ПСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

 

ПСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

 

 

Т.Е. Клец

Английский язык

Методические указания и контрольные работы

для студентов I-II курсов

механико-машиностроительного факультета

Заочной формы обучения

 

Псков

Издательство ППИ

2007

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

 

ПСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

 

 

Т.Е. Клец

Английский язык

Методические указания и контрольные работы

для студентов I-II курсов

механико-машиностроительного факультета

Заочной формы обучения

 

Псков

Издательство ППИ

2007

 

УДК 802.0

ББК 81.2 Англ.

К 48

Рекомендовано к изданию научно-методическим советом Псковского государственного политехнического института

 

 

Рецензенты: Н.П. Додонова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент,

                   зав. кафедрой методики преподавания иностранных языков

                   ПОИПКРО

                   Е.А. Стрелкова, старший преподаватель,

                   зав. кафедрой иностранных языков ППИ

                   Е.А. Никифорова, ассистент кафедры иностранных языков ППИ

 

 

К 48

Т.Е. Клец

Английский язык

Методические указания и контрольные работы для студентов I-II курсов механико-машиностроительного факультета заочной формы обучения.

Псков: Издательство ППИ, 2007, - 79 с.

 

 

· Псковский государственный политехнический институт, 2007

· Клец Т.Е., 2007

 

Т.Е. Клец

Кафедра иностранных языков

Английский язык

Методические указания и контрольные работы

для студентов механико-машиностроительного факультета

заочной формы обучения

 

Отпечатано с готового оригинала-макета

 

 

Подписано в печать 26.12.2006.

 

____________________________________________________

Формат 60*90/16. Гарнитура Times New Roman. Усл. п.л. 8,68.

Тираж экз. 130. Заказ №

 

 

Адрес издательства:

Россия, 180000, Псков, ул. Л. Толстого, 4.

Издательство ППИ

 

Методические рекомендации

по выполнению контрольных работ по английскому языку

для студентов ЗФО

 

Цель методических указаний - помочь Вам в Вашей самостоятельной работе над развитием практических навыков чтения и перевода литературы по специальности на английском языке.

Для того, чтобы добиться успеха в изучении иностранного языка, необходимо приступить к работе над языком с первых же дней занятий в вузе и заниматься языком систематически.

Особенностью изучения иностранного языка в заочной системе обучения является то, что большая часть языкового материала должна прорабатываться самостоятельно.

Работайте в соответствии с тематическим учебным планом (указаниями), предлагаемым Вам кафедрой иностранных языков института. Внимательно прочтите следующие разделы:

 

Правила чтения

 

Прежде всего необходимо научиться правильно произносить и читать слова и предложения. Чтобы научиться правильно произносить звуки и правильно читать тексты на английском языке, следует: во-первых, усвоить правила произношения отдельных букв и буквосочетаний, а также правила ударения в слове и в целом предложении, особое внимание следует обратить на произношение тех звуков, которые не имеют аналогов в русском языке; во-вторых, регулярно упражняться в чтении и произношении по соответствующим разделам учебников и учебных пособий.

Для того, чтобы научиться правильно читать и понимать, следует широко использовать технические средства, сочетающие зрительное и слуховое восприятие. Систематическое прослушивание аудиозаписей помогает приобрести навыки правильного произношения.

При чтении необходимо научиться делить предложения на смысловые отрезки – синтагмы, что обеспечит правильную технику чтения, необходимую для правильного понимания текста.

 

Запас слов и выражений

 

Чтобы понимать читаемую литературу, необходимо овладеть определенным запасом слов и выражений. Для этого рекомендуется регулярно читать на английском языке учебные тексты, газеты и оригинальную литературу по специальности.

Работу над закреплением и обогащением лексического запаса рекомендуется проводить следующим образом:

1. Работая со словарем, выучите английский алфавит, а также ознакомьтесь по предисловию с построением словаря и с системой обозначений, принятых в данном словаре.

2. Слова выписывайте в тетрадь или на карточки в исходной форме с соответствующей грамматической характеристикой, т.е. в единственном числе; глаголы в неопределенной форме (в инфинитиве), указывая для неправильных глаголов основные формы. 

При переводе с английского языка на русский необходимо помнить, что трудности вызывает следующее:

1. Многозначность слов. Например, слово convention имеет значения:   1) собрание, съезд; 2) договор, соглашение, конвенция; 3) обычай;               4) условность. Подобрать нужное значение слова можно только исходя из контекста.

The convention was successful. – Собрание прошло успешно.

That is not in accord with convention. – Это здесь не принято.

     2. Омонимы (разные по значению, но одинаково звучащие слова). Их следует отличать от многозначных слов.

some – какой-нибудь и sum – сумма

break – ломать и brake – тормоз

left – левый и left – Past Indefinite от глагола to leave оставлять, покидать

Only few people write with the left hand. – Немногие пишут левой рукой.

They left Moscow for Kiev. – Они уехали из Москвы в Киев.

