Английский ДЛЯ РАЗВИТИЯ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ
Поможем в ✍️ написании учебной работы
Поможем с курсовой, контрольной, дипломной, рефератом, отчетом по практике, научно-исследовательской и любой другой работой

Ю. В. КОРЖЕНЕВИЧ

 

 

SP OKEN ENGLISH

Part I

Английский ДЛЯ РАЗВИТИЯ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ

Часть I

Учебный практикум для студентов специальностей ”Биология (по направлениям)“, ”Садово-парковый дизайн“, ”Промышленное рыбоводство“ дневной и заочной формы обучения.

 

Пинск

ПолесГУ

2012


УДК 076.5

ББК 81.2Англ

К66

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

 

 

У т в е р ж д е н о

научно-методическим советом ПолесГУ

 


Корженевич , Ю.В.

К66 Spoken english: практикум для студентов специальностей ”Биология (по направлениям)“, ”Садово-парковый дизайн“, ”Промышленное рыбоводство“ дневной и заочной формы обучения.

 

 / Ю.В. Корженевич. – Пинск: ПолесГУ, 2012. – с.59

 

ISBN 978-985-516-071-8

 

 

Пособие направлено на развитие навыков устной речи по темам ”About You“, ”My Family“, ”English as a World Language“, ”My University Life“, ”Places around My Town“, ”Each Man Is a Creator of a Temple Called Human Body“ and ”At the Doctor’s“.

 

УДК 076.5

ББК 81.2Англ

 

 

ISBN 978-985-516-071-8                        © Полесский государственный

                                                                             университет, 2012

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Цель данного практикума - помочь обучающимся совершенствовать навыки чтения и устной речи, а также расширить словарный запас по заданным темам.

Пособие направлено на формирование коммуникативных умений и навыков. Оно состоит из семи тематических разделов, каждый из которых соответствует определенной теме.

Каждый раздел включает в себя учебные тексты, раскрывающие основные теоретические вопросы по теме, подлежащие усвоению. Для активизации и усвоения изученного материала представлены разнообразные лексические и речевые упражнения, а также творческие задания, направленные на развитие навыков устной речи. Во второй части практикума собраны диалоги по заданным темам.

 Все изучаемые темы соответствуют учебной программе по английскому языку для студентов специальностей ”Биология (по направлениям)“, ”Садово-парковый дизайн“, ”Промышленное рыбоводство“.

Большинство заданий имеют коммуникативную направленность.


 

Part I

Unit 1

ABOUT YOU

 


Appearance and Character

 

Topical Vocabulary

 


appearance

attractive

beautiful

handsome

ugly

plain

height

tall

short

medium height

weight and build

thin

medium-build

fat

hair

straight

curly

wavy

long

short

medium-length

eyes

face

chin

nose

lips

forehead

body

head

ears

mouth

character

kind

honest

reliable

humorous

hard-working

lazy

sociable

aggressive

modest

intelligent

внешность

привлекательный

красивый

красивый (о мужчине)

уродливый

обыкновенный, простой

рост

высокий

низкий

среднего роста

вес и телосложение

худой

среднего телосложения

полный

волосы

прямые

кучерявые

волнистые

длинные

короткие

средней длины

глаза

лицо

подбородок

нос

губы

лоб

тело

голова

уши

рот

характер

добрый

честный

надежный

забавный, смешной

трудолюбивый

ленивый

общительный

агрессивный

скромный

умный


 

Consult the dictionary and translate the following words and word combinations:



Appearance

well-dressed, casually dressed, poorly dressed

neat

dishevelled

good-looking

 unattractive

pretty, cute, nice                                                         ЛАЛКА

Weight and Build

quite thin, slim / slender

overweight

muscular, athletic

Chin

protruding, split, double, pointed

Nose

aquiline, hooked, straight, upturned

Lips

thin, plump, thick, heart-shaped

Forehead

wrinkled, narrow, balding, high

Human body

body and soul, flesh and blood, skin and bones

Head

skull, brain, face,

temples, eyebrows, eyes, cheeks, nose, mouth, lips, chin

eye, eyelid, eyelashes, eye socket / orbit, eyeball, pupil, iris, retina, lens, optic nerve

bridge of the nose, nostrils, sinuses

jaws, teeth, gums, tongue, tip of the tongue, hard palate, soft palate, uvula

tooth, teeth

ear, earlobe, middle ear, eardrum

Body

body, neck, chest, stomach, back, buttocks, arms, hands, legs, feet

skeleton, bone, bone marrow, spine, collarbone, breastbone, rib, pelvis

joint, tendon, ligament, muscle

neck, Adam's apple, nape of the neck, throat, pharynx, larynx, vocal cords

torso, trunk, chest, breast, nipple, diaphragm, abdomen, navel

Limbs

upper limbs, arm, shoulder, armpit, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand

hand, palm, fingers, thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, little finger, fingernail

lower limbs, leg, hip, thigh, knee, kneecap, calf, shin, ankle, foot

foot, feet, sole, heel, toes, big toe, little toe, toenail

Age

young, old, middle-aged, in her thirties, about forty

Character

strong, weak

terrible, bad-tempered

dependable, dishonest

reasonable / sensible

unreasonable, argumentative

mature, immature

sensitive, insensitive

attentive, alert

perceptive, observant, insightful

thoughtful, considerate

amusing, funny

boring

independent, ambitious, tough,

disciplined, organized, careful, accurate, neat

formal, official

informal, relaxed, casual

pushy, self-confident

humble, shy

moody, melancholic

stubborn, obstinate

self-centred, egoistical, haughty

self-conscious

outgoing, friendly

unfriendly, hostile

economical, thrifty, strange, odd, weird, eccentric, crazy

Mind

sharp, keen, bright, quick, agile, wise, clever

broad-minded, narrow-minded

foolish, stupid, dull

 

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1

Look at the students of your group and say:

1) who has the following type of hair

a) straight, long, short, curly, wavy

b) fair, dark, blonde, black, brown, grey

 

2) whose constitution can be characterized as

a) short, tall, of medium height

b) slim, plump, very thin

 

3) who has: plump cheeks, cheeks with dimples; round face, expressive eyes

Exercise 2

Look at the following words used to describe people’s character. Make two columns of 1) what you think are bad characteristics; 2) what you think are good characteristics.


tolerant

generous

sympathetic

irresponsible

unsociable

cruel

ambitious

intelligent

sly

patient

silly

even-tempered

thrifty

sincere

greedy

shrewd

rude

ill-mannered




Exercise 3

How would you describe a person who:


...likes to talk with other people?

...hates to communicate?

...looks on the bright side of things?

...looks on the black side of things?

...gives his or her last to other people?

...never lends you money?

...has a high opinion of himself or herself?

...easily flies into a rage?

...never loses his or her temper?

...tell the truth to others?

...cheats other people?

...is practical in approach to life?

...is dreamy in approach to life?

...never praises himself or herself?


 



CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

Appearances are deceptive. It is common truth; practically everyone has met at least someone whose character and appearance differ radically.

When one sees a tall, broad-shouldered youth, one expects him to be strong-willed and brave. One thinks: A model to follow! How often a good-looking individual turns out to be petty, weak-willed or even cowardly. Then one thinks: A mediocrity!

At the same time everyone knows that a lot of great people were of a poor build: short and fragile. It did not stop them from displaying intelligence and courage. Ingenuity does not depend on one’s complexion or constitution. Plump or fat people create an impression of generous and kind personalities. Strangely enough, but sometimes they may be thrifty or even greedy. One usually thinks: A scrooge!

On the other hand, thin or slim nervous ladies often tend to be lavish. They like to buy and never think twice when they pay. One thinks: I would call her open-handed and mother would call her a spendthrift. Yes, mothers are always stricter in judgments.

Has it ever happened to you to come to an important office and see an important boss? You immediately evaluate his looks: round-faced, small narrow eyes, dimples on the cheeks and an upturned nose. What a kind-hearted person! A simpleton! You tell the boss of your troubles and expect immediate help. But the boss appears to be rude, harsh and willful. You never get your help and think: A stone heart and an iron fist.

When someone sees a delicately built pretty blonde with curly hair, blue eyes, a straight nose and a high forehead, one is inclined to think that the beauty is intelligent and nice. It may be disappointing to think later: What a stupid, capricious, impolite bore!

On the contrary, when one sees a skinny brunette with ugly irregular features — a hooked nose, pointed chin, close-set eyes and thin lips, strange thoughts come into one’s head, because it is the image of evil people — cruel and cunning. It may be a relief some time later to find her a clever, gentle and good-mannered lady and think: What charm! A heart of gold!

Another general misconception lies in the fact that children are always expected to resemble their parents. And parents like it when children take after them. Relatives like to compare moles, the shape of noses, etc. The greatest compliment is: They are as like as two peas. The greatest disappointment is to find nothing in common. We want to deny people their exclusiveness; we don’t want to admit that nature has selected other options from an enormous genetic fund developed over generations. Why do we like our copies? Who knows!

Nature likes to play tricks on us. But don’t you think it is a present on the part of nature? Life becomes not a boring routine, but a brilliant kaleidoscope of characters and appearances which often clash.

Exercise 1

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions:

внешность обманчива; модель для подражания; слабого телосложения; проявлять ум и храбрость; зависеть от телосложения; быть щедрым, расточительным; простак; скряга; посредственность; добряк; быть похожим на родителей; быть похожими, как две капли воды.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. Appearances are….

2. When one sees a tall, broad-shouldered youth, one expects him to be….

3. Ingenuity does not depend on one’s….

4. Plump or fat people create an impression of….

5. Another general misconception lies in the fact that….

6. Relatives like to compare….

7. The greatest compliment is: ….

8. Nature likes….

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Do you agree that appearances are deceptive? Tell your classmates about your own experience.

2. Do you think it is worth judging by appearances? Give your reasons.  

3. What impression do plump and fat people usually make?

4. What kind of people is usually considered to be cruel and cunning?

5. What is more important for you: people’s character or appearance?

 

 

APPLYING FOR A JOB

In different countries different conventions apply to the process of job application and interviews. In most parts of the world, it is common to submit a typed CV (curriculum vitae — British English) or resume (American English). This contains all the unchanging information about you: your education, background and work experience. This usually accompanies a letter of application, which in some countries has to be handwritten not typed. A supplementary information sheet containing information relevant to this particular job may also be required though this is not used in come countries.

Many companies expect all your personal information to be entered on a standard application form. Unfortunately, no two application forms are alike and filling in each one may present unexpected difficulties. Some personnel departments believe that the CV and application letter give a better impression of a candidate.

 

THE CURRICULUM VITAE

An excellent CV may help you get the job of your dreams and a poor CV may mean a lost opportunity.

Since this is the first piece of information a company will receive about you, it is critically important that your CV be well-written.

It should be presented at the beginning of any interview that you have with a company. Ideally, CV should not be longer than one page.

The contents of a CV can be roughly categorized as: 1) PERSONAL INFORMATION (address and telephone number), 2) JOB OBJECTIVE, 3) EDUCATION, 4) EXPERIENCE, 5) SKILLS, 6) EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES, 7) REFERENCES.

The resume begins with PERSONAL INFORMATION, name, address, telephone number centered at the top page.

After your address, a statement of intent or JOB OBJECTIVE should be written. This objective should be well thought out from the very beginning since it will influence how you will write the rest of the resume. It should not be too general, e.g: ”To obtain a managerial position in a Western company.“

Think about your job search and career goals carefully, write them down in a way that shows you have given this much thought.

For example: ”Objective: To obtain a position in telecommunication that will allow me to use my knowledge of engineering and take advantage of my desire to work in sales.“

Notice that your desire to have a well-paid job is not included in this statement. A focus on money in your résumé’s first sentence will not make the best impression anywhere in the world, not just in Russia.

After the statement of intent, describe your EDUCATION.

List the universities, institutes and colleges you have attended in reverse chronological order.

Any studying you have done abroad should be included and courses that you have taken that are relevant.

If you graduated with honors, you should definitely include this. A ”red diploma“ can be called ”graduated with high honors“ in English. Do not include your high school.

Your working EXPERIENCE is the next section. List your experience starting with your most recent place of employment and work backwards.

Spell out the exact dates of employment, your position, and the name of the company you worked for.

Provide information about your responsibilities, emphasizing important activities by listing the most relevant to your objective. Do not use complete sentences! List your responsibilities in short statements that do not include the words ”my“ or ”I“.

Following experience, you should list your special SKILLS.

These include your language skills, computer abilities, and any other talent that relates to your statement of intent.

When describing your language abilities, it is best to be honest about assessing your level, ”Fluent English“, ”native Russian“, ”intermediate German“, and ”beginning French“ are all ways to describe your language abilities.

EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES should be included in the next section. Student or professional organizations you belong to, travel, sports and hobbies should be listed here.

Do not list ”reading“ or ”writing“ as an activity. It is assumed most people with a higher education do these things regularly.

The last section of your resume is the REFERENCE section. List at least two people, not related to you, who can describe your qualification for the job.

Their names, titles, places of work, and telephone numbers should be included. If you do not have space on your resume for this, write ”Available upon request.” “You will then be expected to give this information to a prospective employer if it is requested.

The style and format of a resume are extremely important. Your resume must be typed, preferably on a computer in order to format it most effectively. A neat and well-written resume with no spelling mistakes will give an employer the impression that you are accurate and take care of details.

A resume will not get you a job. An interview with a company will get a job. In order to have the opportunity of interviewing with a company you should send your resume with a cover letter.

