Modal Verbs (Модальные глаголы)

 

Модальными называются глаголы, выражающие не действие, а отношение к нему: возможность, необходимость, способность, вероятность и т. д. совершения действия, выраженного инфинитивом смыслового глагола, следующего за модальным. Модальные глаголы не изменяются по лицам и не имеют окончания - s в 3-м лице единственного числа (кроме эквивалентов модальных глаголов).

Особенности модальных глаголов:

1. Инфинитив смыслового глагола, следующий за модальным глаголом, употребляется без частицы to. Но модальный глагол ought, глаголы to have и to be в роли модальных, а также эквиваленты to be able и to be allowed требуют после себя инфинитива с частицей to.

2. В вопросительном и отрицательном предложениях они употребляются без вспомогательного глагола (кроме глагола to have to). В вопросительном предложении модальный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.

3. Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после модального глагола.

Модальный глагол или его эквивалент Выражает Present Past Future
can to be able (to)   мочь, уметь быть в состоянии can am/is/are able to could       was/were able to  –––– shall/will be able to
may to be allowed (to) мочь, иметь разрешение may am/is/are allowed to might       was/were allowed to                –––– shall/will be allowed to
must быть должным must          –––– –––-
have to вынужден, приходится have/has to had (to)   shall/will have to
be to должен (по плану) am/is/are to was/were to  ––––
should следует, следовало бы should –––– ––––
ought to следует, следовало бы ought to  –––– ––––

Упр. 1 4 . Выберите правильный ответ.

1. ___you speak any foreign languages?

a) May; b) Can; c) Have; d) Should.

2. Liz___get tired of her job. It is so boring.

a) has to; b) must; c) can; d) should.

3. Where's Nick? He___be in his office, but I don’t know for sure.

a) must; b) may; c) is to; d) should.

4. Take an umbrella. It___rain later.

a) has to; b) must; c) may; d) ought to.

 

5. Jack ___ go to hospital yesterday.

a) must; b) had to; c) should; b) can.

6. You look tired. You ___ go to bed.

a) should; b) ought; c) are to; d) can.

7. Although it contains many difficult words, I ___ read this book now.

a) may; b) could; c) can; d) am able.

8. ___ you find your way to the hotel? Yes I___.

a) May, can; b) Can, may; c) Can, can; d) Must, can

9. You will ___ speak Spanish in another few months.

a) can; b) have; c) be able to; d) ought.

10. The government ___ take care of old people.

a) should to; b) ought; c) must; d) may.

11. I ___ get up early on Mondays.

a) am able; b) have to; c) must; d) may.

12. My dentist says I ___ eat so many sweets.

a) can’t; b) ought not; c) shouldn’t; d) mustn’t.

13. They look alike. They ___ be twins.

a) must; b) can; c) may; d) have to.

14. You ___ walk on the grass!

a) can’t; b) mustn’t; c) mayn’t; d) have not.

15. As the sheep entered the harbor, we ___ see the Statue of Liberty.

a) could; b) can; c) may; d) must.

 

Часть 2

Тесты для проверки грамматических навыков

Variant 1

 

1. This is my ___ garden.

a) parents; b) parents’; c) parents’s; d) parent’s.

2. __ are students.

a) Us; b) We; c) I; d) He.

3. ___ English is very good.

a) Its; b) His; c) It; d) Him.

4. No, I don’t want ___ tomatoes.

a) a; b) no; c) any; d) some.

5. My favorite subject at school was ___ History.

a) the; b) a; c) an; d) –.

6. ___Thames flows through ___ London.

a) The, the; b) A, the; c) –, –; d) The, –.

7. I am not as clever as you. You are ___ I am.

a) clever than; b) cleverer as ; c) cleverer than;           d) more clever.

8.  My English is very good. I speak English ___ than you.

a) good; b) better; c) gooder; d) best.

9. Most nations ___ a written constitution.

a) have; b) has; c) are; d) will be.

10. Mag and her sister ___ in Rome.

a) lives; b) don’t live; c) aren’t live; d) are live.

11. ___ Jane Smith ___ English?

a) Does, speaks; b) Does, speak; c) Do, speak; d) Do, speaks.

