Глагол « to be » (быть, являться, находиться)
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Глагол «to be» употребляется в качестве вспомогательного глагола; в качестве глагола-связки, соответствуя в русском языке глаголам быть, являться; в качестве модального глагола и как смысловой глагол быть, находиться.

В отличие от других глаголов, глагол «to be» изменяется по лицам и числам.

Местоимения Present (настоящее) Past (прошедшее)

Future

(будущее)

I am

 

 

was

shall be

 

will be

He

 

is

 

She
It
We

 

are

 

were

shall be
You

 

They

 

Примечания: 1) В разговорной речи в утвердительной форме в настоящем времени обычно употребляются следующие сокращения:

I am = I'm; he is = he’s; she is = she’s; it is = it’s; we are = we’re; you are = you’re; they are = they’re.

2) Отрицательная форма в настоящем и прошедшем времени образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после глагола. В будущем времени частица not ставится после shall и will . А в разговорной речи обычно используются следующие сокращения:

is not = isn’t; are not = aren’t; was not = wasn’t; were not = weren’t; shall not be = shan’t be; will not be = won’t be.

Например : She is not busy now. = She isn’t busy now.

  He was not at home in the evening. = He wasn’t at home in the evening.

  I shall not be a doctor. = I shan’t be a doctor.

3) Для образования вопросительной формы глагол выносится перед подлежащим. В будущем времени выносятся только shall и will .

Например: Is she busy now?

  Was he at home in the evening?

          Shall I be a doctor?

4) В вопросе к подлежащему глагол предполагает форму 3-го лица ед. числа.

Примеры образования утвердительных, отрицательных и вопросительных форм:

+ The books are on the shelf.

 Children were in the yard.

We shall be at home in the evening.

- Books are not on the shelf.

Children were not in the yard.

We shall not be at home in the evening.

 ? 1) общий

  Are the books on the shelf?

  Ответ: Yes, they are. The books are on the shelf.

  Were children in the yard?

Ответ: Yes, they were. Children were in the yard.

Shall we be at home in the evening?

Ответ: Yes, we shall. We shall be at home in the evening.

2) альтернативный

  Are the books or copybooks on the shelf?

  Ответ: The books are on the shelf.

  Were children in the yard or at home?

Ответ: Children were in the yard.

Shall we be at home or at college in the evening?

Ответ: We shall be at home in the evening.

3) a) разделительный (+)

    The books are on the shelf, aren’t they?

    Ответ: Yes, they are. The books are on the shelf.

     Children were in the yard, weren’t they?

Ответ: Yes, they were. Children were in the yard.

We shall be at home in the evening, shan’t we?

Ответ: Yes, we shall. We shall be at home in the evening.

   b) разделительный (-)

    The books aren’t on the shelf, are they?

    Ответ: Yes, they are. The books aren’t on the shelf.

     Children weren’t in the yard, were they?

Ответ: Yes, they were. Children weren’t in the yard.

We shan’t be at home in the evening, shall we?

Ответ: Yes, we shall. We shan’t be at home in the evening.

4) a) специальный (on the shelf)

  Where are the books?

b) специальный (in the yard)

      Where were children?

c) специальный (at home)

  Where shall we be in the evening?

d) специальный (in the evening)

   When shall we be at home?

5) вопрос к подлежащему

  What is on the shelf?

  Who was in the yard?

    Who will be at home in the evening?

Упражнения для закрепления грамматики:

Exercise 1. Заполните пропуски формами глагола “ to be ” в Present Indefinite .

1) Where …you? – I … in the kitchen.

2) … you busy? – No, I … not. Mike … busy.

3) It … ten o’clock. She … late again.

4) We … interested in classical music.

5) Helen … a painter. Her pictures … on the walls.

6) My clothes … dirty.

7) Your hair … long and dark.

8) Our family … large. We … six.

9) All the family … at home today.

10) Her pajamas …warm.

Exercise 2. Заполните пропуски формами глагола “ to be ” в Past Indefinite .

1) My Granny … a teacher.

2) We … not at home yesterday.

3) The deer … in the Zoo.

4) Money … in the pocket.

5) … you at college in the morning? – Yes, I … .

6) When I studied at school, Physics … my favourite subject.

7) The news … very important for us.

8) It …cold yesterday.

9) Our football team was small last year.

10) My watch … 5 minutes slow.

Дата: 2018-12-21, просмотров: 172.