Exercise 1

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions:

устраиваться на работу; краткая автобиография; дополнительная информация; личные данные; бланк (форма заявления); получить должность; опыт работы; навыки; рекомендации.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. In different countries different conventions apply to the process of …

2. CV contains all the unchanging information about you:…

3. An excellent CV may help you …

4. The contents of a CV can be roughly categorized as: …

5. When describing your language abilities, it is best to…

6. In order to have the opportunity of interviewing with a company you should…

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What information should your CV contain?

2. How long should your CV be?

3. What are the main parts of CV?

 

Writing

Write a CV.

My Future Profession

Biotechnologists are researchers who use microscopic analysis and laboratory experiments to collect and analyze biological, microbiological, and biochemical data. They examine blood and tissue for signs of disease or viruses, and test the effects of different medicines on bacteria. Biotechnologists have made many discoveries that have led to improved human health. They can also work in forensics laboratories identifying and comparing materials such as blood, body fluids and hair.

The Things They Do:

· Collect samples and conduct biological, microbiological and biochemical tests and laboratory analyses;

· Perform or assist in scientific experiments;

· Set up and maintain laboratory equipment;

· Analyze research information and prepare reports;

Duties may be related to a number of developing specialties in the field of biotechnology, including forensic sciences, genetic engineering and human cell culture.

Working Conditions:

Biotechnologists often work in sterile laboratories within research teams and alongside scientists. A great deal of time is spent working alone, over a microscope and/or working in front of computers. The work requires tremendous attention to detail and intense concentration.

Most Biotechnologists Work In:

· Government agencies;

· Food, chemical and drug manufacturing companies;

· Biotechnology companies;

· Health research facilities and natural resource companies;

· Universities;

· Pharmaceutical companies;

To follow biotechnology as a preferred profession, you must have a sound grounding in science from the early school days. You must have keen interest in various branches of science not just for the sake of study or for obtaining good grades. Rather, you must have a keen perception to understand scientific applications and even keep pace with the latest news from the scientific world.

Important traits for getting into this domain are a high degree of intelligence and a general aptitude for science and scientific applications.

Since biotechnology is redefining the boundaries of science, to become a part of such an innovative field you must posses an inherent attitude of originality and imagination. Other skills that will sail you through a successful and a fulfilling career in this path-breaking area are perseverance, immense patience, analytical proficiency, ability to work for long hours and team spirit.

Biotechnology assimilates in itself a number of disciplines. Further, there is a great demand for biotechnical experts in countless industries and sectors. The following are applications where biotechnological techniques are used extensively:

·  Agriculture

·  Animal Husbandry

·  Environment Conservation

·  Genetic Engineering

·  Health Care

·  Medicine

·  Industrial Research and Development

Career opportunities for students in biotechnology abound. Those specializing in different sub-disciplines of this field can easily find jobs in both private and government sector undertakings. If you have acquired a post-graduate degree in biotechnology then you can easily find a suitable position in a number of industries.

Major recruiters include industries engaged in processing and developing agricultural and biological products, bio-processing industries, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. There are ample opportunities in industries producing healthcare products, textile industry, cosmetics and organisations engaged in different types of industrial research and development.

These days a growing number of qualified biotechnical professionals are engaged by different industries for environment protection activities and for the safe disposal of hazardous materials.

Exercise 1

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions:

исследователи; собирать и анализировать сведения; собирать образцы; проводить биохимические тесты; проводить научные эксперименты; готовить отчеты; широкие возможности; деятельность по защите окружающей среды.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. Biotechnologists are researchers who…

2. Biotechnologists often work in…

3. The work requires…

4. Most biotechnologists work in…

5. To follow biotechnology as a preferred profession, you must…

6. Major recruiters include industries engaged in…

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Who are biologists?

2. What do they do?

3. What can you tell about working condition of biologists?

4. Where are biotechnological techniques used extensively?

5. What are the career opportunities for students in biotechnology?

 

Discussion

Do yon agree or not? Comment on the following statements.

1. A good name is better than riches.

2. A little body often harbours a great soul.

3. A word is enough to the wise.

4. All that glitters is not gold.

5. Handsome is as handsome does.

6. He that is full of himself is very empty.

7. You cannot judge a tree by its bark.

Role-play

A Formal Gathering

Setting: A formal gathering in a grand villa on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Situation: The Rich family invites a lot of people to their villa to the engagement of their son and the daughter of the Wealthy family. The guests hardly know each other. They entertain themselves by discussing the appearance and character of the people they see around. The host and the hostess circulate and hear what different people say about each other.

Characters:

Card I—II — Christopher and Christine, the fiancés.

Card III—IV — Mr. and Mrs. Rych, the owners of the villa.

Card V—VI — Mr. and Mrs. Wealthy, Christine’s parents.

Card VII—VIII — Franklin and Frances, newly-weds. Franklin is Christopher’s cousin. He owns a textile factory and is often away from home.

Card IX—X — Patricia and Flotilla — two middle-aged single women. They are Christine’s aunts. They never married because they could not find a good match.

Card XI—XII — Stephen and Stephanie, a married couple. Stephen is a distant relative to the Rich family.

Card XIII—XIV — Clement and Clementine, a married couple. Clement is a distant relative to the Wealthy family.

WRITING

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. My Self-Portrait.

2. What Kind of People Do You Get On with Best?

3. Looking through a Family Album.

 

 

Unit 2

Family Life

Family and Relatives

Topical Vocabulary


aunt

brother

cousin

daughter

father

grandchild

granddaughter

grandson

grandfather, grandpapa

grandpa

grandmother, grandmamma

grandma

grandparent (s)

great-grandchild

husband

ex-husband

in-laws

father-in-law

mother-in-law

son-in-law

mother

niece

nephew

parents

sister

son

step-father

step-daughter

step-son

twin

twin-brother

twin-sister

uncle

widow (woman)

widower (man)

wife

ex-wife

 

тетя; тетка

брат

двоюродный брат, двоюродная сестра

дочь

отец

внук; внучка
внучка
внук
дедушка
дедушка (ласкательное)
бабушка
бабушка (ласкательное)
дед и бабка
правнук; правнучка
муж
бывший муж
родители жены/мужа
свекор, тесть
свекровь, теща
зять (муж дочери)
мать
племянница
племянник
родители
сестра
сын
отчим
падчерица
приемный сын
близнецы
брат-близнец
сестра-близнец
дядя
вдова
вдовец
жена
бывшая жена

 

Consult the dictionary and translate the following words and word combinations:



Family

spouse

child, children

sibling

grandfather, grandmother, grandparents

great-grandfather, great-grandmother; great-grandchild

half-brother, half-sister

adopted son, adopted daughter, adopted child

foster family; foster father, foster mother, foster parents; foster son, foster daughter, foster child

Relatives

uncle, aunt; nephew, niece

cousin, first cousin, second cousin

my family, my relatives, my folks, my kin

Relatives by marriage

in-laws; father-in-law, mother-in-law; son-in-law, daughter-in-law

brother-in-law, brothers-in-law, sister-in-law, sisters-in-law

Age groups

child, baby, infant; teenager, adolescent; adult, grownup

young man, young woman; old man, old woman

Other related words

pregnancy, birth

child care, kindergarten, day-care centre, babysitter

illness, sickness, disease

death, funeral, burial, cemetery, grave

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1

Choose one of the names in the family tree below and say how the person is related to other people. Note that the pictures of marriage partners are connected with wedding rings.

►Pattern: William Luke is Leon Luke’s son, Philip Smith’s nephew and Laura White’s grandson

Exercise 2

 Make up your family tree and speak about your family.

Exercise 3

 Work in pairs and talk. Imagine that:

a) you are speaking with a distant relative trying to find out what relation you are to one another;

b) you show your family album to your friend and answer all his or her questions.

 

 

Family as the key social structure

There are many different views on family life. Some people say they cannot do without the support and love of their families. Many others say it is the source of most of their problems. Yet it is difficult to give the definition of a ”normal“ family.

What exactly is a family? Broadly speaking the family is a group of people related by blood or law, living together and joined by marriage for a common purpose.

Sociologists divide families into two general types: the nuclear family and the extended family. In highly developed industrial countries, especially in their large cities, the nuclear family is regarded as normal. Most people think of it as consisting of two parents and two-children. But even this type is changing; there are a lot of families with one child only, which means that the nuclear family is shrinking year by year.

The variety of family types exiting at present also includes unmarried couples living together, two-person childless families, single-parent homes which are becoming steadily more common.

I believe that everything has beginning in the family. Family is important for every person because it gives you a feeling of having understanding. In happy families parents are honest with their children. At weekends they have breakfast together. They broadly smile and look cheerful. In a friendly family people are gentle, respectful and loving.

At wedding ceremonies couples are sure that they will have and hold each other from this day forward. Marriage is a very responsible decision. Common interests, mutual respect are no less important than love. Children need to know that their parents love them and they also love each other.

I suppose the saying is true that small children create small problems while the big ones bring big problems. The older we grow, the more patient our parents should be with us.

Every generation is different from the previous one. Parent’s judgments on many things are sensible and reasonable, but at the same time I suppose that children have the right to make their own mistakes and to overcome their own hardships.

I want to admit that/sociologists think that the family reflects all the processes of modern society and, like any social phenomenon, it keeps changing.

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

поддержка; уменьшаться; нуклеарная семья; расширенная семья; неженатые пары; бездетная семья; неполная семья; ответственное решение; общие интересы; свадебная церемония; поколение;  преодолевать трудности.

 

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. Some people say they can not do without ….

2. The family is a group of people ……

3. Sociologists divide families into two general types: ….

4. The variety of family types existing at present also includes …..

5. Family is important for every person because …

6. At wedding ceremonies couples are sure that ….

7. The older we grow…

8. Sociologists think that the family ….

 

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Is it easy to give the definition of a ”normal“ family? Why?

2. What is a family?

3. What are two general types of the family? Can you name any other types of families?

4. Why is family important for every person?

5. Can you describe a happy family?

6. People should think everything over before they get married, shouldn’t they?

7. Is it easy for people of different generations to live together? Why?

8. Will any new types of families appear in the future?

 

Family: Perspectives

Household and/ or Family?

A household is any single person or group of people who make up the people at a common residence and who share facilities or have a meal a day in that place. They may or may not be a family. They allow a label for when there is no family resident.

It is important to realize that some people live in destitution, without a home, living on the streets and in poverty, moving from shelter to shelter. They often seek an address in order to improve chances of getting work. They may need help from social services and other agencies.

There are four main types of families:

Nuclear family.

This is limited to two generations of a mother, father and child or children. It is what people often imagine a family to be, but it is often not the reality.

Extended family.

This is where generations are added on to the nuclear family. It can be extended horizontally to brothers and sisters or cousins. It can be extended vertically to include a grandparent or more, with three or even four generations.

Lone parent family.

Here there is one parent only and his or her children.

Reconstituted family.

Here we have social parents (raising the children) who may not be the biological parents for all or some of the children. There are a high number of reconstituted families due to separations, divorces and adoptions of children.

What do families do?

Families carry out important roles of providing physical (actual), emotional and economic support.

According to functionalists, the family plays a very important positive role in raising the next generation.

• Families reproduce and raise the next generation. Not only do they carry out this rather obvious point, but they show how to do it. They pass on and display a model of rearing children, through (often) a monogamous sexual relationship and techniques of child rearing. This model is passed on to the next generation and is seen as the way to do child rearing by others in society.

• Families nurture children into the values and norms of society. They transmit the culture of society and how to conform. It is said that family is the essential bedrock of society: if families are in harmony then society will be in harmony. This is called primary socialization because it is a crucial, early and continuing part of socialization for the child.

• Families give emotional and psychological support. They are safe places (when they work properly). One expects comfort, sympathy and support from other family members regarding the stresses of going to school, college and work, and through all the difficulties of ill health and life crises.

• Families offer structures of economic support. This can be physical support, such as shelter and food, but also allows for economic development, such as families offering each other work or money for businesses, as well as support for when times are hard.

 

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

Семейство (домочадцы); жить в нищете; приемная семья; развод; усыновление; производить на свет; показывать пример воспитания детей; приобщать к ценностям и нормам поведения в обществе; основа (фундамент) общества.  

 

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. A household is any single person or group of people who …

2. Families carry out important roles of providing …

3. A nuclear family is limited to …

4. An extended family is …

5. Families pass on and display a model of …

 

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Is there any difference between a household and a family?

2. What main types of families can you name?

3. What are the main functions of the family?

4. What kind of support do families give?

 

FAMILY LIFE

Marriage is a thing which only a rare person in his or her life avoids. True bachelors and spinsters make up only a small percent of the population; most single people are alone but not lonely.

Millions of others get married because of the fun of family life. And it is fun, if one takes it with a sense of humour.

There’s a lot of fun in falling in love with someone and chasing the prospective fiancee, which means dating and going out with the candidate. All the relatives (parents, grandparents and great-grandparents, brothers and sisters, cousins, aunts and uncles, nieces and nephews, stepmothers and stepfathers and all in-laws) meanwhile have the fun of criticizing your choice and giving advice. The trick here is not to listen to them but propose to your bride-to-be and somehow get her to accept your proposal. Then you may arrange the engagement and fix the day of the wedding.

What fun it is to get all those things, whose names start with the word wedding — dress, rings, cars, flowers, cakes, etc.! It’s great fun to pay for them.

It’s fun for the bride and the groom to escape from the guests and go on a honeymoon trip, especially if it is a wedding present from the parents. The guests remain with the fun of gossiping whether you married for love or for money.

Its fun to return back home with the idea that the person you are married to is somewhat different from the one you knew. But there is no time to think about it because you are newly-weds and you expect a baby.

There is no better fun for a husband than taking his wife to a maternity home alone and bringing her back with the twins or triplets.

And this is where the greatest fun starts: washing the new-born’s nappies and passing away sleepless nights, earning money to keep the family, taking children to kindergarten and later to school. By all means it’s fun to attend parent’s meetings and to learn that your children take after you and don’t do well at school.