3. Конверсия. Образование новых слов из существующих без изменения написания слов называется конверсией. Наиболее распространенным является образование глаголов от соответствующих существительных. Например: water (вода) – to water (поливать), control (контроль) - to control (контролировать), cause (причина) – to cause (причинять, являться причиной)

4. Интернационализмы. В английском языке имеется много слов, заимствованных из других языков, в основном из греческого и латинского. Эти слова получили широкое распространение в языках и стали интернациональными. По корню таких слов легко можно догадаться о их значении и о том, как перевести их на русский язык. Например: mechanization – механизация, atom - атом.

Однако наряду с частым совпадением значений интернациональных слов некоторые интернационализмы разошлись в своем значении в русском и английском языках, поэтому их часто называют «ложными друзьями» переводчика. Например:

accurate – «точный», а не «аккуратный», resin – «смола», а не «резина», control – не только «контролировать», но и «управлять».

5. Словообразование. Эффективным средством расширения запаса слов служит знание способов словообразования в английском языке. Умея расчленить производное слово на корень, префикс и суффикс, легче определить значение неизвестного слова. Кроме того, зная значение наиболее употребительных префиксов, вы сможете без труда понять значение семьи слов, образованных от одного корневого слова, которое Вам известно.

6. В английском языке имеется ряд глаголов, которые употребляются с послелогами и образуют новые понятия. Благодаря послеслогам сравнительно немногочисленная группа слов отличается большей многозначностью. К этой группе относятся глаголы to get, to be, to make, to go, to put и ряд других.

В словаре глаголы с послеслогами пишутся после основного значения глагола в порядке алфавита послеслогов. Часто перед послеслогами пишется только начальная буква основного глагола,

 например: to go - идти, to go about – циркулировать (о слухах, деньгах) ,

 to go back - возвращаться, to go in for – увлекаться.

7. В английском языке очень часто существительное употребляется в функции определения без изменения своей форм. Структура  «существительное+существительное+существительное» (и т.д.) вызывает трудности при переводе, т.к. существительные стоят подряд. Главным словом в такой группе является последнее, а все предшествующие существительные являются определениями к нему.

      Некоторые существительные-определения могут переводиться прилагательными, например:

cane – тростник, cane sugar – тростниковый сахар,

sugar – сахар, sugar cane – сахарный тростник,

machine-building industry – машиностроительная промышленность.

      Однако подобный способ перевода не всегда возможен; часто такие определения приходится переводить существительными в косвенных падежах или предложными оборотами. Порядок перевода обуславливается смысловыми связями между определениями и определяемым словом. Перевод следует начинать справа налево с последнего существительного, а существительные, стоящие перед ним в роли определения, нужно переводить на русский язык существительными в косвенных падежах (чаще родительном) или предложным оборотом, например:

export grain – зерно на экспорт (экспортное зерно)

grain export – экспорт зерна

8. В текстах научного характера английские словосочетания часто переводятся одним словом:

raw materials - сырье

radio operator - радист

construction works - стройка, строительные мастерские

Сочетание трех, четырех слов может быть передано по-русски двумя-тремя словами: an iron and steel mill – металлургический завод.

9. Иногда при переводе с английского языка на русский приходится применять описательный перевод и передавать значение английского слова с помощью нескольких русских слов. Например:

существительные: characteristics – характерные особенности,

efficiency – коэффициент полезного действия,

necessities – предметы первой необходимости,

output – выпуск продукции, solid – твердое тело;

глаголы и наречия: to average – составлять, равняться в среднем, mainly – главным образом.

10. Научная литература характеризуется наличием большого количества терминов. Термин – слово или словосочетание, которое имеет одно строго определенное значение для определенной области науки и техники. Неизвестный термин следует искать в терминологическом словаре.

 

 

Работа над текстом

 

Поскольку основной целевой установкой обучения является получение информации из иноязычного источника, особое внимание следует уделять чтению текстов.

Понимание иностранного текста достигается при осуществлении двух видов чтения:

1) чтения с общим охватом содержания;

2) изучающего чтения.

Читая текст, предназначенный для понимания общего содержания, необходимо, не обращаясь к словарю, понять основной смысл прочитанного. Понимание всех деталей текста не является обязательным.

Чтение с охватом общего содержания складывается из следующих умений:

а) догадываться о значении незнакомых слов на основе словообразовательных признаков и контекста; б) «видеть» интернациональные слова и устанавливать их значение; в) находить знакомые грамматические формы и конструкции и устанавливать их эквиваленты в русском языке;      г) использовать имеющийся в тексте иллюстрационный материал, схемы, формулы и т.п.; д) применять знания по специальности общетехническим предметам в качестве основы смысловой и языковой догадки.

Точное и полное понимание текста осуществляется путем изучающего чтения. Изучающее чтение предполагает умение предполагает умение самостоятельно проводить лексико-грамматический анализ, используя знания общетехнических и специальных предметов. Итогом изучающего чтения является точный перевод текста на родной язык.

