Construction of the Automobile

Automobiles are trackless (1), self-propelled (2) vehicles for land transportation of people or goods, or for moving materials. There are three main types of automobiles. These are passenger cars, buses and lorries (trucks). Cars are very complicated machines, with an incredibly simple job of turning wheels.

The primary components of a car are the power plant (3), the power transmission, the running gear, and the control system. The body of a car is mounted on the chassis. To these may be added the accessories (4): the heater, lights, radio, speedometer and other devices.

The power plant, or engine is the source of power that makes the wheels rotate and the car move. It includes the carburettor, ignition, lubrication, and cooling systems, and the starter motor. Most automobile engines have six or eight cylinders.

The chassis consists of a power train (5), frame with axles (6), wheels and

springs (7). The chassis includes brakes and steering system (8). The power train carries the power from the engine to the car wheels and contains the clutch (9), gearbox, propeller or cardan shaft, differential and the final drive (10).

The clutch is a friction device connecting (or disconnecting) the engine crankshaft to the gears in the gearbox. It is used for freeing the gearbox from the engine and is controlled by the clutch pedal.

Brakes are important mechanisms of the car. They are used to slow or stop the car. Most braking systems in use today are hydraulic. They are operated by the brake pedal. When the driver pushes down on the brake pedal, they are applied and the car stops.    

 

Automobile Production

 

Specialists in automobile industry deal with designing and manufacturing cars, so they should know that the production of the automobile comprises the following phases:

1) designing, 2) working out the technology of manufacturing processes, 3) laboratory tests, 4) road tests, 5) mass production.

It is important to know all these facts as before the automobile is put into mass production, it should be properly designed and the automobile must meet up-to-date requirements. What are these requirements?

The automobile must have high efficiency, long service life, driving safety, ease of maintenance and pleasant appearance.

In order to obtain all these qualities engineers should develop up-to-date (11) methods of designing cars, using new types of resistant to corrosion light materials.

Also it is important to know computer science because it is intended to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing. Computers offer quick and optimal solutions of problems.

Before the car is put into mass production all its units and mechanisms are subjected to tests (12), first in the plant’s laboratory, then the car undergoes a rigid quality control in road tests.

What qualities are required of the automobile? The modern automobile must be rapid in acceleration, must have smooth acting clutch (13), silent gearbox, dependable (14) brakes and steering system, as well as pleasant appearance. Also it must be comfortable and have all conveniences.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. trackless – бездорожный, безрельсовый

2. self-propelled – самоходный

3. power-plant – силовая установка

4. accessories – вспомогательные устройства

5. power train – силовая передача

6. a frame with axles – рама с осями

7. springs – рессоры

8. steering system – рулевая система

9. clutch – сцепление

10.  final drive – главная передача

11.  up-to-date – современный

12.  to be subjected to tests – подвергаться испытаниям

13.  smooth acting clutch – плавное сцепление

14.  dependable - надежный

 

VIII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What components does the automobile consist of?

2. Why are brakes needed?

3. What phases does the production of the automobile comprise?

4. What qualities are required of the automobile?

 

Вариант III

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого, укажите инфинитив. Переведите предложения .

 

1. Machine parts are subjected to x-ray examination.

2. We were shown a number of experiments illustrating the presence of high-energy particles in the cosmic radiation.

3. Many power plants are being built in our country.

4. The atomic power has been applied to all fields of man’s civilian activity.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be , to have , to do .

 

1. Some substances do not conduct heat.

2. These computers will have to perform millions of operations per second.

3. Mechanization is to be distinguished from more primitive tool using.

4. Metals conduct electricity better than semiconductors do.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. It is often possible to build a compound directly from its elements.

2. He spoke about the plan to increase the production of the plant.

3. To master this speciality is not an easy thing.

4. Our idea was to design a new device for automatic control.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. The development of science and technology is known to be the most important source of the steady growth of the people’s well-being.

2. I consider them to be good specialists.

3. These phenomena are believed to be interdependent.

4. We know many human activities to have played a part in scientific inventions.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. Reading in a foreign language one often comes across unfamiliar words and expressions.

2. The properties of a composite matter are always quite different from those of the elements it consists of.

3. One of the greatest problems thrown up by our era is that of outer space.

4. It is necessary to find new sources of cheap energy.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

 

1. The visible side of the moon has been studied ever since Galileo invented the telescope.

2. In the year 2020 we will most likely use televisions to interact with the world as we do now with the telephones.

3. Elements are transformed into other elements both by man and nature.

4. I can either come or ring you up.

 

VII . Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Bearings

 

A bearing is a mechanical device for decreasing friction in a machine in which a moving part bears-that is, slides or rolls on another part. Usually a bearing confines the motion of a part and prevents it from moving in any other way. The common bearings are found at the rigid supports of rotating shafts where friction is the greatest. That part of a shaft which rotates in a bearing is called a journal (1) and the outer portion is a sleeve (2).