The bigger your children grow, the more they resemble you outwardly and the less they display likeness with you inwardly. And you start grumbling at them and discussing with your old friends the problem of the generation gap; what fun!

And when at last you and your grey-haired spouse start thinking that your family life has calmed down, you haven’t divorced but preserved your union, the climax of your fun bursts out!

One of your dearest offsprings brings a long-legged blonde to your house and says that he wants to marry. And you think: Why do people ever get married?

 

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

Замужество; настоящий холостяк; незамужняя женщина; выйти замуж; влюбиться; искать будущую невесту; сделать предложение; назначить дату свадьбы; поехать в свадебное путешествие; выйти замуж по расчету; молодожены; ждать ребенка; отвезти жену в роддом; стирать пеленки новорожденных; проводить бессонные ночи; напоминать кого-либо внешне; проблема отцов и детей.

 

Exercise 2

Complete the following sentences:

1. … is a thing which only a rare person in his or her life avoids.

2. There’s a lot of fun in …with someone and chasing the prospective…

3. All the relatives … have the fun of criticizing your choice and giving advice.

4. The trick here is not to listen to them but propose to your … and somehow get her to accept your …

5. It’s fun for the … and the … to escape from the guests and go on a honeymoon trip.

6. There is no better fun for a … than taking his wife to a … alone and bringing her back with the … or … .

7. The bigger your children grow, the more they resemble you … and the less they display likeness with you …

8. One of your dearest … brings a long-legged blonde to your house and says that he wants to …

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Can people avoid marriage?

2. Why do people get married?

3. Who usually helps young people to make their choice?

4. How does the family life change with the appearance of children?

5. Do you agree that family life is real fun?

 

Discussion

Do yon agree or not? Comment on the following statements.

1. Everything has its beginning in the family.

2. Small children create small problems while the big ones bring big problems.

3. Every generation is different from the previous one.

4. Like father like son.

5. A good husband makes a good wife.

6. A tree is known by its fruit.

Role-Play

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

 1. Teenage marriage

 2. Leadership in the family.

 3. Marriage contracts and romantic love.

 4. Divorce and one-parent families.

 5. A white wedding or no wedding?

 

 

Unit 3

English as a World Language

Topical Vocabulary

 


an official language

mother tongue/ native language

to be borrowed

dialect

standard English

vocabulary

pronunciation

an international language

international communication

English-speaking countries

to speak English fluently

to make up topics and dialogues

aspects of English

grammar

lexicology

phonetics

to be good at pronunciation

an accent

to make a mistake

to learn (learnt, learnt) a language

a foreigner

to travel abroad

the knowledge of languages

to communicate with people

to occupy a special place

to be used in various spheres of life

to have a command of a foreign language

 

официальный язык

родной язык

быть заимствованным

диалект

литературный английский

словарь, словарный состав

произношение

международный язык

международное общение

англо-говорящие страны

говорить по-английски бегло

составлять темы и диалоги

аспекты английского языка

грамматика

лексикология

фонетика

иметь хорошее произношение

акцент

сделать ошибку

учить язык

иностранец

путешествовать за границу

знание языков

общаться с людьми

занимать особое место

использоваться в различных сферах жизни

владеть иностранным языком

 


 


Consult the dictionary and translate the following words and word combinations:

 

the most used language

can't do without

all over the world

the language of progressive science and technology

to address international mail

to store computer texts

to get a good working knowledge of a language

a language teacher

computer-literate

the most widespread language on the earth

second language

native speakers

to learn professional vocabulary

to study English grammar

to take a lot of time and patience

 




Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1

Match the word combinations from two columns and translate them into Russian.


To have a command of

To be good at

To take a lot of

To make up

To be used in

To communicate with

time and patience

English

a foreign language

pronunciation

topics and dialogues

various spheres of life


 





Exercise 2

Translate into English:

англо-говорящие страны; родной язык; во всем мире; занимать особое место; быть заимствованным; международный язык; говорить бегло; делать ошибки; составлять темы и диалоги.

Exercise 3

Fill in the missing prepositions.

1. English is the most widespread language … the earth.

2. It is the language … progressive science and technology.

3. English is used … various spheres of life all … the world.

4. If you want to travel abroad and communicate … people, you should be good … pronunciation and speak English fluently.

5. During the English course students make … different topics and dialogues and study English grammar.

 

 

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

иностранный язык; общаться с людьми; развитие международных контактов; говорить бегло; самый распространенный язык; отнимать много времени и терпения; необходимость.

Exercise 2

Complete the following sentences:

1. Some people learn languages because…

2. Every year thousands of people go from one country to another either…

3. English is very important for…

4. It is the official language of ...

5. During the English course students …

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Why do people learn foreign languages?

2. Is English important for the development of international contacts? Why?

3. Where is English used?

4. Why is English called a world language?

5. How is English taught at universities?

6. Is it easy to learn a foreign language?

 

HOW TO LEARN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

The importance of foreign language study is quite obvious. There are different ways to improve your command of a foreign language. First of all you should work hard every day. You are to work systematically.

Learning a foreign language is a hard job. But this hard work can nearly always bring success, when you do your best in learning the language.

First of all you are to have a desire to learn the language; otherwise you can't be successful. Learning a foreign language requires a lot of mental and physical activity. You should learn different aspects of the language - phonetics, grammar, vocabulary. Besides you should acquire habits and skills in hearing (listening comprehension), speaking, reading, and writing.

To master a foreign language means to learn and know how to ask questions and answer them on a topic, a text or a picture (orally and in writing); to make up a story on a picture, to speak about a topic; to understand tape recorded texts, dialogues, songs; to read aloud the text correctly and understand new texts based on the language material already learnt; to divide texts into logically connected units, entitle the units and retell the texts with the help of the titles used as a plan. The most important thing is to learn a foreign language as a means of com­munication and a means to acquire cultural background information. In order to know a foreign language well you are to work with a dictionary, reference literature, tape recorder, videos; you need to train your memory. To achieve this you are to learn by heart as many words, word combinations, colloquial phrases, dialogues and mini texts as you can.

To know a foreign language you are to learn grammar structures and substitute them with different proper words; to apply your knowledge of grammar and vocabulary in talking, reading books, doing various exercises, that is to develop practical skills and habits.

You are to be active in a foreign language learning. Collecting stamps, post-cards where English is used, learning English songs, reading books, listening to tapes, translating, carrying on conversations on different topics and so on may increase your vocabulary and speaking practice. Try to test your knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. In short, you are to master the language while reading, listening, writing and speaking. You need practical knowledge of the language. Don't be afraid of making mistakes. Try to repeat everything while listening. Learn a foreign language through practice and you'll be successful.

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

совершенствовать уровень владения языком; приобретать навыки и умения; устно и письменно; работать со словарем и справочной литературой; тренировать память; учить наизусть слова и словосочетания; расширять словарный запас; проверять знания; делать ошибки.

Exercise 2

Complete the following sentences:

1. Learning a foreign language is…

2. Learning a foreign language requires…

3. To master a foreign language means…

4. In order to know a foreign language well you are…

5. You are to master the language while…

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What are the ways of improving your command of a foreign language?

2. What should you do to be successful in foreign language learning?

3. What aspects of the language should you learn?

4.  How can you develop your practical skills and habits?

 

English in My Future Career

Nowadays we can’t imagine a highly qualified specialist without any knowledge of a foreign language. Foreign languages are required in all spheres of our life. And the profession of biotechnologist is not an exception.

Biotechnology is a branch of science that is rapidly gaining significance and opportunities for youngsters who want to explore the new frontiers of science are immense. Modern biotechnology commonly utilizes genetic engineering, the modification of genetic material to achieve specific goals. People who are involved in this profession read a lot, make scientific discoveries, and have a lot of scientific publications. To be successful in this profession and to achieve greater progress, one needs to get international experience. That’s why if these specialists want to communicate with other scientists, to exchange ideas or to obtain an international experiment, first of all they have to improve their English.

Knowing English can make communication easier. English is official language in 53 countries, and it is one of the official languages in many important international organizations such as UN, EU and WTO. It is also one of the working languages at most international business and meetings.

If you want to know more about the world and modern technology, English is a great bridge. Most of books, magazines, newspapers and movies are in English. Going online, most of the world's stored information and web pages are in English. English is also the most commonly used language in the sciences. In 1997, the Science Citation Index reported that 95% of its articles were written in English, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries.

In a word, English is very important in our life and in our future career. Therefore, learning English is essential in today’s Global World. If a person wants to succeed in his chosen field he has to know English, so start to improve your English as soon as possible.

 

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

высококвалифицированный специалист; отрасль науки; генная инженерия; достигать особых целей; делать научные открытия; преуспевать в ч-л; совершенствовать свой английский.

Exercise 2

Complete the following sentences:

1. We can’t imagine a highly qualified specialist without…

2. Foreign languages are required…

3. People who are involved in the profession of biotechnologist…

4. To be successful in this profession…

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Is English required in the profession of biotechnologist?

2. What is Biotechnology?

3. What should biotechnologists do to be successful in their profession?

4. Where is English used?

5. Why is it necessary for biotechnologists to know the English language?

 

Discussion

Do yon agree or not? Comment on the following statements.

1. If we speak a different language, we would perceive a somewhat different world.

2. Practice makes perfect.

3. To have another language is to possess a second soul

4. A different language is a different vision of life.

5. Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they are going.

6. There is no royal road to learning.

 

Role-play

Learning English

Setting: At the Conference

Situation: Discussion of the problem ”English at school: the process of teaching English and the best age for starting it“.

Characters:

Card I — Helen Sotnikova, aged 22, a language teacher, just graduated from the University. Very energetic, full of modern approaches for teaching English. She is sure that the best age for starting English is the age of the kindergarten. Exaggerates the role of English in modern society.

Card II — Anna Plavskaya, aged 49, teacher of English. Sticks to the idea that the most important things in teaching English are reading and writing.

She doesn't like the latest tendencies to teach English in primary school. Anna is sure that not everybody has the ability to learn a foreign language, that's why she pays her attention mostly to the advanced pupils.

Card III — Oleg Zubin, aged 36, a director of the English club. Interested more in money received from his students than in the quality of the knowledge given by his club. He is sure that the effective way to learn language is the accelerated courses (his programme is called ”English in Two Months“). Believes that English is worth paying money for.

Card IV — Andrey Izmailov, aged 40, teacher of English in the University. Tried many methods in teaching English. Believes that speaking is the main aspect of English; gives interesting lessons, full of discussions, problematic questions. Uses a lot of video and audiomaterial at the lesson, provokes students to speak and take part in different discussions. He is against accelerated courses and shares the idea of gradual material presenting. He thinks the best time for starting English in the form of games and plays is primary school.

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. The role of television in learning English.

2. Internet as a means of learning English.

3. Learning English… What for?

4. Success doesn't come to you…you go to it.

 

 

Unit 4

University. Student’s Life

University Life

Topical Vocabulary


assignment

curriculum

Bachelor's degree

Master's degree

certificate

degree (to take one's ~)

department

diploma

dissertation

be good at smth.

do well

educate

education

educational system

enter a university

задание

учебный план, программа

степень бакалавра

степень магистра

сертификат, свидетельство

ученая степень

отделение

диплом

диссертация

преуспевать в ч-л

успевать

давать образование, воспитывать

образование

система образования

поступить в университет


examination (exam)

examination period (exams)

examination question (paper)

grade (Am.)

tuition

carry on scientific/research work

faculty

fail an examination in smth.

hostel

scholarship

экзамен

экзаменационный период

экзаменационный вопрос

отметка

проводить научную/ исследовательскую работу

факультет

провалить экзамен

общежитие

стипендия


 

Consult the dictionary and translate the following words and word combinations:

 

assistant professor; associate professor; dean

campus

catch up (with)

cheat

check up

come down to a choice

composition

coach smb for an exam

cram

crib

deal with smb

dean's office

devote much time to studies

do postgraduate work

essay

faculty office

failure

fall (lag) behind

final exams (finals)

freshman (Am.)

full-time student

get down to work

get on well (in/at smth.)

give a pass

go to lectures

go up to university

grammar

graduate from a university

graduate

graduation dissertation

grant

grind away (for, at)

have a lecture

have classes in smth

have a good command of smth

head of department

hold examinations

holidays (vacation)

improve

instruct

junior

keep up (with smb.)

keep in one's head

library card

major in smth. (Am.)

make progress (in smth.)

oral

paper

pass an examination

pass in smth.

part-time student

play truant

record book

(students' record book)

rector

senior lecturer

students' membership card

subdean

specialize in smth

synopsis, pl. -es

take a degree

take an examination

take notes

pay tuition fee

free (half) tuition)

tutor   

undergraduate

vice-rector




Vocabulary Exercises

 

Exercise 1

Find the words denoting:

- a short piece of writing on one particular subject that is written by a student;

- a class, usually at college or university, where the teacher and the students discuss a particular topic or subject;

- a long essay that a student does as part of a degree;

- a student at a university or college who has not yet taken his or her first degree;

- a person who has a first degree from a university and who is doing research at a more advanced level;

- a long piece of written research done for a higher university degree, especially a PhD*;

- money given to a student to help pay for the cost of his or her education;

- a block of flats where students live.

Exercise 2

Fill in the necessary prepositions:

be good … smth.;

carry … scientific/research work;

have a good command … smth;

devote much time … studies;

coach smb. … an exam;

deal … smb.

 

Exercise 3

Name the steps of the social ladder which a student must pass to climb up to the position of the rector. Use the words from the list below, placing one word on one step.

Dean, assistant lecturer, head of department, vice-rector, associate professor, assistant professor, subdean, professor.