     Проводя этот вид работы, следует развивать навыки адекватного перевода текста (устного и письменного) с использованием отраслевых словарей, терминологических словарей, словарей сокращений.

При работе над текстом используйте указания, данные в разделах 

I, II, III.

 

5. Выполнение контрольных заданий и оформление

Контрольных работ

1. Количество контрольных заданий, выполняемых Вами на каждом курсе, устанавливается учебным планом института.

2. Каждое контрольное задание в данном пособии предлагается в 4-х вариантах. Вы должны выполнить один вариант. Кафедра иностранных языков указывает вариант, который студент должен выполнить. Все остальные варианты можно использовать в качестве материала для дополнительного чтения и подготовки к экзамену.

3. Выполнять письменные контрольные работы следует в отдельной тетради. На обложке тетради напишите свою фамилию, шифр, номер контрольной работы.

4. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, в тетради в клетку, писать следует через строку. При выполнении контрольной работы оставляйте в тетради широкие поля для замечаний, объяснений и методических указаний рецензента. Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:

 

Левая страница Правая страница
Поля: Английский текст Русский текст: Поля

 

5. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены в той последовательности, в которой они даны в настоящем пособии.

6. Выполненные контрольные работы направляйте для проверки и рецензирования в институт в установленные сроки.

7. Если контрольная работа выполнена не в соответствии с указаниями или не полностью, она возвращается без проверки.

6. Исправление работы на основе рецензий

 

1. При получении от рецензента контрольной работы внимательно прочтите рецензию, ознакомьтесь с замечаниями рецензента и проанализируйте отмеченные в работе ошибки.

2. Руководствуясь указаниями рецензента, проработайте еще раз учебный материал. Все предложения, в которых были обнаружены орфографические, лексические и грамматические ошибки, а также неточности в переводе, перепишите начисто в исправленном виде в конце данной контрольной работы.

3. Только после того, как будут выполнены все указания рецензента и исправлены все ошибки, можно приступить к изучению материала очередного контрольного задания и его выполнению.

4. Отрецензированные и исправленные контрольные работы являются учебными документами, которые необходимо сохранять; помните о том, что во время зачета или экзамена проводится проверка усвоения материала, вошедшего в контрольные работы.

 

 

Письменные консультации

Следует сообщать своему рецензенту о всех затруднениях, возникающих у Вас при самостоятельном изучении английского языка, а именно: а) какие предложения в тексте вызывают затруднения при переводе; б) какой раздел грамматики Вам непонятен;

в) какие правила, пояснения, формулировки не ясны; г) какие упражнения и что именно в них представляется затруднительным.

При этом укажите название учебника или учебного пособия, по которому Вы занимаетесь, издательство, год издания, страницу учебника, номер упражнения.

 

Подготовка к зачету и экзамену

В процессе подготовки к зачету и экзамену рекомендуется: а) повторно прочитать и перевести наиболее трудные тексты из учебника;                             б) просмотреть материал отрецензированных контрольных работ;                      в) проделать отдельные упражнения из учебника для самопроверки;                  г) повторить материал для устных упражнений.

 

 

Контрольная работа №1

Изучите следующие разделы грамматики по учебнику:

1. Имя существительное. Множественное число, артикли и предлоги. Выражение падежных отношений в английском языке с помощью предлогов и окончания -s, существительное в функции определения и его перевод на русский язык.

2. Имя прилагательное. Степени сравнения имен прилагательных. Конструкции типа: the more, the less.

3. Числительные.

4. Местоимения. Личные, притяжательные, вопросительные, указательные, неопределенные и отрицательные.

5. Форма настоящего (Present), прошедшего (Past), будущего (Future), времени группы Indefinite Active Voice изъявительного наклонения. Повелительное наклонение и его отрицательная форма.

6. Простое распространенное предложение: прямой порядок слов повествовательного и побудительного предложений в утвердительной и отрицательной формах; обратный порядок слов вопросительного предложения. Оборот there is (are).

7. Основные случаи словообразования.

 

Вариант I

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием – s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Indefinite ;

б) признаком мн. числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Research work involves an ability to observe individual facts and draw 

conclusions.

2. Newton’s contribution to physics was immense.

3. Automation makes it possible to obtain and develop new sources of energy.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

 

1. Pistons of car engines are made of aluminium.

2. The service life of various machine parts is different.

3. A complex system of conveyer belts moves car parts to workers who perform

various assembly tasks.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Machine-tools with electrical drive are faster and more accurate than hand

tools.

2. Lathe is the most important and versatile machine-tool in the work-shop.

3. The harder we study, the more we know.

4. Engineers work at the problem of making computers as small as possible.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

 

1. This book is of no use to me. There is little information in it.

2. When a person wants to say something he will find a way to say it.

3. There is hardly any information in this report.

4. Yesterday I looked for the new reference-book on elements of machines 

everywhere but didn’t find it anywhere.

 

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видо-временные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The students will not solve this problem without their teacher’s help.