12. I ___ Tom yesterday, but ____ Melinda.

a) see, didn’t see; c) saw, didn’t see;
b) saw, didn’t saw; d) saw, saw.

13. We ___ to the Black sea a year ago.

a) go; b) went; c) goed; c) going.

14. She ___ a graduate next year.

a) shall be; b) will; c) will be; d) won’t.

15. Granny is in the kitchen. She ___ a plum cake.

a) is making; b) making; c) makes; d) make.

16. ___ you ___ anything tomorrow?

a) are, –; b) doing; c) are, do; d) will, do.

17. I saw a light in your window as I ___ by.

a) pass; b) was passing; c) passing; d) passed.

18. What ___ between one and two? I phoned you several times.

a) you were doing; c) you doing;
b) were you doing; d) did you do.

19. They had fish hooks, so they ___ catch fish.

a) can; b) may; c) could; d) must.

20. They won’t ___ to drive a car until they are eighteen.

a) may; b) be able to; c) be allowed to; d) can.

 

Variant 2

 

1. ___ newspaper is usually very interesting.

a) Sunday; b) Sunday’s c) Sundays; d) Sundays’.

2. ___ am a first -year student.

a) We; b) I; c) Me; c) My.

3. Sally is a nice girl and I like ___.

a) her; b) she; c) hers; c) it.

4. There was ___ interesting in the report.

a) anything; b) some; c) nothing; c) any.

5. The rent is 50 $ ___ week.

a) the; b) a; c) an; d) –.

6. ___ English Channel is between ___ Great Britain and ___ France.

a) The, –, –. b) The, the, the; c) –;–,–; d) –, the, –.

7. Carlos is not so ___ at English as Jack.

a) good; b) better; c) worse; d) best.

8. Dorothy is ___ in her family.

a) youngest; b) the youngest; c) young; d) younger.

9. Where ___ yesterday?

a) you were;          b) you was;           c) you; d) were you.

10. Tony’s two sisters ___ in a bank.

a) works; b) work; c) doesn’t work; d) doesn’t works.

11. Where ___ Tom ___?

a) does, work; b) does, works; c) do, work; d) do, works.

12. Why not go to the National Gallery? I ___ there yesterday.

a) go; b) went; c) goed; d) gone.

13. When ___ you ___ your house?

a) did, build; b) did, built; c) did, builded; d) built.

14. I hope I ___ a good specialist in a few years.

a) become; b) became; c) will become; d) becomes.

15. Mary ___ in London at the moment.

a) living; b) is living; c) lives; d) live.

16. Why ___ at my desk? Could you take your place, please?

a) you sitting; b) you are sitting; c) sitting; d) are you sitting.

17. We ___ about him when he suddenly came in.

a) talking; b) were talking; c) talked; d) was talking.

18. At six o’clock yesterday I ___ Jenny at the station.

a) waiting; b) were waiting; c) was waiting; d) am waiting.

19. Children like books with large print. They ___ read them more easily.

a) must; b) can; c) should; d) ought.

20. Nobody answers the phone. They ___ be out.

a) may; b) must; c) can; d) should.

 

 

Variant 3

 

1. These ___ are sharp.

a) knifes; b) knifs; c) knives; d) knivs.

2. ___ Academy was founded in 1836.

a) Its; b) Ours; c) Our; d) It.

3. Give me ___ time to think.

a) much;              b) many; c) few; d) some.

4. Is there ___ in the reading-hall?

a) somebody; b) anybody; c) someone; d) some.

5. I can’t find___ letter which I received this morning.

a) a; b) an; c) the; d) –.

6. ___ Urals are old and not very high.

a) a; b) an; c) the; d) –.

7. – It isn’t very warm today, is it? – No, it was ___ yesterday.

a) more worm; b) warmer; c) the warmest; d) warmest.

8. Where is ___ post office, please?

a) the nearest; b) nearest; c) nearer; c) the next.

9. Simon ____ very tall.

a) am; b) is; c) are; d) has.

10. I ____ every day.

a) walk; b) walks; c) walking; d) to walk.