 

Higher Education in Belarus

A national higher school system plays an important role in the development of our country. Only highly qualified specialists can solve the most complex problems facing our society. Knowledge, science and culture open the prospects for the future.

At the beginning of the 20th century about 80 per cent of the Belarusian population were illiterate. Now Belarus is a country with a high educational level. The Belarusian State University, the Polytechnical Academy, the University of National Economy and many others are the largest scientific and educational centres in the national higher school system of Belarus. Today the role of universities in the system of higher education becomes determining as they give training in fundamental humanities and natural sciences.

The Republic of Belarus has 55 higher educational establishments: 45 belong to the state and 10 are privately owned. State owned educational establishments encounter 31 university, 7 academies, 4 colleges. All private educational establishments are institutes. 23 educational establishments belong to the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Belarus.

Belarus has more than 430 000 students what makes 444 students per 10 000 citizens.

The basic principle of the organization of national education in Belarus is an equal opportunity for all its citizens. It should conform to the spirit and requirements of the time we live.

Specialized secondary and higher education is available for everyone according to his abilities. Every citizen can get free education in state institutions if he passes the entrance examinations successfully. One of the necessary qualifications for higher school is complete secondary education. Entrance examinations differ depending on the choice of a higher school. Higher education in Belarus may be obtained in two ways: full-time education (day, evening form) and part-time (including distant) education. Those who study well receive scholarships. All higher schools in Belarus are controlled by the state and are uniformly administrated. The system of public education is being constantly improved and that is a logical process.

Along with state higher schools existing in the Republic many non-state institutes of higher learning have been opened in different towns of late. Thousands of young people who for some reason couldn't enter any of the state educational establishments have got an opportunity to continue their studies and to get a higher education.

The academic year is divided into two terms, each ending in examinations. The students attend lectures and practical classes and have every opportunity to develop their talents and gifts. Sport has become an essential part of students' life and they can do any sports they like.

The higher school today does not only give knowledge to the students but develops their abilities to think creatively and to work productively. Today's scientific and technological progress demands of the higher school graduates to be prepared to deepen their knowledge individually and adapt themselves quickly to the changes in the branches of science or industry they have chosen as their speciality. This means that future specialists must be given a good grounding in basic subjects. In order to obtain practical experience all the students of higher schools have practical training at different enterprises, schools and offices.

Every year thousands of graduates receive diplomas of higher education and start working in different branches of science, economy and production.

Some of them enter postgraduate courses to get more specialized study and to defend a thesis on a chosen scientific problem. We have every right to say that the future of our country in many respects depends upon the quality of education received by its citizens.

 

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

высокий уровень образования; высшие учебные заведения; равные возможности для всех граждан; успешно сдать вступительные экзамены; получать стипендию; посещать лекции и практические занятия; получить диплом; защитить диссертацию.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. The Republic of Belarus has … higher education establishments.

2. Belarus has more than … students.

3. The basic principle of the organization of national education in Belarus is …

4. Every citizen can get free education in state institutions if …

5. Higher education in Belarus may be obtained in two ways:…

6. The academic year is divided into …

 

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What is the role of universities in the system of higher education?

2. How many higher educational establishments are there in Belarus?

3. What major types of educational establishments can be distinguished?

4. How many students are there in Belarus?

5. What is the basic principle of the organization of national education in Belarus?

6. Can graduates continue their education?

 

 

Polessky State University

Our government pays great attention to the educational system development. The existence of higher educational establishments, number of students, and the quality of education exactly characterize the progress of a country. Nowadays in the century of high technologies highly qualified professionals are extremely required. Traditionally higher educational establishments are located only in the capital and regional centers. But recently the development of relatively small towns has become the strategic target of our country. And one of its great steps was Polessky State University opening.

Polessky State University is up-to-date educational establishment formed in 2006 to train specialists for various fields of national economy. Six faculties provide training at the University: Banking Faculty, Economic Faculty, Healthy Way of Life Organisation Faculty, Biotechnological Faculty, Preparatory Training Faculty, Retraining and Qualification Upgrading Faculty. The University provides Master's Degree Courses. The total number of students, both full-time and part-time, comprises 4 500.

Educational process of Polessky State University provides students with conditions that would encourage them to work efficiently to become a staff of high educational moral quality. The core activity of different departments focuses on progressive training and development of student's creative abilities.

Numerous tutorial rooms, lecture halls, computer centers, 5 multimedia laboratories ”Sanako“ are at students' disposal. They can get higher education through full-time and part-time departments. Students attend lectures and practical classes. They learn Economic Theory, Statistics, Accounting, Philosophy, Finance, Mathematics, Foreign Languages, etc. Students have access to up-to-date computer facilities (including Internet and extensive library allowing them to cope with the most complicated problems).

In the University students acquire profound knowledge, gain hands-on experience and are involved in innovative and research activities. Professional training is a systematic purposeful students' activity on mastering the chosen specialty aimed at ensuring theoretical knowledge, hands-on and creative skills at each stage of training.

Students who demonstrate superior academic performance, enthusiasm for intellectual exploration, exceptional achievements may apply for scholarships offered by the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus and other commercial banks.

The University supports relations with many domestic and foreign academic, financial, business institutions. Our international partners are:

University of Applied Sciences of the Deutsche Bundesbank;

Anhalt University of Applied Sciences (Germany);

The Academy of Finance (Russia);

St.-Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance (Russia);

St.-Petersburg State University of Physical Training named after P. Lesgaft (Russia);

Banking University of the National Bank of Ukraine.

We have also established contacts with educational establishments in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden.

Sport activities are also in high reputation. The University provides sport facilities and organizes sport competitions. Such activities as Sports Days, hikes, different competitions are aimed at improving students' health. There is a big modern well-equipped stadium, swimming pool and skating-rink at students' disposal. There is also a Medico-Rehabilitation Centre.

University provides modern accommodation. It has 6 well-designed up-to-date hostels with all modern conveniences where there are fitness gyms, billiards, also one may play table tennis,  just relax in calm atmosphere.

Huge work has been done to open Polessky State University and a great deal is due to the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus.

Belarusian leader accentuated that ”...the development of our country, its independence and prosperity, depends in many respects on the quality of knowledge of future bankers and economists“.

 

Biotechnological faculty

The history of the Biotechnological faculty dates back to September 2007, when the department of biotechnology was founded to become a branch of the Healthy Way of Life Organisation faculty. In May 2010 the department of biotechnology was reorganized into the Biotechnological faculty.

Today the Biotechnological faculty offers the following courses:

First level programmes:

- BIOLOGY (5 years, 10 semesters; specializations ”Biology (Biotechnology)“, ”Biology (Scientific and production activity“);

- GARDEN AND PARK LAYOUT (4,5 years, 9 semesters; specialization ”Landscape design“);

- INDUSTRIAL FISHING (4,5 years, 9 semesters; specialization ”Fish processing technologies“)

DEPARTMENTS:

- Department of biology;

- Department of biotechnology;

- Department of landscape design.

LABORATORIES:

- Laboratory of agricultural biotechnology;

- Laboratory of industrial biotechnology with a branch of aquaculture;

- Laboratory of plant cell technologies.

In the academic year of 2011-2012 the faculty trains 328 students - 275 full-time students and 53 part-time students. All the students of the faculty are provided with comfortable hostels. The faculty is young, it is rapidly developing, and studying here is a good choice.

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

 Современное образовательное учреждение, развитие творческих способностей студентов, иметь доступ к современному компьютерному оборудованию, находиться в распоряжении студентов, обеспечивать жильем, садово-парковый дизайн, промышленное рыбоводство.

Exercise 2

Complete the following sentences:

1. Six faculties provide training at the University:…

2. Educational process of Polessky State University provides students with…

3. Students can get higher education through…

4. Students who demonstrate superior academic performance may apply for…

5. The history of the Biotechnological faculty dates back to…

6. Today the Biotechnological faculty offers the following courses:

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1.When was  Polessky State University founded?

2. How many faculties are there at the University?

3. What facilities are at students’ disposal?

4. Who are our international partners?

5. When was Biotechnological faculty founded ?

6. How many laboratories does it have?

 

 

COLLEGE LIFE

The merry-go-round of college life is something that one never forgets. It’s a fascinating, fantastic, fabulous experience, irrespective of the fact whether one is a full-time or a part-time student.

Who can forget the first day at the university when one turns from an applicant who has passed entrance exams into a first-year student? I did it! I entered; I got in to the university! A solemn ceremony in front of the university building and serious people making speeches. Hey, lad, do you happen to know who they are? Who? The rector, vice-rectors, deans, subdeans... and what about those ladies? Heads of departments and senior lecturers? Okay. Some of them must be professors, some — associate or assistant professors, but, of course, all of them have high academic degrees. And where are our lecturers and tutors? Oh, how nice...

The monitors hand out student membership cards, student record books and library cards — one feels like a real person. First celebrations and then days of hard work. So many classes, so many new subjects to put on the timetable! The curriculum seems to be developed especially for geniuses. Lectures, seminars and tutorials. Home preparations; a real avalanche of homework.

If one can not cope with the work load of college he or she immediately starts lagging behind. It is easier to keep pace with the programme than to catch up with it later. Everyone tries hard to be, or at least to look, diligent. First tests and examination sessions. The first successes and first failures: ”I have passed!“ or ”He has not given me a pass!“ Tears and smiles. And a long-awaited vacation.

The merry-go-round runs faster. Assignments, written reproductions, compositions, synopses, papers. Translations checked up and marked. ”Professor, I have never played truant, I had a good excuse for missing classes.“ Works handed in and handed out. Reading up for exams. ”No, professor, I have never cheated — no cribs. I just crammed.“

Junior students become senior. Still all of them are one family — undergraduates. Student’s parties in the student's club. Meeting people and parting with people. You know, Nora is going to be expelled and Dora is going to graduate with honours. Yearly essays, graduation dissertations, finals...

What? A teacher’s certificate? You mean, I’ve got a degree in English? I am happy! It is over! It is over... Is it over? Oh, no...

A postgraduate course, a thesis, an oral, and a degree in Philology. The first of September. Where are the students of the faculty of foreign languages? Is it the English department? Oh, how nice...

 

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

 студент дневной формы обучения, студент заочной формы обучения, абитуриент, сдавать экзамены, первокурсник, ректор, проректор, декан, заместитель декана, староста, вручать студенческие билеты, читательский билет, справляться с работой, экзаменационная сессия, прогуливать занятия, списывать.

 

Exercise 2

Complete the following sentences:

1. Who can forget the first day at the university when…

2. The monitors hand out…

3. If one can not cope with the work load of college he…

4. It is easier to keep pace with…

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What can college life be compared with?

2. Why is the first day at the university or college unforgettable?

3. What are the duties of the monitor?

4. How can you describe college life?

Discussion

Do yon agree or not? Comment on the following statements.

1. A man is never too old to learn.

2. Education covers a lot of ground but it doesn’t cultivate it.

3. Live and learn.

4. By doing nothing we learn to do ill.

5. Better untaught than ill taught.

6. Brevity is the soul of wit.

Role Play

 A Talk in the Living-Room.

Setting: The Richardson’s house.

Situation: A group of students gather at Richardson’s on their vacations. They used to be classmates once. Now they are all students of different colleges and universities. In the evening they are sitting in the living-room near the fireplace and speak about their college life, sharing experiences.

Characters:

Card I—II — Sarah and Terry Richardson. They have invited everyone to their house. They are a sister and brother and go to a technical college. Sarah hates it and Terry loves it.

Card III—IV — Dora and Laura. Two medical school students. They have just had their professional experience in a hospital and compare studies and real life.

Card V— Harry, a student of the chemical faculty at the university. He failed to pass his exams in spring and is going to take them in autumn.

Card VI — Barbara, a student of the French department of the faculty of foreign languages at a university. She has won a personal grant for success in studies.

Card VII—VIII — Barry and Jerry, two friends who do economics at the university. Both are enthusiastic learners and like to speak about their future speciality.

Card IX — Flora, a student of an art school. She likes her drawing classes but does not like any of her other subjects.

Card X—XI — Clarry and Nora, students of a music school. In school years they used to be friends because they played in a school orchestra. They are thinking of creating a pop-group of their own.

Card XII — Lany. He was expelled from the faculty of Maths for missing classes and is dreaming of getting back.

WRITING

Write an essay on one of the following topics.