2. This plant specialized in producing engines long ago.

3. One of the main trends in automobile building is the wide-scale utilization of

diesel engines in lorries. 

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Branches of Physics

Physics is the systematic study of natural phenomena that discovers the basic laws of them. Physics is divided into several major topics, namely (1), mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics and nuclear physics.

Mechanics is the oldest branch of physics that concerns the state of rest or motion of particles and rigid bodies and forces acting on bodies. The subject has three main branches: statics, dynamics and fluid mechanics.

In statics, the forces acting on the body, are so arranged that the body is in equilibrium – it does not move in any way.

Dynamics deals with systems in motion and may be divided into kinetics and kinematics. Kinetics studies the effect of forces in changing the motion of bodies. Kinematics is the science in which the motion of particles or rigid bodies is studied without reference to (2) the forces which produce the motion. Problems in dynamics involve the paths of projectiles (3) (e.g. bullets and rockets), the motion of planets, pendulums and all moving bodies.

Fluid mechanics includes the theory of gases, hydrodynamics (the motion of liquids), and aerodynamics.

The motion of objects and their behaviour are measured in terms of distance, time, velocity, acceleration, mass and force.

Newton’s second law, relating force to acceleration, and his third law, relating action and reaction, form the basis of mechanics.

Sir Isaac Newton defined force and mass and related them to acceleration. Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity superseded (4) Newton’s laws for objects travelling at speeds close to the speed of light.

For atomic and subatomic particles, Newton’s laws were superseded by quantum theory. For everyday phenomena Newton’s laws of motion remain the cornerstone (5) of dynamics, which is the study of motion.

There are several types of motion. First, velocity may be constant. With constant velocity, the average velocity is equal to the velocity at any particular time.

In the second special type of motion, the body moves with an acceleration. Circular motion is another simple type of motion. If an object has constant speed but an acceleration always at right angles to its velocity, it will travel in a circle. Another simple type of motion occurs when a ball is thrown at an angle into the air. The path of the ball is in the shape of a parabola.

The quantity called energy ties together all branches of physics. There are different kinds of energy: gravitational potential energy, electric and magnetic potential energy, kinetic energy and terminal energy, etc. In all transformations from one kind of energy to another the total energy remains the same.

Thus, mechanics is one of the most important branches of physics that concerns the motion of objects and their response (6) to forces.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. namely – а именно 

2. without reference to … - независимо от …

3. projectile – (реактивный) снаряд, пуля

4. to supersede - заменять

5. cornerstone – краеугольный камень

6. response – ответная реакция

 

VII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:  

1. What does physics study?

2. What are the main branches of physics?

3. How can physical bodies move?

4. What are the main quantities used in mechanics?

 

Вариант II

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; определите по грамматическим

признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные

окончанием – s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет,

т.е. служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Indefinite ;

б) признаком мн. числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. This experiment contributes useful information to our research.

2. The sound’s velocity in the air varies with the temperature.

3. Matter consists of one or a number of basic nature elements.

 

Machines

 

Machine is a simple device that affects the force, or effort, which is necessary to do a certain amount of work. Machines make a tough job easier because a person applies less force or applies force in a direction that is easier to manipulate. Machines also increase the speed at which work makes an object travel.

There are four types of simple machines: the lever, the pulley (1), the inclined plane (2), and the wheel and axle. Most mechanical machines, such as automobiles or power tools, are complex machines composed of many parts. Various parts of machines consist of some combinations of the four simple machines. An everyday example of a complex machine is the can opener, which combines a lever (the handle), a wheel and axle (the turning knob), and a wedge (3) (the sharpened cutting disk).

The history of machines dates back thousands of years. The lever was the first simple machine that was utilized by humans. The first levers were branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. In ancient times people used metal or stone wedges when they split wood and rocks. Historians believe the people of ancient Mesopotamia (an early civilization near modern – day Iraq) used wheels as early as 3500 B.C. Chariots in Asia Minor used spoked wheels, which were lighter than solid wheels (4), as early as 2000 B.C.

The Greek inventor Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) developed a screw-type device known as Archimedes’ screw for raising water. Some modern water pumps still use this principle. According to the legend, Archimedes also used a block and tackle (5) to pull ships onto dry land. Machines transform natural energy, such as wind and falling water, into work. Waterwheels and windmills are good examples of simple machines that transform natural energy into reciprocating (6) motion and electricity.

Many everyday objects are combinations of simple machines. They are known as complex machines. An automobile is one of such machines. The engine contains many levers, wheels and axles, and pulleys. The whole engine is held together by bolts, which are a form of inclined plane. The transmission uses gears, which are a form of wheel and axle.

Even devices that do not seem to be mechanical use simple machines. A computer, an electronic device, has a cooling fan. This fan is a complex machine in which the motor shaft turns the fan, which is a form of wheel. The disk drive (7) uses a wheel and axle to turn the disk and a system of levers to position the heads that read and write the data on the disk.