11. She ___like football very much.

a) don’t; b) doesn’t; c) hasn’t; d) isn’t.

12. I usually take a bus, but yesterday I____ a taxi as I was going to be late.

a) took; b) was taking; c) taked; d) take.

13. Where ___ yesterday?

a) went you;         b) did you went;           c) did you go;          d) was you go.

14. I ____ to Paris next week.

a) will fly; b) will to fly; c) am fly; d) flew.

15. I see you are very busy at the moment. What_____ ?

a) is you doing; b) you are doing; c) are you doing; d) do you do.

16. Just as Tom ___ the street a car came round the corner.

a) crossed; b) was crossing; c) crossing; d) were crossing.

17. The student ___ to the question, when the headmistress ___.

a) was replying, come in; c) replied, was coming in;
b) was replying, came in; d) replied, came in.

 

18. Usually I ___ coffee in the morning, but now I ___ tea.

a) am having, am drinking; c) have, am drinking;
b) have, drink; d) am having, drink.

19. I’d like ___ skate.

a) to can; b) to be able to; c) to have to; d) must.

20.___ you wait a few minutes?

a) can; b) must; c) should; d) ought.

 

Variant 4

 

1. There are many ___ in the street.

a) passers-by; b) passer-bys; c) passers-bies; d) passer-bies.

2. There is Diana. Can you see ___ ?

a) her; b) hers; c) she; d) it.

3. “Did your son make any progress in English?”. “Yes, but only ____ .”

a) any; b) many; c) a few; d) a little.

4. She hasn't seen ____ for over a week.

a) someone;      b) nobody;          c) anyone;     d) somebody.

5. The museum was opened as ____ private institution in 1875.

a) the;     b) – ;    c) an;     d) a.

6. The association which has been formed to unite the countries of Europe is called ____ European Union.

a) a; b) an; c) the; d) –.

7. The red book is ___the blue book.

a) old as;         b) as old as;                      c) as old like;         d) so older as.

8. This detailed map is ____ than the atlas.

a) most useful;     b) usefuller;      c) more useful;      d) more usefuler.

9. There ____.a big supermarket next to my house.

a) is; b) are; c) have; d) has.

10. What kind of books ____?

a) do you prefer ; b) have you prefer; c) you prefer; d) are you prefer.

11. I____agree with you.

a) doesn't ; b) don't ; c) haven't ; d) isn’t.

12. We went to a show yesterday, but we ____ it.

a) didn’t enjoyed; b) don’t enjoy; c) not enjoyed; d) didn’t enjoy.

13. My grandfather ____ this cottage 50 years ago.

a) was building;      b) builded;      c) built;       d) builds.

14. When ___ you come and see us in our new house?

a) are; b) will; c) were; d) shall.

15. What ___ about?

a) you thinking; c) you are thinking;
b) are you thinking; d) you think.

16. Tom is in his room. He ___ playing the piano.

a) is playing; b) playing; c) plays; d) play.

17. _____ TV when I phoned you?

a) Did you watched;     c) Did you watch;      
b) You watched;      d) Were you watching.

18.  I had to take a taxi last night, as it ___ very heavily.

a) rained; b) raining; c) was raining; d) was rain.

19. I ___ speak French without a problem now because I have had many lessons.

a) may; b) can; c) have; d) ought.

20 . Here you ____ read curious facts about the history of the department.

a) should; b) can; c) had to; d) allow to.

 