1. Our College Life Needs Changes.

2. Some Advice for College Students.

3. Why (Psychology/Sociology/...) Is So Popular with Students.

4. I Would Put Myself in the Group of (Diligent/Lazy/...) Students.

5. Education Reform. To Be or Not to Be?

Unit 5

Places around My Town

Places in the City

Topical Vocabulary


Buildings
bar
swimming pool/baths
library
hospital
lost-property office
gallery
zoo
café/cafe
cinema; am. (movie) theater, cinema
kiosk, stall
mosque
bridge
museum
nightclub
memorial, monument
hairdresser's, hair salon
post office
restaurant
synagogue
cathedral
stadium
statue
theatre; am. theatre/theater
church
circus
Outside
arch
gate(s)
traffic
road
road sign
traffic jam, congestion
flower-bed
on/to the left
on/to the right
crossroads, junction; am. intersection,
(pedestrian) crossing; am. crosswalk
to cross the street/road
pedestrian
town plan, street map
park
(town) square
 
Здания бар бассейн библиотека больница бюро находок галерея зоопарк кафе
кино
киоск
мечеть
мост
музей
ночной клуб
памятник
парикмахерская
почта
ресторан
синагога
собор
стадион
статуя
театр
церковь
цирк
На улицах города
арка
ворота
движение
дорога
дорожный знак
затор
клумба
налево
направо
перекрёсток
переход
переходить/перейти (через) улицу
пешеход
план города
парк

площадь

 




Cities

city, town, village, hamlet, settlement

capital, metropolis, big city, small town

center, downtown, outskirts, suburb

region, district, neighbourhood

Streets and transportation:

street, road, avenue, alley, boulevard, lane, drive, route

main street, side street, back street, bystreet

main road, side road, back road, byroad, country road, dirt road, paved road

highway, speedway, expressway, freeway, parkway, causeway

access road, toll road, turnpike

autobahn, motorway, superhighway

zebra crossing, crosswalk

bus stop, bus terminal, taxi stop, subway station, subway entrance

parking lot, garage, curb parking, to park at the curb, parking meter

train station, railway station, airport

Buildings

house, apartment house, residential building

row house, townhouse, cottage, summer house

cabin, bungalow, hut, lodge

mansion, villa, castle, palace

two-story building, multi-storey building, skyscraper, high rise, tower

office building, concrete-steel building, glass building, brick building

elevator building, walk-up building

temple, chapel

Eating places:

restaurant, French restaurant, fast food restaurant, self-service restaurant

diner, eatery, coffee shop, snack bar, lunchroom

pub

Shopping places

shopping centre, shopping mall

department store, shoe store, computer store, bookstore

food store, supermarket, grocery store

market, market place, mart

trading centre / trade centre

food market, farmers’ market, flower market, flea market

fair, annual fair, book fair, job fair, trade fair, world’s fair

newsstand, fruit stand, street vendor

bazaar

Tourist information places

tourist information centre, visitors centre, visitors bureau; travel agency

Hotels

hotel, inn, motel, lodge, youth hostel

Rentals

rental agency; car rental, video rental

real estate agency, house rental, apartment rental

Beauty shops

hair salon / hairdresser’s, barber shop

beauty parlour / beauty salon / beauty shop

massage parlour

Services and repair

laundry, laundromat, dry cleaner’s

automobile repair shop / auto repair shop / car repair shop / garage

bicycle repair shop, computer repair workshop

locksmith’s shop, home repair shop

Sports facilities

health club, fitness centre, gym

tennis club, golf club, country club

playground, sports ground, basketball ground, tennis court, golf course

skating rink, boxing ring, wrestling ring

football field, stadium, sports arena

racetrack, racecourse

Educational facilities

kindergarten, nursery school, elementary school, high school

college, university, academy

business school, vocational school, music school, medical school, law school

Banks

bank, ATM (automatic teller machine), cash machine; currency exchange

Health facilities

hospital, clinic, polyclinic, health centre

hospital clinic, outpatient clinic / outpatients’ department

dental clinic / the dentist’s

ambulatory surgical centre

surgery (department), cardiology (department)

waiting room, consulting room, emergency room, operating room, hospital ward

the ambulance

Other places

police / police department; prison / jail; fire department; post office

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1

Where should we go if:


… our car is broken;

… we have a toothache;

… we want to cross the road;

… we want to withdraw some money;

… we want to see the animals;

… we want to go abroad;

… we want to play tennis;

…we want to dance;

… we want to pray;

… we are not healthy.




Exercise 2

Make up as many word combinations as possible with the following words:

Shop, store, building, road, ring, room, school, club, ground, market, fair, way.

 

Exercise 3

Match the words from two columns to make up word combinations:


art

skating

parking

bus

beauty

railway

concert

shopping

rink

salon

hall

gallery

stop

meter

station

mall


THE 'PRIVILEGE' OF LIVING IN A CITY

«Avoid the rush hour» must be a slogan of large cities the world over. If it is, it's a slogan no one takes the least notice of. Twice a day, with predictable regularity, the pot boils over. Wherever you look there are people, people, people. The trains, which leave or arrive every few minutes, are packed: an endless procession of human sardine tins. The streets are so crowded there is hardly room to move on the pavements. The queues for buses reach staggering proportions. It takes ages for a bus to get to you because the traffic on the roads has virtually come to a stand still. Even when a bus does at least arrive, it is so full, it cannot take any more passengers. This whole crazy system of commuting stretches man's resources to the utmost. The smallest unforeseen event can bring about conditions of utter chaos. A power cut, for instance, exceptionally heavy snowfall or a minor derailment must always make city-dwellers realize how precarious the balance is. The extraordinary thing is not that people put up with these conditions, but that they actually choose them in preference to anything else.

Large modern cities are too big to control. They impose their own living conditions on the people who inhabit them. City-dwellers are obliged by their environment to adopt a wholly unnatural way of life. They lose touch with the land and the rhythm of nature. It is possible to live such an air-conditioned existence in a large city that you are barely conscious of the seasons. A few flowers in a public park may remind you that it is spring or summer. All the simple, good thing of life like the sunshine and fresh air are at a premium. Tall building block out the sun, traffic fumes pollute the atmosphere. The funny thing about it all is that you pay dearly for the «privilege» of living in a city. The demand for accommodation is so great, that it is often impossible for ordinary people to buy a residence of their own. Exorbitant rents must be paid for tiny flats, which even country hens would disdain to live in. Accommodation apart the cost of living is very high. Just about everything you buy is like more expensively that it would be in the country.

In addition to all this, city-dwellers live under constant threat. The crime rate in most cities is very high. Houses are burgled with alarming frequency. Cities breed crime and violence and are full if places you would be afraid to visit at night. If you think about it, they're not really fit to live in at all. Can anyone really doubt that the country is what man was born for and where he truly belongs?



Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

быть переполненным, двигаться по тротуарам, очередь, пассажиры, полный хаос, горожане, населять, выхлопные газы, спрос на жилье, крошечные квартиры, жить под постоянной угрозой, уровень преступности.

 

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. … must be a slogan of large cities the world over.

2. Wherever you look there are …

3. The streets are so crowded there is …

4. It takes ages for a bus to get to you because …

5. The funny thing about it all is that …

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What is the main slogan of large cities all over the world?

2. What can you tell about public transport in large cities?

3. Is it easy to live in large cities? Why?

4. The cost of living is very high in the city, isn’t it?

5. Why do city-dwellers live under constant stress?

 

 

KILLING THE GOOSE

Tourism has grown so quickly during the last quarter of a century that it has become a problem in both industrialised and developing nations. And it is only during the 1980s that the problems of poor, or non-existent planning have been seen and tackled. In short the problem is this: tourism as it developed in the sixties and seventies is self-destructive. It destroys the very things tourists come for. It is a classic case of killing the goose that lays the golden egg.

In Europe the damage is largely environmental: polluted beaches and lakes, erosion of mountain paths, traffic jams, air pollution and unsympathetic architecture. But there has also been a negative impact on the cultural and social life of communities. Some of the best-known and obviously visible examples are certain Mediterranean resorts. Previously quiet fishing villages have been overrun with poorly planned and shoddily built hotels and apartment blocks, which are now just twenty years later - no longer acceptable or fashionable. The life-style of the locals has changed beyond recognition, and although many are richer, they are not necessarily happier as a result.

Environmental damage caused by tourism manifests itself in many different ways. Skiing, now a major winter sport in Europe, is causing many problems in the Alps. Hundreds of square kilometres of forest have been destroyed to make way for ski pistes, cable cars, buildings and access roads. Pollution of the Mediterranean caused at least partly but untreated sewage from tourist developments, makes it a potential health hazard in some areas. This undermines the very notion of a beach holiday and in Hungary, tourism and industrial development around the shores of Lake Balaton have rendered the lake biologically dead. Fishing is one activity no longer on the tourist agenda.

The potential for damage in the Third World is infinitely greater than that in the industrialised nations. Environmental issues are really high on the lists of Third World governments, many of which have viewed tourism as a panacea for economic ills - often with disastrous results.

Tourism seems on the face of it to be a big earner of foreign currency, but the effective economic gains by the host nations are usually rather less than might be expected. This is particularly true of mass package organised from industrialised countries. Valuable foreign exchange is lost by importing foreign foods, drinks and other luxury goods. This ”leakage“ of foreign exchange is very difficult to quantify but can mean that the host nation ends up with practically no gain. An analysis of 1980 data by the World Bank showed that on average only 9.1 per cent of all gross foreign exchange earnings were retained in the host country when typical ”leakage“ was taken into account.

It is the change in traditional lifestyles that alarms many anthropologists. Even small-scale development of tourism in some societies can have an adverse effect on local population. The young are keen to adopt the ”Coca-cola culture“, and leave behind their rural homes and traditional lifestyle. Yet it is often these traditional lifestyles, arts, crafts, and culture which tourists come to see.

In some cases tourism can help a country rediscover and focus on its own heritage, and can revitalise Indigenous arts and crafts by providing new markets. But ”culture“ in this sense becomes divorced from its true role as part of everyday life. And it's worst, it can become fossilised and adapted to suit the needs of tourists.

Tourists generally learn very little about what real everyday life is like.

Exercise 1

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions:

уничтожить источник своего же богатства, загрязненные пляжи и озера, размывание (разрушение) горных тропинок, дорожные пробки, негативное влияние, катастрофические результаты, возрождать местные ремесла, оказывать неблагоприятное воздействие.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. Tourism has grown so quickly that has become a problem in ….

2. In short the problem is this: ….

3. In Europe the damage is largely environmental: ….

4. Tourism seems on the face of it to be ….

5. The young are keen to…

6. In some cases tourism can help a country …

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Is tourism popular nowadays?

2. What does the expression ”killing the goose“ mean?

3. What negative effects does tourism have on the environment?

4. What alarms many anthropologists?

5. Is tourism a problem of developed and developing countries? Why? Do you see any way out?

 

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

A taxi, sometimes called a cab, is the most comfortable way to travel. You simply hail a taxi in the street or go to a taxi-rank where there are several taxis waiting, for example, at a station. At the end of your journey you can see how much the fare is by looking at the meter. You add a tip to this, and that’s all. Very simple. But expensive!

What about taking a bus? It has two floors, it's called a double-decker and you can get a good view from the top. If it has only one floor, it's called a single-decker. Most buses have a two-person crew: the driver who drives, of course, and the conductor (or the conductress if it is the woman) who takes your money. Keep your ticket because an inspector might want to check it. You catch a bus by waiting at the bus stop. You can see where a bus is going because the destination is written on the front. But try to avoid the rush hour.

Quicker then the bus is the underground (called the tube in London, the subway in New-York and the metro in Paris and many other cities). You buy your ticket at the (booking) ticket office. Go down to the platform on the escalator or on the lift. The train comes. The door opens. You get in. You look at the map or the underground system. Very simple.

For longer distances take a train or a long distance bus, usually called a coach which is slower but cheaper. The train is very fast. Put your luggage on the rack and sit and wait till you arrive.

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

стоянка такси; поймать такси; добавить чаевые; хороший вид сверху; пригородный автобус; маршрут; час пик; метро; билетная касса; спуститься на платформу на эскалаторе; положить свой багаж на полку.

 

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. A taxi, called sometimes a …, is the most comfortable way to travel.

2. At the end of the journey you can see how much the … is by looking at the meter.

3. If a bus has two floors, it is called a … and f it has only one floor it is called a … .

4. You can see where a bus is going because the … is written on the front.

5. To pay for bus transportation you have to drop money in the … … or you can buy a special … to be used for the day, week or month.

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What kinds of transport can you name?

2. What kind of transportation is the most comfortable in your opinion and why?

3. What can you say about buses as a kind of transportation?

4. What will you do if you have to take a taxi, but you cannot stop a cab?

5. What are the advantages of the underground?

6. What are the advantages of buses?

 

Discussion

Do yon agree or not? Comment on the following statements.

1. East or West, home is best.

2. When at Rome, do as the Romans do.

3. There is no place like home.

Role Play

Town Conflict

Setting: At the Town Meeting.

Situation: A small town is faced with a difficult decision: to allow a high-rise apartment to be built which will close a strip mall and take land away from a park. The land developer and construction company employ several townspeople and are depending on this contract to keep everyone working. If the high-rise is built, the small strip mall will be demolished and the small businesses will have to close. The park is an ideal location for kids to enjoy themselves and there is a group of citizens who wish to build a skate park for the children. What will be the outcome of this situation?

Characters:

Card I — The mayor. He is seeking re-election and don't want anything to risk losing the election. He avoids controversy in any way possible; he does not want to do anything to anger any group.

Card II — A citizen of the town. There is a park next to his neighborhood that is slated for a high-rise development for senior citizens, a convenience store, and a coffee shop. He does not want anything built there because he wants the park to be a city park developed with a skate park for the children of the community. He is leading a group of citizens against this development.

Card III – A land developer. He has deadlines to meet and 20 people on his payroll. He does not have time for delays.

Card IV— the city attorney. There is a legal problem because the mayor did not clear the land through all the proper channels, and as far as you're concerned, the land deal is not approved. Your job is to make certain the law is followed. Do not display leadership qualities. Keep repeating that the mayor has to resolve this, it's his problem, not yours.

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. The problems of modern cities.