Machines help people make life easier and more comfortable. The production of new generations of machines and equipment increases productivity and promotes (8) technical progress.         

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. pulley - блок, шкиф, ролик

2. inclined plane - наклонная плоскость

3. wedge - клин

4. spoked wheel - колесо со спицами

5. block and tackle - тали

6. reciprocating - поступательный

7. disk drive - дисковод

8. to promote - способствовать, продвигать, содействовать

B.C. (Before Christ) - до нашей эры

 

VII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What is a machine?

2. What are the principle types of simple machines?

3. When did people start using simple machines?

4. What are the examples of simple and complex machines?

 

Вариант III

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; определите по грамматическим

признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные

окончанием – s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е.

служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Indefinite ;

б) признаком мн. числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. A new system enables researchers to carry out complicated tests.

2. The Internet, a global web of computer connections, uses various networks to

deliver texts, sound and images.

3. Our lecturer’s book on strength of materials is well-known and popular.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая

внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений,

выраженных именем существительным.

 

1. Mass production refers to manufacturing process with an assembly line.

2. Most castings (отливки) serve as details or component parts of complex

machines and products.

3. Internal combustion engines (двигатели внутреннего сгорания) use

petroleum as fuel.

 

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы

сравнения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Automatic devices make labour safer and easier.

2. It is necessary to use the latest means of control in industry.

3. The stronger the magnet, the greater the distance through which it acts.

4. When Mars is at its greatest distance from the Earth it is nearly as bright as

the Polar Star.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

 

1. The experiment added nothing new to our knowledge of the properties of this

substance. 

2. Any scientist realizes the importance of this invention. 

3. Somebody told me that many specialists wanted to take part in this research.

4. The researcher measures everything with a great degree of accuracy.

 

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видо-

временные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите

предложения на русский язык.

 

1. There were not many changes in the properties of the substance.

2. We use metals for a variety of engineering purposes.

3. The life of the machine-tool will depend on the care of the operator.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Four Industrial Revolutions

Mechanical engineering (1) is the most general of the engineering (2) disciplines. It is connected with mechanisms, machines and energy conversions. The history of mechanical engineering goes back to the time when the man first tried to make machines. We call the earlier rollers, levers (3) and pulleys (4) the work of mechanical engineering. People used slave labour to construct and operate the great engineering works of ancient times. During the Middle Ages people began to seek devices and methods of work that were more efficient and humane. Wind, water and some animals were used to provide energy for some of these new devices.

Mechanical engineering, as we understand it today, starts from the first Industrial Revolution. The first Industrial Revolution took place in England between 1760 and 1840. Metal became the main material of the engineer instead of wood, and steam gave man great reserves of power. This power drove railway engines and ships. James Watt was the key figure (5) in the early development of steam engines. He devised (6) the concept of horsepower (7) to calculate the amount of work his machines performed.

In the second Industrial Revolution, from 1880 to 1920, electricity was the main technical force. It provided power for factories that was easier and cheaper to control than steam. At that period such new industries as chemical and electrical engineering, as well as production methods such as semi-automatic (8) assembly lines appeared. In the 19th century the engineers began to combine scientific research and practical application of its results on a vast scale (9).

The third Industrial Revolution coincided with the advent (10) of automation. The first stage of automation – mechanization, or the use of machines to do the work of animals or people, was introduced into all manufacturing processes (11). There are six basic kinds of mechanization. Classification depends on whether machines, or combination of animals and people, are responsible for the three main elements that occur in every type of activity – power, action and control.

Around the middle of the last century there occured a great scientific invention in the world. The electronic computer influenced all spheres of life. We can’t imagine our life without computers.

What is the fourth Industrial Revolution? It will be characterized by automated machines that are versatile and programmable. The machines will perform work according to different sets of computer instructions. It will be characterized by flexible, automated machinery, the most interesting example of which are robots. Now we are entering the fourth Industrial Revolution.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. mechanical engineering - машиностроение

2. engineering - техника, конструирование машин, машиностроение, 

                      инженерное дело, строительство

3. lever - рычаг

4. pulley - шкиф, блок, ролик

5. the key figure - ключевая фигура

6. to devise - изобретать

7. horsepower - лошадиная сила

8. semi-automatic - полуавтоматические сборочные линии

9. on a vast scale - в большом масштабе

10. advent - приход, появление

11. manufacturing process - производственный процесс

VII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What does mechanical engineering deal with?

2. What are the main features of the first Industrial Revolution?

3. What were the second and the third Industrial Revolutions marked by?

4. What will the fourth Industrial Revolution be characterized by?

Вариант IV

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; определите по грамматическим

признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные

окончанием – s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е.

служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Indefinite ;

б) признаком мн. числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. This kind of treatment makes the metals heat-resistant.

2. Scientific and engineering progress opens up wide prospects before man.

3. Newton’s famous work “Principia” resulted from 40 years of experimental

work.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая

внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений,

выраженных именем существительным.

