Task 1. Learn the following words and word combinations
medicinalplants [mə'dɪs(ə)n(ə)l][plɑːnts] лекарственные растения
herbalremedies ['hɜːb(ə)l]['remədɪz] лекарство растительного происхождения
primaryhealthcare ['praɪm(ə)rɪ][helθ][kɛə] первичный уход (помощь) за здоровьем
to distinguish and name the kinds of plants [dɪ'stɪŋgwɪʃ][neɪm][kaɪndz] [plɑːnts] различать и называть виды растений
chemicalcompounds ['kemɪk(ə)l]['kɔmpaundz] химические соединения
essential [ɪ'sen(t)ʃ(ə)l] существенный, важный
maintenance ['meɪnt(ə)nəns] поддержка
secondary metabolites ['sek(ə)nd(ə)rɪ][mə'tæbəlaɪts] вторичныеметаболиты
estimate ['estɪmeɪt] определять, устанавливать, оценивать
defencemechanism [dɪ'fens]['mekənɪz(ə)m] механизм защиты
to deter predation [dɪ'tɜː][pri'deɪʃən] зд. отпугиватьвредителей
pollination [pɔlə'neɪʃ(ə)n] опыление
to yield medicinal compound s [ji:ld] [mə'dɪs(ə)n(ə)l] ['kɔmpaundz] давать(производить) лекарственные соединения
herbs and spices [hɜːbz][spaɪsəz] травыиспеции
species ['spi:ʃi:z] 1.вид, 2.род (ед. и мн.число без изменений)
purgativeaction ['pɜːgətɪv]['ækʃ(ə)n] слабительное действие
mucilage ['mju:sɪlɪʤ] растительная слизь

Task 2. Find the words and word-combinations in the text, reproduce the context they are used in and translate into Russian:

1. medicinal plants

2. the collection and use

3. all kinds of drugs

4. the father of medicine

5. the word drug comes from

6. means “dried plant”

7. currently available

8. herbal remedies

9. WHO

10. pharmaceuticals

 

Task 3. Answer the questions:

1. When did the collection and use of medicinal plants begin?

2. What does the word drug come from and what does it mean?

3. Do herbal remedies have a long history of use?

4. What part of the world’s population uses herbal medicine for primary health care?

5. What do all plants produce?

6. What substances do many plants synthesize?

7. What useful synthesized substances can we name?

8. How many secondary metabolites have been isolated?

9. What role do alkaloids play?

10. What do herbs and spices used by humans yield?

11. The functions of secondary metabolites are varied, aren’t they?

12. Are drug plants cultivated and collected today?

13. What are some drugs made from?

14. What is rhubarb used for? What part of the plant is used for medicinal purpose?

15. Althaea is used as a sedative and what forms is it used in?

 

Task 4. Mach English sentences to their Russian equivalents:

1. After peeling Althaea is cut into small pieces. a. Корневище растения “ревень” собираются от растений возрастом 6-7 лет.
2. All plants produce chemical compounds as part of their normal metabolic activities. b. После процедуры высушивания с корневищ снимают кожуру.
3. The rhizomes of the rhubarb are collected from six to seven year old plants. c. После очистки алтей разрезают на мелкие кусочки.
4. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the world’s population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. d. Кроме использования в развивающихся странах, лекарство растительного происхождения применяется и в промышленно развитых странах врачами альтернативной медицины, такими как гомеопаты.
5. Plants have always been of interest to man. e. Все растения продуцируют химические соединения, как часть своей метаболической деятельности.
6. In addition to the use in the developing world, herbal medicine is used in industrialized countries by alternative medicine practitioners such as homeopath. f. Многие растения синтезируют вещества, которые полезны для поддержания здоровья людей и животных.
7. The functions of secondary metabolites are varied. g. По оценкам ВОЗ, 80% населения мира в наше время использует лекарства растительного происхождения с целью первичной заботы о здоровье.
8. After the drying operation the rhizomes are peeled. h. Растения всегда представляли интерес для человека.
9. Some drugs are made from fruits, leaves, flowers, roots and seeds of the plants. i. Функции вторичных метаболитов разнообразны.
10. Many plants synthesize substances that are useful to the maintenance of health in humans and animals. j. Некоторые лекарства готовятся из фруктов, листьев, цветов, корней, семян растений.

Task 5. Translate the given sentences into Russian, close your book and translate then back into English:

1. The collection and the use of medicinal plans began many thousands years ago.

2. Such names of drugs as hemlock, gentian and others were mentioned by Hippocrates in his book about drugs.

3. The word drug comes from the Dutch word “droog”, which means “dried plant”.

4. The pharmaceuticals that are currently available to physicians were used as herbal drugs many years ago.

5. These herbal remedies are opium, morphine, codeine, aspirin, digitalis, quinine, etc.

6. 80 percent of the world’s population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care.

7. Herbal medicine is used both in developing countries and industrialized world.

8. Alternative medicine practitioners all over the world consult population and give their recommendations on the use of medicinal plants.

9. Today many drug plants are cultivated and many are collected from fields and woods.

10. Some drugs are made of fruits, leaves, roots, flowers, seeds of the plants.

 

Task 6. Retell the text.



Theme 14

Atthe Pharmacy

Pharmacy is a specialized shop, where medicines and items for medical care are sold. There are usually two departmentsthere: prescription department and chemist’s department and also there are some working rooms for the stuff. At the prescription department medicines are made up according to the doctor’s administration. At the chemist’s department medicines and medicinal plants may be bought without any prescriptions. The working areas of a pharmacy include rooms for glassware washing, drying and sterilization; an analytical laboratory, special rooms for medicines storing and dispensing.

At the pharmacy medicines are kept either in special drug cabinets or on the open shelves or in refrigerators. For instance, strong medicines and toxic agents must be kept separately and locked. The drugs prepared at the pharmacy for the immediate use should be stored in a refrigerator. Powders, galenical preparations, and medicines made of medicinal plants are usually held at a constant room temperature on the shelves protected from light. Medical care items (hot-water bottles, medicine droppers, thermometers, bandages etc), and some goods which are not connected directly to medicine (cosmetics, shampoos, tooth pastes and others) are kept and displayed separately from drugs.

Every bottle or box with a medicine should be labeled indicating its name, dosage, intake directions, indications or contraindications information about the manufacturer and the expiry date. It’s very important for sick people as well as for those who take care of them to know all necessary information before using a particular medicine.

There are various kinds of packages and production forms of medicines: boxes and parcels of different powders, ampoules for intramuscular and intravenous injections; tubesof rubbing ointments ,various pills, , tablets, etc. As a rule all medicines are classified and arranged in the pharmacy’s glass cases according to their therapeutic use: drugs for cough, cardiac medicines, pain or fever relievers and so on. For exampled:

· analgesics - to kill pain;

· antiarrhythmics -  to control irregular heartbeat;

· antibiotics - to fight bacteria;

· anticoagulants - to prevent blood clotting;

· antidepressants - for changing mood; 

· antihistamines - to fight allergies;

· antihypertensives - to lower blood pressure;

· anti-inflammatories - to reduce inflammation;

· diuretics - to get rid the body of excess fluids;

· immunesuppressants - to prevent the body from rejecting organ transplants;

· laxatives - to increase bowel movements;

· sedatives - to suppress anxiety and relax the muscles;

· vitamin supplements - for inadequate diet and digestive disorders.

To protect the public, all medicines must be tested and officially authorized to make sure that they are safe i.e. produced in accordance with quality standards.Pharmacists are regarded as experts in pharmacology and can help their customers to make the right choice.

Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 35.