2. The place I’d like to visit.

3. The city of my dream.

Unit 6

Called Human Body

Healthy Living

Topical Vocabulary


healthy lifestyle

to be in good health

to feel well

balanced diet

nutritious food

to have regular meals

to eat plenty of fruit and vegetables

to avoid junk food

proteins

fats

vitamins

minerals

to be overweight

to go on a diet

to stay slim

regular exercises

to do morning exercises

to go swimming

to quit smoking / to give up smoking

to cope with stress

to be in good shape

regular medical checkups

 

здоровый образ жизни

иметь хорошее здоровье

чувствовать себя хорошо

сбалансированная диета

питательная пища

регулярно принимать пищу

кушать много фруктов и овощей

избегать нездоровой пищи

протеины

жиры

витамины

минералы

иметь избыточный вес

сесть на диету

оставаться стройным

регулярные упражнения

делать зарядку

заниматься плаванием

бросить курить

справляться со стрессом

быть в хорошей форме

регулярные медицинские обследования


Consult the dictionary and translate the following words and word combinations:

to feel well, to be in good health, to be physically fit, healthy environment

clean water, fresh air

to sleep well, to have / to get a good night's sleep, to have eight hours of sleep

preventing injuries and diseases

stress

tension

breathe fresh air, do exercises

sport, physical education

drug addiction, alcoholism, smoking, AIDS

balance of work and rest, healthy food

natural therapeutics, preventive medicine

blood vessels

to be hooked on aerobics, shaping, stretching and bodybuilding

sport facilities

to strain the muscles

flexibility, stamina

mobility exercises

to tone the muscles and relieve tension

 



Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1

Fill in the necessary prepositions:

to be hooked … aerobics, to cope … stress, to give … smoking, to be … good health, to go … a diet, to eat plenty … fruit and vegetables.

Exercise 2

Match the words from two columns to make up word combinations:


to strain

to relieve

to breathe

to avoid

to give up

to cope with

to prevent

 

smoking

stress

tension

fresh air

junk food

injuries

the muscles




Exercise 3

Translate into English the following word combinations:

здоровый образ жизни

сбалансированная диета

кровеносные сосуды

быть стройным

иметь лишний вес

сесть на диету

тонизировать мышцы

справляться со стрессом

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. Sports provide a person with a healthy body and a sound mind.

2. You should walk every day to keep fit.

3. Most sports help flexibility and stamina.

4. Absolute beginners should start with risky sports.

5. Swimming is undoubtedly an excellent exercise.

Unit 7

AT THE DOCTOR'S

Health and Diseases

Topical Vocabulary

 


blood

disease, illness, sickness

chronic disease

infectious disease

to suffer from

to fall ill, to be ill, to be sick

to have a cold, to catch cold

to faint

to treat, to cure, to heal

to recover (from an illness)

to take a temperature

to take a blood test

to take an X-ray

to be examined by a doctor

to measure blood pressure

vaccination

to give an injection / to give a shot

medicine

pill, tablet

to prescribe medicines

to take medicines

 

кровь

болезнь

хроническое заболевание

инфекционное заболевание

страдать от ч-л

заболеть

простудиться

потерять сознание

лечить

выздороветь

измерять температуру

делать анализ крови

делать рентген

быть осмотренным врачом

измерять кровяное давление

вакцинация

давать укол

лекарство

таблетка

прописывать лекарство

принимать лекарство


 

Consult the dictionary and translate the following words and word combinations:



Internal organs

circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, urinary tract

heart, lung, trachea, bronchi, esophagus, stomach, gall bladder / gallbladder, liver, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, bladder, spleen

aorta, artery, vein, capillary, blood, lymph, blood vessel, blood circulation

endocrine glands, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, lymph glands

reproductive organs, conception, pregnancy, embryo, fetus, childbirth

to be pregnant, to have a baby, to give birth to a male child / female child

body fluids / bodily fluids, blood (red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma), lymph, gastric juice, bile, mucus, tears, saliva, sweat, urine

Blood groups / blood types

blood group A, blood group B, blood group AB, blood group O / blood type O, blood type A, blood type B, blood type AB

Rh factor, Rh-positive, Rh-negative

Diseases and disorders

malady, ailment, disorder, health problem

acute disease, serious disease, heart disease, common diseases

contagious disease, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases

to have a heart disease, to suffer from asthma, to catch an infectious disease

to have a headache, to have a toothache, to have earache, to have a pain in the stomach, to have chest pains, my left foot hurts, my wrist hurts

to have an allergy to medication / to drugs

to lose consciousness, to be unconscious

Skin: skin irritation, skin inflammation, redness, tenderness, swelling, rash, dermatitis, itchy skin / itching, acne, pimple, boil, blister, burn, scar, scratch, corn, callus, wart, eczema, psoriasis

Hair: dandruff, split ends, thinning hair, hair loss, baldness

Eye: nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, crossed eyes, conjunctivitis, sty, retinal detachment, cataract, glaucoma, blindness, color-blindness

Ear: wax blockage, hearing loss, earache, ruptured eardrum, otitis / infection of the middle ear

Nose, throat, lungs: nosebleed, runny nose, stuffy nose, rhinitis, allergic rhinitis / hay fever, sinusitis, a cold, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma

Heart and circulation: atherosclerosis, hypertension / high blood pressure, heart disease, coronary heart disease, coronary thrombosis, heart failure, heart attack, cardiac arrest, congenital heart disease, varicose veins, thrombophlebitis

Blood: anemia, bleeding, internal bleeding, hemorrhage, hemophilia, leukemia

Brain and nervous system: headache, migraine, dizziness / giddiness / vertigo, fainting spell, neuralgia, meningitis, epilepsy, convulsions, seizure, stroke, paralysis, cerebral palsy, dementia

Nutrition: vitamin deficiency, mineral deficiency, obesity, to be overweight, weight loss, anorexia, bulimia

Stomach, intestines: heartburn, indigestion, dyspepsia, upset stomach, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, gastritis, ulcer, gastroenteritis, colitis, constipation, appendicitis, hemorrhoids, dysentery, cholera

Liver: hepatitis, jaundice, cirrhosis. Gall bladder: gallstones, cholecystitis

Kidneys, bladder: pyelonephritis, kidney stones, cystitis

Bones, joints: backache / back pain, scoliosis, osteoporosis, arthritis.

Muscles: muscle spasm, muscle cramp, muscular dystrophy, hernia

Injuries: injury, wound, trauma, hand injury, knee injury, foot injury, head injury, concussion, contusion, fracture, fractured bone, slipped disc / prolapsed disc, dislocation, sprain, sprained ankle, pulled muscle, bruise, to break one's arm, to have a broken arm

General infections / systemic infections: the flu / influenza, tuberculosis, tetanus, rabies, yellow fever, typhoid, smallpox, anthrax, leprosy

Infectious diseases (especially in childhood): measles, rubella / German measles, mumps, whooping cough / pertussis, diphtheria, polio, chicken pox, scarlet fever

Infestations, parasytes: helminthic invasion, tapeworm, pinworm, hookworm, roundworm, scabies, malaria, lice, fleas, ticks

Hormonal disorders: diabetes, disorders of the pituitary gland, disorders of the thyroid gland.

Oncology: benign tumor, malignant tumor, cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, skin cancer

Mental disorders: depression, phobia, schizophrenia

Addictions: alcohol abuse, drug abuse

Medicines

drug, medication, preparation, medicament, remedy

a cold medicine, a medicine for a cold, cold remedies

to prescribe medication, to give a prescription (for allergy, rash, cough, etc.)

to take a pill, to take aspirin

capsule, powder, drops, syrup, tincture, lotion, spray, ointment, cream

analgesic / analgetic, antacid, antibiotic, tranquillizer, contraceptive, laxative, decongestant

antiseptic, anti-bacterial spray, rubbing alcohol, iodine, to paint with iodine

medicine chest, medicine cabinet, first-aid kit

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1

Fill in the gaps with suitable prepositions:

to suffer … asthma

to be allergic … pollen

to give birth … a male child

a medicine … a cold

to be … poor health

to recover … an illness

to check … a hospital

to give a prescription … cough

 

Exercise 2

Find in the topical vocabulary the words and word combinations with the same meaning:

Cardiologist; eye specialist; ear, nose and throat specialist; the flu; back pain; infection of the middle ear.; dizziness; analgesic; high blood pressure.

 

Exercise 3

What does the doctor do if:

- you have a flu;

- you have some problems with your heart;

- your arm is broken.

At the doctor's

If we caught cold, have a splitting headache, have a clogged nose, cough, are running high temperature, we must go to the policlinic. First we come to the registry. The registry clerk on a duty asks our name, address, age and occupation. He writes out some slips because several specialists will examine us. Some of them will listen to out heart and lungs, some will check up our kidneys, liver, stomach, eyesight, and hearing. The others will make our blood analysis, take our blood pressure and x-ray us.

Our district doctor sees his patients in consulting room 4. A nurse gives us a thermometer to take our temperature. We must keep it under an armpit. Last time my temperature was 37,9. The doctor asked what my trouble was. He offered to sit down in a chair and to strip to the waist. He felt my pulse. It was faint and accelerated. Then I lay on the examination couch and the doctor palpated my abdomen. He asked me from what disease I suffered in my childhood. I suffered from scarlet fever. Now I felt dizzy and was damp with sweat. The doctor filled in my card and diagnosed the case as the flu.

Then he wrote out a prescription for some medicines: pills, powder, drops, and mixture. He also advised me to take a scalding footbath, to put a hot water bottle to my feet, to have hot tea with raspberry jam. That would keep my fever down. The result of my x-ray examination and blood analysis was normal. I had the prescription made at the chemist's. I followed the prescribed treatment to avoid complications. Every day I took a tablespoonful of mixture 3 times a day and some pills. In two days I was better and in a week I recovered from my illness. I began to take care of myself. Now I go in for sports because sports make me strong, healthy and cheerful. Every day I do my morning exercises and have a cold rubdown to prevent myself from catching cold. There is a good proverb: An apple a day keeps the doctor away. That's why I eat a lot of fruits and vegetables.

In case of sudden and severe illness or an accident calls are made to the first aid station. There the doctors are on duty all day long. There are many ambulances there. The ambulances are equipped with everything necessary to give the first aid. The patient is transported to hospital. There he is taken to the reception ward first. After questioning and examination the doctor fills in the patient's case history. Then a patient is given special clothes and is put to some ward for treatment. The doctors make their daily round there. They examine patients and prescribe different medicines and treatments.

When a patient is completely cured, he is discharged from the hospital. There are different departments in the hospital. They are: a surgical department, therapy, and the department of infectious diseases.

 

Exercise 1

Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

Простудиться; слушать сердце и легкие; делать анализ крови; измерять кровяное давление; измерять температуру; поставить диагноз; выписать рецепт; избежать осложнений; выздороветь; станция скорой помощи; история болезни; хирургическое отделение.

 

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1.  If we … , … , … , … , we must go to the policlinic.

2. The registry clerk on a duty asks our …

3. Several specialists will examine us: …

4. The doctor wrote out a prescription for some medicines: …

5. I followed the prescribed treatment to …

6. In case of sudden and severe illness or an accident ...

7. The ambulances are equipped with …

 

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What do you usually do if you caught cold?

2. What does the doctor usually do before examining you?

3. How does he examine you?

4. What shall we do in case of sudden and severe illness or an accident?

5. What departments are there in the hospital?

Discussion

Do you agree or not? Comment on the following statements.

1. Health is better than wealth.

2. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

3. Health is better than wealth.

 

Role play

Visiting the Doctor

Setting: At the policlinics.

Situation: Different people came to the policlinics to consult the doctor. Before visiting the doctor they are sitting in the waiting room and talking about their health problems.

Characters:

Card I — A patient who has a flu.

Card II— An old lady who suffers from hypertension.

Card III — A student with the broken arm.

Card IV— A man who has a pain in his stomach.

Card V — A child who has caught some infectious disease.

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. A human brain is a fantastic mind machine.

2. Nowadays people are getting more and more concerned about food and air.

3. Sports usually ward off diseases.

 

PART II

Task. Read the dialogue. Role-play a similar conversation.

Describing people

A: Tony, who’s that man who’s talking so loudly?

T: Which one?

A: The bald man…the one with the mustache.

T: Oh, him! That’s Mark Harris. He is the producer of ”Pals“.

A: And that woman who’s standing next to him. Is she his wife?

T: The one with the gray hair? Why do you reckon she’s his wife?

A: She is the only one who isn’t laughing at his jokes!

T: Right. Everyone else has to! Same again?

A: No, thanks. I’ll just have a mineral water.

Task. Read the dialogue. Role-play a similar conversation.

 Family relations

A: Hi, Dan! We are making a survey on family ties. Can I ask you some questions?

B: Yes, please.

A: What makes a home a comfortable, pleasant place to live in?

B: I think that kind and good relations between people make their home a pleasant place for them. When you feel love and support you cope with any difficulty.

A: Who supported you and helped you find the way out of difficulties in your life?

B: My parents and friends tried to help me in such situations.

A: Whom do you admire in your family? What have you learnt to do from this person?

B: My grandmother. She is a wonderful person. Her life wasn’t easy, but she always had a positive attitude to the events that happened. She taught me to be patient and tolerant to other people.

A: Do you agree that your family is the most wonderful treasure you have?
B: Yes, sure.

Task. Read the dialogue. Role-play a similar conversation.


ENGLISH COURSES

G:  Donna, you speak English so fluently. I know English just a little bit and I want to improve it.

D:  Thanks. This summer I’ve been in the UK as a student on the Intensive Course for English Language Development.

G.:  I’ve thought about it also. Tell me about these courses.

D.: It’s the Summer Study Program. You can study for four or eight weeks and create a program of study which suits your own learning needs.

G.:  Who can study there?

D.: All students over 18 years of age with intermediate or advanced English level.

G.: What are the aims of these courses?

D.:  It’s the possibility to improve your English language skills.

Task. Read the dialogue. Role-play a similar conversation.

Asking the way

1.

A: Excuse me, can you tell me where South Street is, please?

B: Take the second on the left and then ask again.

A: Is it far?

B: No, it's only about 5 minutes' walk.

A: Many thanks.

B: Not at all.

2.

A: Excuse me, please. Could you tell me the way to the station?

B: Turn round and turn left to the traffic lights.

A: Will it take me long to get there?

B: No, it's not distance at all.

A: Thank you.

B: That's 0.K.

3.

A: Excuse me, but I'm trying to find the Town Hall.

B: Take the third on the right and go straight on.

