|1. With the demise of the western Roman Empire about the year 475 AD (Christian Era), medicine in Europe declined into a torpor .||a. Мини-импланты появились в Европе в 1963г. благодаря работе доктора Черчива.|
|2. Dr. Leonard I. Linkow graduated in 1952 from NewYork College of Dentistry and soon after began pioneering the modern field of implant dentistry.||b. Его стоматологическое устройство, состоявшее из двигающейся ручки и наконечника для бормашины, к которому крепилось сверло, приводилось в движение ножным приводом.|
|3. We can trace the origin of mini implants in Europe with the work of Dr. Chercheve in 1963.||c. С упадком западной Римской Империи (475 год от Рождества Христова), медицина в Европе остановилась в своем развитии.|
|4. However, their use spread slowly to stabilization of partials and in some cases, fixed teeth.||d. Доктор Леонард Линков закончил Нью- Йоркскийстоматологический колледж в 1952 году и вскоре после окончания начал разрабатывать современное направление стоматологии - имплантологию.|
|5. Dr. Linkow placed his first implant prosthesis, a complete unilateral subperiosteal implant to support a posterior unilateral fixed restoration, weeks after his graduation from dental school.||e. В начале XVII века ряд брадобреев, занимающихся кровопусканием, стали заниматься только хирургией; таким образом слово “цирюльник” из названия профессии исчезло, и они стали называть себя хирургами.|
|6. He also marketed the dental chair throughout Europe and continued to make improvements to its design which he also patented.||f. Постепенно их начали использовать для стабилизации частично съемного протеза и в некоторых случаях для стабилизации несъемного протеза.|
|7. His dental engine consisted of a moveable arm and hand piece onto which a drill was attached and was powered by a foot treadle.||g. Благодаря великим ученым, в XX веке в стоматологии появилось множество новых технологий, материалов и методов.|
|8. By the early 1700's, dentistry was considered a lesser part of medicine||h. К началу XVIII века стоматологию стали считать частью медицины.|
|9. In the 1600s a number of barber-surgeons began restricting their activity and dropped the word “barber,” simply calling themselves surgeons.||i. Вскоре после окончания обучения на стоматологическом факультете Доктор Линков установил первый имплант (односторонний поднадкостничныйимплант) для поддержания заднего одностороннего протеза.|
|10. The 20th century saw an explosion of new materials, techniques and technology in dentistry thanks to great scientists.||j. Он также занимался продажей стоматологических кресел в Европе, и продолжал совершенствовать запатентованный им дизайн.|
Task 5. Translate the given sentences into Russian, close your book and translate them back into English.
1. The only places where medicine or surgery was practiced were monasteries.
2. The local barbershelped monks in their surgical ministrations.
3. By the end of the 18th century, dentistry had begun to emerge as an independent discipline.
4. He acquired a patent for this invention, continually making improvements to it.
5. They practiced simple dentistry, including extractions and cleaning of teeth.
6. It seemed that the use of mini- implants was limited to temporary situations as a stabilizer and support for prosthesis.
7. Chercheveproposed several theories on the relationship of the metallic endosteal implant to its osseous environment.
8. Some dentists decided to test their limits by manufacturing implants with the same material.
9. In 1870 he made his first major contribution to restorative dentistry with the invention of power-driven dental tools.
10. Each of these books is prefaced with words of admiration from other respected leaders in the field.
Task6. Retell the text.
Pharmacy (from the Greek word φάρμακυ = drug) is a transitional field between health sciences and chemical sciences. Pharmacist is a professionalcharged with ensuring the safe use of medication. Traditionally, pharmacists (chemists) have compounded and dispensed medications bypractical physicians’ orders. Recently, pharmacy became involved in patient care including clinical practice, medication review and information about new drugs launch. So, pharmacists are experts in medicines who can help their customers to make the right choice and provide them with necessary information.
Pharmacists must know the use, clinical effects, and compositions of drugs, including their chemical, biological, and physical properties. Compounding - the actual mixing of ingredients to make powders, tablets, capsules, ointments, and solutions – is a small part of pharmacist’s practice, because most medicines are produced by pharmaceutical companies in a standard dosage and mass production form. Pharmacists are responsible for the accurate fulfillment of every prescription given.
Moreover, pharmacists are engaged not only intheir traditional work butgradually some of them are being involved in research work for pharmaceutical manufacturers. They help develop new drugs and therapies, and test their effects on people. Other may work in marketing or sales, providing expertise of drugs use effectiveness and possible side effects. They may alsocooperate with health insurance companies. Moreover, some pharmacists are employed as full time or part time college tutors teaching classes and performing research in a wide range of areas.
Pharmacists work in clean, well-lighted, and well-ventilated premises. Many of them spend most of the workday standing on their feet. While working with sterile or dangerous pharmaceutical products, chemists wear gloves and masks and use other special protective equipment. Many municipal and hospital pharmacies are open day and night. Consultant pharmacists may visithospitals, nursing homesand other medical institutions to monitor drug therapy and its effects.
The personnel of an average pharmacy consists of a manager, a dispensing chemist who takes prescriptions and delivers drugs; a chemist who controls the prescriptions, (i.e. physical, physico-chemical and pharmacological compatibility of the ingredients of the compound prescribed by a physician); a chemist-analyst, who controls effectiveness of the drug.
There are pharmacists which are in charge of supplying customers with medicines. All of them are highly trained in all aspects of medicines and their professional code ensures that any information the customers share remains confidential. Any pharmacist can supply medicines for a range of problems and can advise the buyers about the best way of treating minor problems such as coughs and colds, sprains and bruises, skin problems and others. If you have questions about your medicine after you leave the doctor’s office, the pharmacist can answer many of them. For example, a pharmacist can tell you how and when to take your medicine, whether this drug may affect another medicine you are taking, and any side effects you might have. Also, the pharmacist can answer questions about over-the-counter medications.
Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 33.