 

1. Most automobile engines have six or eight cylinders.

2. Research work develops scientific thinking. 

3. Tool life depends on a number of factors.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы

сравнения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The simplest materials are those which have only one kind of atoms.

2. Steel contains a smaller proportion of carbon than cast iron (чугун).

3. The more you read, the more you enlarge your vocabulary.

4. Cast-iron is not so expensive as steel.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

 

1. This plant employs some highly efficient equipment.

2. Every tool, machine and material stems directly from (здесь: производится

непосредственно) machine-tools.

3. Reliability (надежность) is a basic requirement of any instrument, plant or

machine.

4. None of them knew these facts.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видо-ременные

формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на

русский язык .

 

1. Transport remains one of the largest branches in the general system of the

world economy.

2. In 1781 James Watt produced a steam engine.

3. The plant will produce new types of engines in a few years.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Mechanical Engineering

 

Engineering (1) is one of the most ancient occupations in history. Without the engineering skills our present-day civilization can’t evolve. The first toolmakers who chipped arrows and spears from rock were the forerunners (2) of modern mechanical engineers. Engineering refers to the profession in which the knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained (3) by study, experience, and practice finds its application in the efficient use of the materials and forces of nature. There are many branches of engineering – mechanical (4), civil (5), electrical (6), nuclear (7), power (8), military (9), communication (10), chemical (11) and space engineering.

At present mechanical engineering occupies a prominent position among modern production processes. Mechanical engineering deals with design, construction and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices used in industry and everyday life. Among these machines are engines and turbines using air, gas, steam and water; pumping machines and other hydraulic apparatus; heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigerating equipment; transportation structures for aviation, railroads and ships; machine-tools for industry and construction. A typical example of modern mechanical engineering is the design of a car or an agricultural machine.

In fact, mechanical engineering enters into the work of all engineers.

Advanced technologies are applied in most branches of engineering. There are two main trends in modern machine – building: automation and raising of the reliability of machines. Automation includes the creation of “unmanned” industries. The machine modules on a large scale will provide automation in industry. Robots are not mere manipulators which can take up a workpiece and pass it on. We need robots which can identify objects, their position in space, etc. Reliability is a basic requirement of any instrument, plant or machine. An important reserve in increasing reliability and the service life of machines is strengthening treatment (12).

Advanced technologies require high demand for qualified mechanical engineers. Mechanical engineers have a wide range of job opportunities. Mechanical engineers are vital to the running of plants (13). Without them production is impossible. In plant operation the engineer runs the manufacturing process (14) and stimulates the team to make better use of equipment to improve performance. Mechanical engineers are at the core of production (15).

Пояснения к тексту:

1. engineering - техника, инженерное дело, машиностроение, строительство

2. forerunners - предшественники

3. gained – приобретенный

4. mechanical engineering - машиностроение

5. civil engineering - гражданское строительство

6. electrical engineering - электротехника

7. nuclear engineering - ядерная техника

8. power engineering - энергетика

9. military engineering - военно-инженерное дело

10. communication engineering - техника средств связи

11. chemical engineering - химическая технология

12. strengthening treatment - обработка для увеличения прочности

13. to run the plant - управлять заводом, руководить

14. manufacturing process - производственный процесс

15. to be at the core of - занимать ключевое положение

 

VII. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. What are the main branches of engineering?

2. What does mechanical engineering deal with?

3. What are modern trends in machine-building?

4. What are the functions of a mechanical engineer?

 

Контрольная работа № 2

 

Изучите следующие разделы грамматики по учебнику:

1. Видо-временные формы глагола. Активный залог (the Active Voice) – формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future), формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future), формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future). Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) – формы Indefinite (Present , Past, Future).

2. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

3. Придаточные обстоятельственные предложения времени и условия; определительные и дополнительные придаточные предложения (союзное и бессоюзное подчинение).

4. Интернациональные слова.

Вариант I

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The methods we have just described are very effective.

2. This experiment resulted in the discovery of several new properties of the

composite material.

3. Tomorrow we shall be preparing for a test for the whole evening.

4. By the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant had brought all the

necessary diagrams.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

     модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на

     русский язык.

 

1. People study foreign languages to be able to read and speak them.

2. Energy can exist in many forms.

3. The country must have specialists capable of working with modern

technologies.

4. The laser’s most important potential may be its use in communications.

 

 

III . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

 обращая внимание на особенности перевода придаточных

предложений.

 

1. As soon as he finishes his calculations, we shall begin the tests.

2. Before the lathe is set in motion, it should be thoroughly oiled.

3. The design will be ready by the end of the year, provided you supply us with

all the data necessary.

4. The experiment must show why the levels always remain constant.

5. The engine that you are speaking about is of the latest design.

6. The drawings the engineer gave us helped to understand the task better.

 

IV . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на значение интернациональных слов.

 

1. The principle of conservation of energy states that energy is uncreatable and

indestructible.