A: Should I take a bus?

B: No, you can walk it in under 5 minutes.

A: Thank you very much indeed.

B: That's quite all right.

4.

A: Excuse me, please, could you tell me how to get to the town centre?

B: First right, second left. You can't miss it.

A: No, it's only a couple of hundred yards.

B: Thanks very much.

A: It's a pleasure.

5.

A: Does this bus go to the station?

B: No, you'll have to get off at the bank and tаke a one-nine-two (192).

A: Can you tell me where to get оff?

B: It's the next stop but one.

 

6.

A: Do you go to the sea-front?

B: No, you're going the wrong way. You want a one-two-three (123) from church.

A: Have we got much further to go?

B: It's the next stop.

TOWN

SPEECH PATTERNS

Asking for directions

How do I get to your office?

Can you tell me the best way of getting to your office?

What's the quickest way of getting to your office?

Where are you exactly?

 

Getting information

Will you be coming by car or by train?

It's much easier if you take the train.

Which hotel are you staying at?

 

Use landmarks to help

You'll see a large sign / roundabout.

On your left you'll see an industrial centre / a hospital / the police station.

Just after the shopping centre (or mall).

Go past the petrol station / the garage.

 

Final tips

If you're giving directions over the phone, remember to speak slowly to allow the other person to write things down.

Check that the other person has understood.

If you're speaking face-to-face with someone, use your hands to show left, right, or straight on.

Use ”please“ when you ask someone to give you directions. It's polite, and will normally get you what you want!

Task. Read the dialogue. Role-play a similar conversation.

Taxi! Taxi!

A: Taxi! Taxi!

B: Where do you want to go, sir?

A: The corner of 58th Street and Third Avenue.

B: Corner of 58th and 3rd, no problem, jump in.

A: Thanks.

B: I hope you didn't get too wet out there.

A: No, I had an umbrella so I was okay.

B: I picked up a lady a few hours ago. She was soaking wet.

A: It's a wild storm alright.

B: You never know what the weather will do.

A: Have you heard the score in the Yankees game?

B: Yeah, the Yankees are winning at the start of the eighth inning.

A: Good. They should win from there.

B: Here we are, sir. Corner of 58th and Third.

A: Great. How much do I owe you?
B: That's seven dollars fifty.

A: Here's ten. Have a nice day.

B: Thank you sir, you too.

Task. Read the dialogue. Role-play a similar conversation.


Seeing the Doctor

D: Hello, what's the matter?

P: Good morning. I have a terrible ache in my lower back.

D: How long has your back been bothering you?

P: I've been having pain for about the last two weeks.

D: Do you have any history of back problems?

P: No, this is the first time.

D: Are you taking any medicine at the moment?

P: No, just an aspirin from time to time to kill the pain.

D: OK. Let's have a look at your back. Please take off your shirt ....

Task. Read the dialogue. Role-play a similar conversation.

A terrible stomachache

D: Good morning. Please have a seat here. What´s the problem?

P: I have a terrible stomachache.

D: Do you have diarrhea?

P: Yes, I do.

D: Do you have any other symptoms?

P: Yes, I feel sick.

D: You mean you feel nauseous?

P: That’s right. I feel like vomiting. And right now I feel dizzy, too.

D: When did the symptoms start?

P: This morning. Yesterday evening I ate something raw.

D: All right. Please take off your clothes to the waist and lie down there. ... Just tell me if it hurts when I do this.

P: It doesn’t hurt. ... Ouch. It hurts there.

D: Okay. Let´s hope it´s just indigestion, but we´ll need to run some diagnostic tests to be sure. We´ll run a blood test and we´ll also need a urine sample.

P: Can you give me something for the time being?

D: Yes, I´ll give you a prescription for indigestion tablets.

 

LITERATURE

1. Меркулова Е. М., Филимонова О. Е., Костыгина С. И., Ивано­ва Ю. А., Папанова Л. В. Английский язык для студентов университетов. Чтение, письменная и устная практика. Серия ”Изучаем иностранные языки“.— СПб.: Издательство Союз, 2000.— 384 с.

2. MacKenzie. English for Business Studies. A course for Business Studies and Economics students.  – Cambridge University Press, 2002.

3. Сатинова В. Ф. Британия и британцы. – Мн.: Выш. шк., 2004.

4. Viney, P. Survival English. International Communication for Professional People / P. Viney. – Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2004. – 95 p.

5. Бартошевич И. А. Свободное время. Путешествие = Spare Time& Travelling: учеб.-метод. Пособие для студентов гуманитар. вузов / И. А. Бартошевич – Барановичи: РИО БарГУ, 2009 – 92с.

6. English for social communication = Английский для общения: вводный курс по англ. языку /  сост. Н.А. Гиркина – Минск: Издательство МИУ, 2009. – 56 с.

 

CONTENTS

Введение……………………………………………………………………….. 3
   
PART I…………………………………………………………………………… …………. 4
UNIT 1 ABOUT YOU……………………………………………………….................................. 4
Character and Appearance ………………………………………………………………….. 7
      Applying for a Job……………………………………………………………… ….................. 8
The Curriculum Vitae………………………………………………………… ………………. 8
My Future Profession……………………………………………………………… ………… 10
UNIT 2 FAMILY LIFE…………………………………………………………………….. 13
       Family As the Key Social Structure…………………………………………………. 14
Family: Perspectives………………………………………………………………….. 15
Family Life ……………………………………………………………………………. 17
UNIT 3 ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE ………………………………………….. 19
Why Foreign Languages Learning Is Important For Us ……………………………… 20
      How to Learn a Foreign Language ……………………………………………………. 21
      English in My Future Career…………………………………………………………. 22
UNIT 4 UNIVERSITY. STUDENT’S LIFE ……………………………………………….. 25
Higher Education in Belarus………………………………………………………… .. 28
Polessky State University ………………………………… ………………………….. 29
Biotechnological Faculty……………………………………………………………… 30
      College Life ………………………………………………………………………….. 31
UNIT 5 PLACES AROUND MY TOWN …………………………………………………. 34
Travelling …………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
Public Transportation………………………………………………………………………… 37
UNIT 6 EACH MAN IS A CREATOR OF A TEMPLE CALLED HUMAN BODY ……... 40
Each Man Is a Creator of a Temple Called Human Body ……………………………. 41
How to Improve Your Mental Health ………………………………………………… 42
UNIT 7 AT THE DOCTOR’S ………………………………………………………………. 44
      At the Doctor’s ………………………………………………………………………. 47
      Health Is the Greatest Wealth ………………………………………………………. 48
PART II ……………………………………………………………………………………… 50
      Describing People ……………………………………………………………………… 50
      Family Relations ……………………………………………………………………… 50
      English Courses ………………………………………………………………………. 50
      Asking the Way ………………………………………………………………………. 51
      Taxi! Taxi!……………………………………………………………………………. 52
      Seeing the Doctor …………………………………………………………………….. 53
      A Terrible Stomachache …………………………………………………………….. 53
Литература……………………………………………………………………... 54

 

Ю. В. КОРЖЕНЕВИЧ

 

 

SP OKEN ENGLISH

Part I

английский ДЛЯ РАЗВИТИЯ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ

Часть I

Учебный практикум для студентов специальностей ”Биология (по направлениям)“, ”Садово-парковый дизайн“, ”Промышленное рыбоводство“ дневной и заочной формы обучения.

 

Пинск

ПолесГУ

2012


УДК 076.5

ББК 81.2Англ

К66

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

 

 

У т в е р ж д е н о

научно-методическим советом ПолесГУ

 


Корженевич , Ю.В.

К66 Spoken english: практикум для студентов специальностей ”Биология (по направлениям)“, ”Садово-парковый дизайн“, ”Промышленное рыбоводство“ дневной и заочной формы обучения.

 

 / Ю.В. Корженевич. – Пинск: ПолесГУ, 2012. – с.59

 

ISBN 978-985-516-071-8

 

 

Пособие направлено на развитие навыков устной речи по темам ”About You“, ”My Family“, ”English as a World Language“, ”My University Life“, ”Places around My Town“, ”Each Man Is a Creator of a Temple Called Human Body“ and ”At the Doctor’s“.

 

УДК 076.5

ББК 81.2Англ

 

 

ISBN 978-985-516-071-8                        © Полесский государственный

                                                                             университет, 2012

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Цель данного практикума - помочь обучающимся совершенствовать навыки чтения и устной речи, а также расширить словарный запас по заданным темам.

Пособие направлено на формирование коммуникативных умений и навыков. Оно состоит из семи тематических разделов, каждый из которых соответствует определенной теме.

Каждый раздел включает в себя учебные тексты, раскрывающие основные теоретические вопросы по теме, подлежащие усвоению. Для активизации и усвоения изученного материала представлены разнообразные лексические и речевые упражнения, а также творческие задания, направленные на развитие навыков устной речи. Во второй части практикума собраны диалоги по заданным темам.

 Все изучаемые темы соответствуют учебной программе по английскому языку для студентов специальностей ”Биология (по направлениям)“, ”Садово-парковый дизайн“, ”Промышленное рыбоводство“.

Большинство заданий имеют коммуникативную направленность.


 

Part I

Unit 1

ABOUT YOU

 


Appearance and Character

 

Topical Vocabulary

 


appearance

attractive

beautiful

handsome

ugly

plain

height

tall

short

medium height

weight and build

thin

medium-build

fat

hair

straight

curly

wavy

long

short

medium-length

eyes

face

chin

nose

lips

forehead

body

head

ears

mouth

character

kind

honest

reliable

humorous

hard-working

lazy

sociable

aggressive

modest

intelligent

внешность

привлекательный

красивый

красивый (о мужчине)

уродливый

обыкновенный, простой

рост

высокий

низкий

среднего роста

вес и телосложение

худой

среднего телосложения

полный

волосы

прямые

кучерявые

волнистые

длинные

короткие

средней длины

глаза

лицо

подбородок

нос

губы

лоб

тело

голова

уши

рот

характер

добрый

честный

надежный

забавный, смешной

трудолюбивый

ленивый

общительный

агрессивный

скромный

умный


 

Consult the dictionary and translate the following words and word combinations:



Appearance

well-dressed, casually dressed, poorly dressed

neat

dishevelled

good-looking

 unattractive

pretty, cute, nice                                                         ЛАЛКА

Weight and Build

quite thin, slim / slender

overweight

muscular, athletic

Chin

protruding, split, double, pointed

Nose

aquiline, hooked, straight, upturned

Lips

thin, plump, thick, heart-shaped

Forehead

wrinkled, narrow, balding, high

Human body

body and soul, flesh and blood, skin and bones

Head

skull, brain, face,

temples, eyebrows, eyes, cheeks, nose, mouth, lips, chin

eye, eyelid, eyelashes, eye socket / orbit, eyeball, pupil, iris, retina, lens, optic nerve

bridge of the nose, nostrils, sinuses

jaws, teeth, gums, tongue, tip of the tongue, hard palate, soft palate, uvula

tooth, teeth

ear, earlobe, middle ear, eardrum

Body

body, neck, chest, stomach, back, buttocks, arms, hands, legs, feet

skeleton, bone, bone marrow, spine, collarbone, breastbone, rib, pelvis

joint, tendon, ligament, muscle

neck, Adam's apple, nape of the neck, throat, pharynx, larynx, vocal cords

torso, trunk, chest, breast, nipple, diaphragm, abdomen, navel

Limbs

upper limbs, arm, shoulder, armpit, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand

hand, palm, fingers, thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, little finger, fingernail

lower limbs, leg, hip, thigh, knee, kneecap, calf, shin, ankle, foot

foot, feet, sole, heel, toes, big toe, little toe, toenail

Age

young, old, middle-aged, in her thirties, about forty

Character

strong, weak

terrible, bad-tempered

dependable, dishonest

reasonable / sensible

unreasonable, argumentative

mature, immature

sensitive, insensitive

attentive, alert

perceptive, observant, insightful

thoughtful, considerate

amusing, funny

boring

independent, ambitious, tough,

disciplined, organized, careful, accurate, neat

formal, official

informal, relaxed, casual

pushy, self-confident

humble, shy

moody, melancholic

stubborn, obstinate

self-centred, egoistical, haughty

self-conscious

outgoing, friendly

unfriendly, hostile

economical, thrifty, strange, odd, weird, eccentric, crazy

Mind

sharp, keen, bright, quick, agile, wise, clever

broad-minded, narrow-minded

foolish, stupid, dull

 

Vocabulary Exercises

Exercise 1

Look at the students of your group and say:

1) who has the following type of hair

a) straight, long, short, curly, wavy

b) fair, dark, blonde, black, brown, grey

 

2) whose constitution can be characterized as

a) short, tall, of medium height

b) slim, plump, very thin

 

3) who has: plump cheeks, cheeks with dimples; round face, expressive eyes

Exercise 2

Look at the following words used to describe people’s character. Make two columns of 1) what you think are bad characteristics; 2) what you think are good characteristics.


tolerant

generous

sympathetic

irresponsible

unsociable

cruel

ambitious

intelligent

sly

patient

silly

even-tempered

thrifty

sincere

greedy

shrewd

rude

ill-mannered




Exercise 3

How would you describe a person who:


...likes to talk with other people?

...hates to communicate?

...looks on the bright side of things?

...looks on the black side of things?

...gives his or her last to other people?

...never lends you money?

...has a high opinion of himself or herself?

...easily flies into a rage?

...never loses his or her temper?

...tell the truth to others?

...cheats other people?

...is practical in approach to life?

...is dreamy in approach to life?

...never praises himself or herself?


 



CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

Appearances are deceptive. It is common truth; practically everyone has met at least someone whose character and appearance differ radically.

