Task 1. Learn the following words and word combinations
various microbial agents ['vɛərɪəs][maɪ'krəubɪəl] 'eɪʤ(ə)nts] различные
liquid droplets ['lɪkwɪd]['drɔpləts] жидкие капельки
common cold ['kɔmən][kəuld] обычная простуда
vaccine must be readministered ['væksi:n][mʌst][bi:] [ֽrɪəd'mɪnɪstəd] вакцинадолжнаназначатьсянеоднократно
meninges [mə'ninʤəz] мягкиемозговыеоболочки
meningitis [ֽmenɪn'ʤaɪtɪs] менингит
complication [ֽkɔmplɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n] осложнение
to cough and sneeze [kɔf][sni:z] кашлятьичихать
invasion [ɪn'veɪʒ(ə)n] проникновение
measles ['mi:zlz] корь
predispose [ֽpri:dɪ'spəuz] предрасполагать
to be resistant [bi:][rɪ'zɪst(ə)nt] бытьустойчивым
scarlet fever  ['skɑːlət]['fi:və] скарлатина
rubella [ru:'belə] краснуха
to be isolated [bi:]['aɪsəleɪtɪd] бытьвыделенным (хим.)
fetus ['fi:təs] плод (гинеколог.)

 

Task2.Find the following words and word- combinations in the text, reproduce the context they are used in and translate it into Russian:

1. infectious diseases,

2. cause dangerous complications,

3. may be accompanied by,

4. the best way to avoid flu or cold

5. bacterial infection of the ear,

6. anti-viral medication

7. people of risk groups

8. inflammation of the meninges,

9. caused by streptococcal bacteria, 

10. antibiotics are administered promptly

11. an artificial immunity

 

Task3.Answer the questions:

1. What is understood as an infectious disease in medicine?

2. What agents can an infection be caused by?

3. What types of influenza can you name?

4. What complications can flu cause?

5. What is the best way to avoid getting cold or flu?

6. What germs cause meningitis?

7. Why scarlet fever was a very dangerous disease before the advent of antibiotics?

8. When was the rubella virus first isolated?

9. When did the rubella vaccine become available?

10. What methods help to prevent the spread of infectious diseases?

 

Task4.Match the English sentences to their Russian equivalents:

1. An infection is the invasion and replication in the body by any of various microbial agents. a. Грипп вызывает вирус гриппа и он подразделяется на три типа: A,B,C.
2. The real significance of bacteria comes in the fact that we are living in a world filled with them. b. Известно, что искусственный иммунитет вырабатывается в результате профилактической вакцинации, которая в нашей стране проводится против многих инфекционных заболеваний. 
3. Influenza viruses cause the flu and are divided into three types, designated A, B, and C.  c. Холодная погода не вызывает простуду, ее причиной являются инфицированные люди.
4. An artificial immunity is known to result from prophylactic vaccination, which is carried out against a number of infectious diseases in our country. d. Истинное значение бактерий вытекает из того факта, что мы живем в мире, наполненном бактериями.
5. Cold weather does not ‘’cause’’ colds, infected people cause colds. e. Инфекция- это внедрение и размножение в организме каких-либо микробов.
6. Viral and bacterial meningitis enter the body through the upper respiratory tract. f. Вирус краснухи впервые был выделен в 1962г, а вакцина была создана в 1969.
7. We can often meet scarlet fever with children and only sometimes in grown-ups.   g. Вирусный и бактериальный менингит проникает через верхние дыхательные пути.
8. Scarlet fever is an acute infectious disease caused by streptococcal bacteria. h. Инфекционное заболевание – это процесс, вызываемый микроорганизмом, который повреждает здоровье людей.
9. The rubella virus was first isolated in 1962, and a vaccine was made available in 1969. i. Скарлатина- это острое инфекционное заболевание, которое вызывает стрептококковая бактерия.
10. Infectious disease is a process caused by a microorganism that impairs a person’s health.   j. Скарлатина часто встречается у детей и очень редко у взрослых.

 

Task5.Translate he given sentences into Russian, close your book and translate them back into English:

1. Respiratoryinfections stand as the third death cause.

2. Tuberculosis is still a life-threatening infectious disease in the world.

3. Flu-related complications can occur at any age. However, the elderly and people with chronic health problems are much more likely to develop serious complications.

4. Cold is characterized by a ‘’running nose”, coughing, and sneezing and may be accompanied by laryngitis or bronchitis.

5. The best way to avoid getting flu or cold is to keep your immune system strong eating a healthy diet and taking regular exercise.

6. Inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord is known as meningitis.

7. Scarlet fever can affect people of all ages, but it is most often seen in children. 

8. Children with scarlet fever used to be immediately isolated and quarantined.

9. Rubella (German measles) is a viral disease with a mild and benign activity in most people.

10. Symptoms of both viral and bacterial meningitis are the same: muscle pain,fever, stiff neck, nausea and a headache.

 

Task6.Retell the text.

 

 

 



Theme 9

Oral Health and Hygiene

Good oral health is important not only for our appearance but also for our overall health. Cavities and gum diseases may influence many serious conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, respiratory diseases, etc. Untreated cavities can also be painful and lead to serious infections. Proper oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean in order to prevent dental problems and bad breath. Good oral health should be a priority at all life stages, in order to keep the teeth till old age. Smoking is a major risk factor for oral and dental disease; it may cause oral cavity cancer.

There are 5 steps to keep oral health:

· see your dentist regularly; some pre cancerous lesions often are detected by dentist when the patient comes for check up. 

· clean your teeth twice a day. Use a soft-bristle toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste to remove plaque and bacteria causing cavities, periodontal and gum diseases. Fluoride makes the surface of teeth more resistant to acids during the process of demineralization. The use of dental floss is an important element of the oral hygiene, since it removes the plaque between teeth. Make flossing your habit and do it regularly. 

· eat a well-balanced diet. Healthy food is good for your general health and your oral health. Bread and cereals are rich in vitamin B while fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C, both of which contribute to healthy gum tissue. Lean meat, fish, and poultry provide magnesium and zinc for teeth. Drink fluoridated water.

· check your mouth regularly. Be aware of warning signs of periodontal disease. Gum disease is one of the main reasons why adults lose their teeth.

· don’t smoke or chew tobacco.

Dental caries is another name for tooth decay where bacterial infection affects the hard outer layer lining of the teeth which consists of enamel, cementum and dentin. The bacteria live in plaque and break down sugars from diet to produce acid. Diagnosis for tooth caries is quite simple. Less obvious decays can only be detected by an X-ray test. The decayed part of the tooth is removed using a dentist’s drill and is filled in with paste. If the decay is beyond repair, the tooth will be extracted.

Periodontal disease also called Periodontitis or Gum Disease is a bacterial infection that destroys the supporting structures holding the teeth in their place. The main etiologic agent is bacterial plaque. Left untreated, this disease can lead to bone grafts, gum grafts, and ultimately tooth loss. Some of the early warning signs are slight bleeding when you brush, gums are getting softer andare changing their colour from pink to red.

Thrushof mouth is a yeast infection that may appear in an individual’s mouth that is caused by uncontrollable growth of an organism known as Candida albicans. One of the leading and primary reasons of oral thrush is gorge of antibiotics. Candidiasis is not generally a critical condition. The exception is that it enters the blood and then multiplies in organs particularly in people with weakened immune systems. For this reason an antifungal prescription can be administered.

The best way to prevent dental diseases is to practice good oral and to make your check up regularly.

 

Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 15.