Bearings were invented early in history; when the wheel was invented, it was mounted on an axle, and where the wheel and axle touched was a bearing. Such early bearings had surfaces of wood or leather lubricated with animal fat.

Modern bearings have been designated (3) as friction and antifriction bearings.

The first type comprises sleeve or journal bearings.; the second, ball and roller bearings (4). Neither type of bearings is completely frictionless, and both are highly efficient in reducing friction.

Bearing materials must have sufficient strength. They must be good conductors of heat, uniform in structure, resistant to abrasion, and have a low coefficient of friction when dry or slightly greasy. Steel, cast iron and various alloys are commonly used as bearing materials. Lubrication is necessary to reduce the frictional contact between the rolling members and the rotating cages (5), to help to dissipate the heat, otherwise the bearing may “seize”.

Gears

 

A gear is a toothed wheel or cylinder used to transmit rotary or reciprocating motion from one part of a machine to another. Two or more gears, transmitting motion from one shaft to another, constitute a gear train (6). Gearing (7) is a term used to describe systems of wheels or cylinders with meshing teeth (8).

The simplest gear is the spur gear (9), a wheel with teeth cut across its edge parallel to the axis. Spur gears transmit rotating motion between two shafts or other parts with parallel axes. In simple spur gearing, the driven shaft revolves in the opposite direction to the driving shaft. If rotation in the same direction is desired, an idler gear (10), is placed between the driving gear (11) and the driven gear. In any form of gearing the speed of the driven shaft depends on the number of teeth in each gear.

Bevel gears (12) are employed to transmit rotation between shafts that do not have parallel axes. These gears have cone-shaped bodies and straight teeth.

Helical gears (13) have teeth that are not parallel to the axis of the shaft, but are spiralled around the shaft in the form of a helix. Such gears are suitable for heavy loads because the gear teeth come together at an acute angle rather than (14) at 90˚ as in spur gearing.

Worm gearing is a variation of helical gearing. A worm gear (13) is a long, thin cylinder that has one or more continuous helical teeth that mesh with a helical, gear. Worm gears are used chiefly to transmit rotation, with a large reduction in speed, from one shaft to another at a 90˚ angle.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. a journal – цапфа, шейка вала, пята

2. a sleeve – втулка, полый вал, муфта, штуцер, ниппель

3. to designate [dezigneit]- определять, обозначать

4. ball bearings – шариковые подшипники

friction bearings– подшипники скольжения

roller bearings – роликовые подшипники

5. a cage – сепаратор (подшипника качения)

6. a gear train – зубчатая передача, блок шестерен

7. gearing – зубчатая передача, механизм привода

8. meshing teeth – постоянное зацепление

9. a spur gear – целиндрическое прямозубое колесо, зубчатая шестерня

10. an idler gear – паразитная (промежуточная) шестерня

11. a driving gear – ведущая шестерня

12. a bevel gear – коническое зубчатое колесо

13. a helical gear – геликондальное (косозубое) зубчатое колесо

14. rather than - а не…, скорее чем …

15. a worm gear – червячная передача

 

VIII . Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What is a bearing?

2. What types of bearings are used in engineering?

3. What is a gear?

4. What forms of gearing are distinguished in mechanics?

 

Вариант IV

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого, укажите инфинитив. Переведите предложения .

 

1. The road will be built in order to supply the works with fuel.

2. The engineer was asked about the new technology that had been introduced at the plant.

3. Today plastics are being applied for car bodies.

4. In mechanics the study of kinematics is followed by the study of dynamics.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be , to have , to do .

 

1. The smallest positive particle is the hydrogen atom after it has lost an electron.

2. Our students did brilliant work in the field of physics.

3. We are to prepare everything for the experiment.

4. The students were told at the lecture that dynamo had been invented at the end of the 19th century.

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. They promised to supply us with the necessary equipment.

2. The experiment to be carried out is of great importance for our research.

3. The aim of our research work is to find the necessary data to proceed with our experiments.

4. To know the principles of computer automated design and manufacturing* is of great importance for any modern engineer.

* computer automated design and manufacturing (CAD and CAM) – система автоматизированного проектирования и производства  

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1. We expect the scientific and technological progress to speed up the intensification of production.

2. The Sun and stars are proved to be able to produce great quantities of energy by means of certain nuclear reactions.

3. Copper and gold are known to be the first metals discovered by man.

4. We believe this property of a new metal to be of vital importance.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

 

1. One must apply the material that can be machined easily.

2. Our planet is an incredibly beautiful one, from the heights of space it looks wonderful.

3. It is hydrogen that will be the main source of energy in the car of the future.

4. The efficiency of the diesel engine is higher than that of the other engines.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

 

1. Documentation in the manual can cover such things as operation, maintenance, servicing, and repair.

2. When weight is lifted to a given level, it possesses potential energy due to its position.

3. He both teaches and caries out research work at the University.

4. The scholar has been working on the problem since 1993.

VII. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 282.