When one sees a tall, broad-shouldered youth, one expects him to be strong-willed and brave. One thinks: A model to follow! How often a good-looking individual turns out to be petty, weak-willed or even cowardly. Then one thinks: A mediocrity!

At the same time everyone knows that a lot of great people were of a poor build: short and fragile. It did not stop them from displaying intelligence and courage. Ingenuity does not depend on one’s complexion or constitution. Plump or fat people create an impression of generous and kind personalities. Strangely enough, but sometimes they may be thrifty or even greedy. One usually thinks: A scrooge!

On the other hand, thin or slim nervous ladies often tend to be lavish. They like to buy and never think twice when they pay. One thinks: I would call her open-handed and mother would call her a spendthrift. Yes, mothers are always stricter in judgments.

Has it ever happened to you to come to an important office and see an important boss? You immediately evaluate his looks: round-faced, small narrow eyes, dimples on the cheeks and an upturned nose. What a kind-hearted person! A simpleton! You tell the boss of your troubles and expect immediate help. But the boss appears to be rude, harsh and willful. You never get your help and think: A stone heart and an iron fist.

When someone sees a delicately built pretty blonde with curly hair, blue eyes, a straight nose and a high forehead, one is inclined to think that the beauty is intelligent and nice. It may be disappointing to think later: What a stupid, capricious, impolite bore!

On the contrary, when one sees a skinny brunette with ugly irregular features — a hooked nose, pointed chin, close-set eyes and thin lips, strange thoughts come into one’s head, because it is the image of evil people — cruel and cunning. It may be a relief some time later to find her a clever, gentle and good-mannered lady and think: What charm! A heart of gold!

Another general misconception lies in the fact that children are always expected to resemble their parents. And parents like it when children take after them. Relatives like to compare moles, the shape of noses, etc. The greatest compliment is: They are as like as two peas. The greatest disappointment is to find nothing in common. We want to deny people their exclusiveness; we don’t want to admit that nature has selected other options from an enormous genetic fund developed over generations. Why do we like our copies? Who knows!

Nature likes to play tricks on us. But don’t you think it is a present on the part of nature? Life becomes not a boring routine, but a brilliant kaleidoscope of characters and appearances which often clash.

Exercise 1

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions:

внешность обманчива; модель для подражания; слабого телосложения; проявлять ум и храбрость; зависеть от телосложения; быть щедрым, расточительным; простак; скряга; посредственность; добряк; быть похожим на родителей; быть похожими, как две капли воды.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. Appearances are….

2. When one sees a tall, broad-shouldered youth, one expects him to be….

3. Ingenuity does not depend on one’s….

4. Plump or fat people create an impression of….

5. Another general misconception lies in the fact that….

6. Relatives like to compare….

7. The greatest compliment is: ….

8. Nature likes….

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Do you agree that appearances are deceptive? Tell your classmates about your own experience.

2. Do you think it is worth judging by appearances? Give your reasons.  

3. What impression do plump and fat people usually make?

4. What kind of people is usually considered to be cruel and cunning?

5. What is more important for you: people’s character or appearance?

 

 

APPLYING FOR A JOB

In different countries different conventions apply to the process of job application and interviews. In most parts of the world, it is common to submit a typed CV (curriculum vitae — British English) or resume (American English). This contains all the unchanging information about you: your education, background and work experience. This usually accompanies a letter of application, which in some countries has to be handwritten not typed. A supplementary information sheet containing information relevant to this particular job may also be required though this is not used in come countries.

Many companies expect all your personal information to be entered on a standard application form. Unfortunately, no two application forms are alike and filling in each one may present unexpected difficulties. Some personnel departments believe that the CV and application letter give a better impression of a candidate.

 

THE CURRICULUM VITAE

An excellent CV may help you get the job of your dreams and a poor CV may mean a lost opportunity.

Since this is the first piece of information a company will receive about you, it is critically important that your CV be well-written.

It should be presented at the beginning of any interview that you have with a company. Ideally, CV should not be longer than one page.

The contents of a CV can be roughly categorized as: 1) PERSONAL INFORMATION (address and telephone number), 2) JOB OBJECTIVE, 3) EDUCATION, 4) EXPERIENCE, 5) SKILLS, 6) EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES, 7) REFERENCES.

The resume begins with PERSONAL INFORMATION, name, address, telephone number centered at the top page.

After your address, a statement of intent or JOB OBJECTIVE should be written. This objective should be well thought out from the very beginning since it will influence how you will write the rest of the resume. It should not be too general, e.g: ”To obtain a managerial position in a Western company.“

Think about your job search and career goals carefully, write them down in a way that shows you have given this much thought.

For example: ”Objective: To obtain a position in telecommunication that will allow me to use my knowledge of engineering and take advantage of my desire to work in sales.“

Notice that your desire to have a well-paid job is not included in this statement. A focus on money in your résumé’s first sentence will not make the best impression anywhere in the world, not just in Russia.

After the statement of intent, describe your EDUCATION.

List the universities, institutes and colleges you have attended in reverse chronological order.

Any studying you have done abroad should be included and courses that you have taken that are relevant.

If you graduated with honors, you should definitely include this. A ”red diploma“ can be called ”graduated with high honors“ in English. Do not include your high school.

Your working EXPERIENCE is the next section. List your experience starting with your most recent place of employment and work backwards.

Spell out the exact dates of employment, your position, and the name of the company you worked for.

Provide information about your responsibilities, emphasizing important activities by listing the most relevant to your objective. Do not use complete sentences! List your responsibilities in short statements that do not include the words ”my“ or ”I“.

Following experience, you should list your special SKILLS.

These include your language skills, computer abilities, and any other talent that relates to your statement of intent.

When describing your language abilities, it is best to be honest about assessing your level, ”Fluent English“, ”native Russian“, ”intermediate German“, and ”beginning French“ are all ways to describe your language abilities.

EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES should be included in the next section. Student or professional organizations you belong to, travel, sports and hobbies should be listed here.

Do not list ”reading“ or ”writing“ as an activity. It is assumed most people with a higher education do these things regularly.

The last section of your resume is the REFERENCE section. List at least two people, not related to you, who can describe your qualification for the job.

Their names, titles, places of work, and telephone numbers should be included. If you do not have space on your resume for this, write ”Available upon request.” “You will then be expected to give this information to a prospective employer if it is requested.

The style and format of a resume are extremely important. Your resume must be typed, preferably on a computer in order to format it most effectively. A neat and well-written resume with no spelling mistakes will give an employer the impression that you are accurate and take care of details.

A resume will not get you a job. An interview with a company will get a job. In order to have the opportunity of interviewing with a company you should send your resume with a cover letter.

Exercise 1

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions:

устраиваться на работу; краткая автобиография; дополнительная информация; личные данные; бланк (форма заявления); получить должность; опыт работы; навыки; рекомендации.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. In different countries different conventions apply to the process of …

2. CV contains all the unchanging information about you:…

3. An excellent CV may help you …

4. The contents of a CV can be roughly categorized as: …

5. When describing your language abilities, it is best to…

6. In order to have the opportunity of interviewing with a company you should…

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. What information should your CV contain?

2. How long should your CV be?

3. What are the main parts of CV?

 

Writing

Write a CV.

My Future Profession

Biotechnologists are researchers who use microscopic analysis and laboratory experiments to collect and analyze biological, microbiological, and biochemical data. They examine blood and tissue for signs of disease or viruses, and test the effects of different medicines on bacteria. Biotechnologists have made many discoveries that have led to improved human health. They can also work in forensics laboratories identifying and comparing materials such as blood, body fluids and hair.

The Things They Do:

· Collect samples and conduct biological, microbiological and biochemical tests and laboratory analyses;

· Perform or assist in scientific experiments;

· Set up and maintain laboratory equipment;

· Analyze research information and prepare reports;

Duties may be related to a number of developing specialties in the field of biotechnology, including forensic sciences, genetic engineering and human cell culture.

Working Conditions:

Biotechnologists often work in sterile laboratories within research teams and alongside scientists. A great deal of time is spent working alone, over a microscope and/or working in front of computers. The work requires tremendous attention to detail and intense concentration.

Most Biotechnologists Work In:

· Government agencies;

· Food, chemical and drug manufacturing companies;

· Biotechnology companies;

· Health research facilities and natural resource companies;

· Universities;

· Pharmaceutical companies;

To follow biotechnology as a preferred profession, you must have a sound grounding in science from the early school days. You must have keen interest in various branches of science not just for the sake of study or for obtaining good grades. Rather, you must have a keen perception to understand scientific applications and even keep pace with the latest news from the scientific world.

Important traits for getting into this domain are a high degree of intelligence and a general aptitude for science and scientific applications.

Since biotechnology is redefining the boundaries of science, to become a part of such an innovative field you must posses an inherent attitude of originality and imagination. Other skills that will sail you through a successful and a fulfilling career in this path-breaking area are perseverance, immense patience, analytical proficiency, ability to work for long hours and team spirit.

Biotechnology assimilates in itself a number of disciplines. Further, there is a great demand for biotechnical experts in countless industries and sectors. The following are applications where biotechnological techniques are used extensively:

·  Agriculture

·  Animal Husbandry

·  Environment Conservation

·  Genetic Engineering

·  Health Care

·  Medicine

·  Industrial Research and Development

Career opportunities for students in biotechnology abound. Those specializing in different sub-disciplines of this field can easily find jobs in both private and government sector undertakings. If you have acquired a post-graduate degree in biotechnology then you can easily find a suitable position in a number of industries.

Major recruiters include industries engaged in processing and developing agricultural and biological products, bio-processing industries, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. There are ample opportunities in industries producing healthcare products, textile industry, cosmetics and organisations engaged in different types of industrial research and development.

These days a growing number of qualified biotechnical professionals are engaged by different industries for environment protection activities and for the safe disposal of hazardous materials.

Exercise 1

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions:

исследователи; собирать и анализировать сведения; собирать образцы; проводить биохимические тесты; проводить научные эксперименты; готовить отчеты; широкие возможности; деятельность по защите окружающей среды.

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences:

1. Biotechnologists are researchers who…

2. Biotechnologists often work in…

3. The work requires…

4. Most biotechnologists work in…

5. To follow biotechnology as a preferred profession, you must…

6. Major recruiters include industries engaged in…

Exercise 3

Answer the questions:

1. Who are biologists?

2. What do they do?

3. What can you tell about working condition of biologists?

4. Where are biotechnological techniques used extensively?

5. What are the career opportunities for students in biotechnology?

 

Discussion

Do yon agree or not? Comment on the following statements.

1. A good name is better than riches.

2. A little body often harbours a great soul.

3. A word is enough to the wise.

4. All that glitters is not gold.

5. Handsome is as handsome does.

6. He that is full of himself is very empty.

7. You cannot judge a tree by its bark.

Role-play

A Formal Gathering

Setting: A formal gathering in a grand villa on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Situation: The Rich family invites a lot of people to their villa to the engagement of their son and the daughter of the Wealthy family. The guests hardly know each other. They entertain themselves by discussing the appearance and character of the people they see around. The host and the hostess circulate and hear what different people say about each other.

Characters:

Card I—II — Christopher and Christine, the fiancés.

Card III—IV — Mr. and Mrs. Rych, the owners of the villa.

Card V—VI — Mr. and Mrs. Wealthy, Christine’s parents.

Card VII—VIII — Franklin and Frances, newly-weds. Franklin is Christopher’s cousin. He owns a textile factory and is often away from home.

Card IX—X — Patricia and Flotilla — two middle-aged single women. They are Christine’s aunts. They never married because they could not find a good match.

Card XI—XII — Stephen and Stephanie, a married couple. Stephen is a distant relative to the Rich family.

Card XIII—XIV — Clement and Clementine, a married couple. Clement is a distant relative to the Wealthy family.

WRITING

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. My Self-Portrait.

2. What Kind of People Do You Get On with Best?

3. Looking through a Family Album.

 

 

Unit 2

Family Life

Family and Relatives

Topical Vocabulary


aunt

brother

cousin

daughter

father

grandchild

granddaughter

grandson

grandfather, grandpapa

grandpa

grandmother, grandmamma

grandma

grandparent (s)

great-grandchild

husband

ex-husband

in-laws

father-in-law

mother-in-law

son-in-law

mother

niece

nephew

parents

sister

son

step-father

step-daughter

step-son

twin

twin-brother

twin-sister

uncle

widow (woman)

widower (man)

wife

ex-wife

 

тетя; тетка

брат

двоюродный брат, двоюродная сестра

дочь

отец

внук; внучка
внучка
внук
дедушка
дедушка (ласкательное)
бабушка
бабушка (ласкательное)
дед и бабка
правнук; правнучка
муж
бывший муж
родители жены/мужа
свекор, тесть
свекровь, теща
зять (муж дочери)
мать
племянница
племянник
родители
сестра
сын
отчим
падчерица
приемный сын
близнецы
брат-близнец
сестра-близнец
дядя
вдова
вдовец
жена
бывшая жена

 

Consult the dictionary and translate the following words and word combinations:



Family

spouse

child, children

sibling

grandfather, grandmother, grandparents

great-grandfather, great-grandmother; great-grandchild

half-brother, half-sister

adopted son, adopted daughter, adopted child

foster family; foster father, foster mother, foster parents; foster son, foster daughter, foster child

Relatives

uncle, aunt; nephew, niece

cousin, first cousin, second cousin

my family, my relatives, my folks, my kin

Relatives by marriage

in-laws; father-in-law, mother-in-law; son-in-law, daughter-in-law

brother-in-law, brothers-in-law, sister-in-law, sisters-in-law

Age groups

child, baby, infant; teenager, adolescent; adult, grownup

young man, young woman; old man, old woman

Дата: 2019-02-24, просмотров: 147.