Task 5.Translate the sentences from Russian into English

1. Слово «фармация» произошло от греческого слова «φάρμακυ».

2. В обязанности фармацевта входит не только приготовление, распределение и отпуск лекарственных средств, но и помощь покупателям в их правильном выборе и использовании.

3. Фармацевты несут ответственность за точность заполнения рецептов, поэтому им следует быть очень внимательными и даже скрупулезными.

4. В настоящее время приготовление лекарств по предписанию врача составляет лишь малую часть фармацевтической практики.

5. Огромное количество лекарств выпускается фармацевтическими компаниями в стандартной дозировке и упаковке.

6. Многие фармацевты работают экспертами в медицинских страховых компаниях, занимаясь разработкой страховых пакетов и выполняя анализы выгодности затрат для различных лекарственных средств.

7. Как известно, многие фармацевты участвуют в научно-исследовательских проектах, разрабатывая новые лекарства и проверяя их терапевтическое воздействие на пациентов.

8. При работе со многими лекарственными средствами фармацевт должен строго соблюдать меры безопасности, пользоваться маской и перчатками.

9. Фармацевту необходимо постоянно повышать свой профессиональный уровень, быть в курсе новинок, уметь грамотно порекомендовать их покупателям.

10. В аптеке покупателю помогут не только выбрать нужное лекарство, но разработать удобную схему приема, соответствующую его обычному распорядку дня.

Task 6.Retell the text.



Theme 13

Medicinal Plants

Plants have always been of interest to man. The collection and the use of medicinal plants began many thousands years ago. At an early period men distinguished and named some kinds of plants they found.

Hippocrates, the father of medicine who described drugs made of such medicinal plants as hemlock, gentian and many others.

The word drug itself comes from the Dutch word “droog” (via the French word “drogue”), which means “dried plant”. Some examples are quinine (from the cinchona [siηkounə]), morphine and codeine (from the poppy) and digoxin (from the foxglove).

Many of the pharmaceuticals currently available to physicians have a long history of use as herbal remedies e.g. opium, aspirin, digitalis (foxglove) and quinine. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the world’s population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care.

In addition to the use in the developing world, herbal medicine is used in industrialized countries by alternative medicine practitioners such as homeopaths.

All plants produce chemical compounds as part of their normal metabolic activities. These are divided into primary metabolites, such as sugars and fats, found in all plants, and secondary metabolites, compounds not essential for basic function found in a smaller range of plants, some useful ones found only in a particular genus or species.

Many plants synthesize substances that are useful to the maintenance of health in humans and animals. These include aromatic substances, most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins. In many cases, substances such as alkaloids serve as defense mechanisms against microorganisms, insects. Many herbs and spices used by humans yield useful medicinal compounds.

The functions of secondary metabolites are varied. For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation, and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination.Today many drug plants are cultivated and many are collected from fields and woods.Some drugs are made from fruits, leaves, flowers, roots and seeds of the plants.

Here are some medicines made of plants and their use: 

Rhubarb [ru:ba:b]: The rhizomes [raizəmz] of the rhubarb are collected from six to seven year old plants just before the flowering season.The rhizomes are dried either in the sun or in ovens. After the drying operation the rhizomes are peeled. Rhubarb was used in China more than 4000 years ago. It was used by the Greek and Roman physicians and was used in Europe in the Middle Ages.Rhubarb was used for its purgative action.

Althaea[ǽlθiə]: The generic name, Althaea, is derived from the Greek altho (to cure), from its healing properties. The name of the family, Malvaceae, is derived from the Greek malake (soft), from the special qualities of the Mallows in softening and healing. Biennial roots of this plant are collected, dried and peeled. After peeling it is cut into small pieces. Althaea is used as a sedative in the form of mucilage or in the form of syrup. Famous Marshmallow is a confection that has been softened in hot water and whipped to a spongy consistency. This is the modern version of a medicinal confection made from Althaea, the marshmallow plant.

Interesting facts.

The 16th-century French diplomat JeanNicotbeing in Portugal saw a miraculous plant imported from Americaand brought tobacco leaves to Franceto treat Catherine de Medici for her migraines.Nicot believed that the plant could cure cancer, headaches and many other diseases. But time showed that he was absolutely wrong. We owe Nicot the word “nicotine”.

 

Дата: 2018-12-28, просмотров: 41.