Приложение 1

    Таблица глаголов, изменяющихся не по общим правилам

Неопределенная форма The Infinitive Прошедшее время Past Indefinite Причастие прошедшего времени Participle II
1. be [bi:] быть was [w z], were [wə:] been [bi:n]
2. become становиться became [bi`keim] become [bi`k m]
3. begin [bi`gin] начинать began [bi`gæn] begun [bi`g n]
4. blow [blou] дуть blew [blu:] blown [bloun]
5. break [breik] ломать broke [brouk] broken [broukn]
6. bring [briŋ] приносить brought [br :t] brought [br :t]
7. build [bild] строить built [bilt] built [bilt]
8. burn [b :n] гореть burnt [b :nt] burnt [b :nt]
9. buy [bai] покупать bought [b :t] bought [b :t]
10. can [kæn] мочь could [kud]  
11. catch [kætò] ловить caught [k :t] caught [k :t]
12. come [k m] приходить came [keim] come [k m]
13. cost [k st] стоить cost [k st] cost [k st]
14. cut [k t] резать cut [k t] cut [k t]
15. deal [di:l] иметь дело с … dealt [delt] dealt [delt]
16. do [du:] делать did [did] done [d n]
17. draw [dr :] рисовать drew [dru:] drawn [dr :n]
18. drink [driŋk] пить drank [dræŋk] drunk [dr ŋk]
19. drive [draiv] ехать drove [drouv] driven [drivn]
20. eat [i:t] есть ate [et] eaten [i:tn]
21. fall [f :l] падать fell [fel] fallen [f :lən]
22. feel [fi:l] чувствовать felt [felt] felt [felt]
23. find [faind] находить found [faund] Found [faund]
24. fly [flai] летать flew [flu:] flown [floun]
25. forget [fə`get] забывать forgot [fə`g t] forgotten [fə`g tn]
26. get [get] получать got [g t] got [g t]
27. give [giv] давать gave [geiv] given [givn]
28. go [gou] идти went [went] gone [g n]
29. grow [grou] расти grew [gru:] grown [groun]
30. hang [hæŋ] вешать hung [h ŋ] hung [h ŋ]
31. have [hæv] иметь had [hæd] had [hæd]
32. hear [hiə] слышать heard [hə:d] heard [hə:d]
33. hide [haid] прятать hid [hid] hidden [hidn]
34. hurt [hə:t] причинять hurt [hə:t] hurt [hə:t]
35. keep [ki:p] хранить kept [kept] kept [kept]
36. know [nou] знать knew [nju:] known [noun]
37. learn [lə:n] учиться learned [lə:nd] learnt [lə:nt] learned [lə:nd] learnt [lə:nt]
38. leave [li:v] оставлять left [left] left [left]
39. lend [lend] давать взаймы lent [lent] lent [lent]
40. let [let] позволять let [let] let [let]
41. lose [lu:z] терять lost [l st] lost [l st]
42. make [meik] делать made [meid] made [meid]
43. mean [mi:n] значить meant [ment] meant
44. meet [mi:t] встречать met [met] met [met]
45. put [put] класть put [put] put [put]
46. read [ri:d] читать read [red] read [red]
47. ride [raid] ездить верхом rode [roud] ridden [ridn]
48. rise [raiz] подниматься rose [rouz] risen [rizn]
49. run [r n] бежать ran [ræn] run [r n]
50. say [sei] сказать said [sed] said [sed]
51. see [si:] видеть saw [s :] seen [si:n]
52. sell [sel] продавать sold [sould] sold [sould]
53. send [send] посылать sent [sent] sent [sent]
54. set [set] устанавливать set [set] set [set]
55. show [òou] показывать showed [òoud] shown [òoun]
56. sit [sit] сидеть sat [sæt] sat [sæt]
57. sing [siŋ] петь sang [sæŋ] sung [s ŋ]
58. speak [spi:k] говорить spoke [spouk] spoken [spoukn]
59. spend [spend] проводить spent [spent] spent [spent]
60. stand [stænd] стоять stood [stu:d] stood [stu:d]
61. sweep [swi:p] подметать swept [swept] swept [swept]
62. swim [swim] плавать swam [swæm] swum [sw m]
63. take [teik] брать took [tuk] taken [teikn]
64. tear [teə] рвать tore [t :] torn [t :n]
65. tell [tel] рассказывать told [tould] told [tould]
66. teach [ti:tò] обучать taught [t :t] taught [t :t]
67. think [qiŋk] думать thought [q :t] thought [θ :t]
68. throw [qrou] бросать threw [qru:] thrown [qroun]
69.understand [, ndə`stænd] понимать understood [, ndə`stu:d] understood [, ndə`stu:d]
70. wear [weə] носить wore [w :] worn [w :n]
71. win [win] выигрывать won [w n] won [w n]
72. write [rait] писать wrote [rout] written [ritn]

Приложение 2

Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 234.