4. Turbines turn generators that produce electricity.

5. The engineer makes a vast contribution in design, engineering and promotion.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

 

A Man \Machine System

Any form of tool or complex machine which is used by a man forms a man\machine system. The purpose of the system may be to get a man or goods from one place to another; it may be to communicate, or it may be to manufacture some useful objects. Here we try to describe a man\machine system as the machine becomes more complex and relieve the man of many mechanical tasks.

Level 1 is the simple machine in which the man provides the power as well as the controlling skill. Some examples are the woodman’s axe, the carpenter’s saw, mallet (1) and chisel (2), and the hand-pulled or-pushed cart, trolley. The tool or machine is an extension (3) of the man’s body since he grasps it firmly (4) and guides its motion directly with his own muscular effort.

Level 2 is the powered machine or tool. The power may come, for example, from an animal as in the case of a horse-drawn cart, from wind as for the sailing ship and the windmill. Here the man is fully responsible for controlling the system but he requires devices such as switches, pedals and steering wheels to control the power system.

Level 3 is simple automation. The single-process machine or a tool with

built-in (5) auto-control can perform any process whenever it is fed with raw materials by the operator. It has its own source of power. An example is the automatic lathe in use early in the 20th century.

Level 4 is the man extender. These are the machines which carry out complex programmes for which they are instructed by the man. But they only do these when the man is telling them to do that particular job. One example in use at present is the digital computer which is capable of doing very quickly any operation of a very great complexity.

Level 5 is the robot. This is the system which is powered and programmed to produce a succession of identical products or carry out a series of similar operations. The human can instruct the robot to vary its actions in accordance with (6) variations which it observes in the surrounding situation. Robots are able to perform repetitive tasks more quickly, cheaply and accurately than humans.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. mallet – деревянный молоток

2. chisel – резец, долото

3. extension – здесь: продолжение

4. firmly – крепко, прочно

5. built –in – встроенный

6. in accordance with – в соответствии с…

 

VI . Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

 

1. What is the purpose of the man\machine system?

2. Where may the power come from?

3. What does the man require to control the power system?

4. What is the robot?

Вариант II

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Quantum mechanics has greatly influenced the nuclear theory.

2. The students were discussing an interesting problem when the teacher came.

3. In future automatic machinery will assemble and regulate the production of

devices.

4. The driver started the car after he had examined the engine.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

     модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на

     русский язык.

 

1. There are too few people who can do manual work nowadays.

2. The exams are to start in January.

3. Many scientists claim that we ought to think much more about solar energy.

4. They might have settled the problem already.

 

 

III . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на особенности перевода придаточных

предложений.

 

1. The lathe should be checked before it is started.

2. The valve will close when the piston reaches the bottom dead point ( нижняя

точка хода).

3. The design was sent to the engineer who dealt with power transmissions.

4. Every substance a man comes in contact with consists of molecules.

5. If parts rubbing on each other are not separated by a film of a lubricant, the

surface will rub and rapidly wear away.

6. We know he works at the problem of space communication.

 

IV . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на значение интернациональных слов.

 

1. The discovery of the radioactive emission was of the greatest importance for

research work in the field of the structure of the atom.

2. Transport still remains one of the largest branches in the general system of the

world economy.

3. Engineering is a science which deals with design, construction and operation

of structures, machines, engines and other devices.

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Engineering Materials

Engineers have to know the best and most economical materials to use. Engineers must also understand the properties of these materials and how they can be worked. There are two kinds of materials used in engineering (1) – metals and non-metals. Metals are distinguished from non-metals by their high conductivity for heat and electricity, by metalic lustre (2) and by their resistance to electric current. Their properties, such as strength (3) and hardness (4), can be greatly improved by

alloying (5) them with other metals.                                                                                                                                    

We can divide metals into ferrous and non-ferrous (6). The former contain iron and the latter (7) do not contain iron. Cast iron (8) and steel, which are both alloys, or mixtures of iron and carbon, are the two most important ferrous metals. There are some other important groups of metals and alloys. The common metals such as iron, copper, zinc, etc. are produced in great quantities. Aluminium, copper, and the alloys (bronze and brass) are common non-ferrous metals. The so-called precious metals include silver, gold, platinum and palladium. The light metals are aluminium, berillium and titanium. They are important in aircraft and rocket construction.

Many elements are classified as semimetals (bismuth, for example) because they have much poorer conductivity than common metals. Non-metals (carbon, silicon, sulphur) in the solid state are usually brittle materials without metallic lustre and are usually poor conductors of electricity. Non-metals show greater variety of chemical properties than common metals do. Plastics and ceramics are non-metals; however plastics may be machined(9) like metals. Plastics are classified into types – thermoplastics (10) and thermosets (11). Thermoplastics can be shaped and reshaped by heat and pressure but thermosets cannot be reshaped because they undergo chemical changes as they harden (12). Engineers often employ ceramics when materials which can withstand high temperatures are needed.

Materials Science and Technology is the study of materials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs (13) of modern technology. Scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials. For this purpose they use the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry and metallurgy.

