмотров: 133.