Пояснения к тексту:

1. engineering – техника, инженерное дело, машиностроение, строительство

2. lustre – блеск

3. strength – прочность

4. hardness – твердость, жесткость

5. alloying – легирование металлов

6. non-ferrous – цветной (металл)

7. the former...the latter – первый из упомянутых…, последний из

                                     упомянутых

8. cast iron - чугун

9. to be machined – подвергаться механической обработке

10. thermoplastics - термопластики

11. thermosets – термореактивные материалы

12. to harden - затвердевать

13. to meet the needs – отвечать потребностям

 

 

VI. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. By what properties are metals distinguished from non-metals?

2. What groups are metals divided into?

3. What properties do non-metals have?

  

4. What sciences study the properties of engineering materials?

 

 

Вариант III

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Work with computers and other electronic devices requires knowledge of

hardware* and software.**

2. Specialists in engineering materials have taken a new approach to the problem

of the permanent nature of materials properties.

3. The technicians of our plant will increase the productivity of this

experimental machine-tool.

4. We shall be watching the operation of the new machine at the laboratory

tomorrow morning.

*hardware – аппаратное оборудование

**software – программное обеспечение

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

    модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на

    русский язык.

 

1. Hand-held calculators should provide convenient computing capacity for

many households, businesses and students. 

2. Although no one can predict the full effect of the current information

revolution, we can see changes in our daily lives.

3. We had to change the design of this machine.

4. There are a lot of unsolved problems and our scientists must solve them.

 

III . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на особенности перевода придаточных

предложений.

 

1. I shall finish my work before he comes.

2. The piston moves upwards until it reaches the top dead point (верхняя

точка хода).

3. Those valves move like doors that open only one way.

4. As soon as you determine the structure of this substance, you will have to

study the properties of its elements.

5. The kind of energy we are most familiar with is mechanical energy.

6. It became clear television had a great influence on people’s life.

 

IV . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на значение интернациональных слов.

 

1. There are numerous ways in which industry and education can cooperate on

problems of common interest.

2. The technician often works out good empirical solutions to the problems.

3. Industry usually has specialized operation.

 

V . Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Metals

Since the earliest days the preparation (1) of metals for mechanical use was vital for civilization. Mankind has used metals for centuries in really great quantities. Gold, silver and copper were the first metals used by a primitive man. People could find those metals free in nature. Today we know more than seventy metals. Of all metals iron is the most important one. There is no absolutely pure iron except for (2) laboratory purposes. The iron and steel in use today are really alloys (3) of iron, carbon and other substances. They can be made elastic, tough (4), hard (5), or comparatively soft.

The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy. Mechanical properties of metals are the result of their atomic structure. They include hardness, ductility (6) and malleability (7) which are of special importance in engineering (8).

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense(9). The arrangement of atoms is regular. Atoms can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (10) (can be deformed and bent without fracture (11)) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft, while iron is very hard. Most metals increase these properties at higher temperatures.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of metals depend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse (12) grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching (13), tempering (14), or annealing (15) controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (16) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

Metals can undergo corrosion which changes their chemical and electromechanical properties. In order to protect metals from corrosion the products made of metals and steel are coated by some coatings (17). Organic coatings protect metals from corrosion.

Ferrous (18) metals consist of iron combined with carbon, silicon and other elements. But carbon is the most important element in ferrous alloys. Ferrous metals are used in industry in two forms: steel and cast iron, which differ in the quantity of carbon content. Among non-ferrous (19) metals copper is the most important. Aluminium is another non-ferrous metal. It is one of the lightest metals used for machine construction.

Engineers must know mechanical properties of metals. These mechanical properties are of great importance in industrial purposes because all parts and units must meet up-to-date demands (20).   

Пояснения к тексту:

1. preparation - подготовка; техн.: предварительная обработка

2. except for - за исключением

3. alloy - сплав

4. tough - прочный, жесткий, выносливый

5. hard - твердый

6. ductility - ковкость, эластичность, пластичность

7. malleability - ковкость, вязкость, тягучесть, способность 

                      деформироваться

8. engineering - техника, инженерное дело, машиностроение, строительство

9. dense - плотный

10. malleable - ковкий, податливый, тягучий, способный деформироваться

11. fracture - излом, перелом

12. coarse - грубый, крупный

13. quenching - закалка

14. tempering - отпуск после закалки, нормализация

15. annealing - обжиг, отпуск

16. alloying - легирование

17. coating - покрытие

18. ferrous - черный (о металле)

19. non-ferrous - цветной

20. to meet demands - отвечать требованиям

 

VI. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. How many metals do we know today?

2. What mechanical properties of metals do you know?

3. What do the properties of metals depend on?

4. What should be done to protect metals from corrosion?

 

Вариант IV

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Our country has made great achievements in all fields of industry, technology and science.

2. Science is becoming a leading factor in the progress of mankind.

3. When we visited their institute they were designing the new equipment.

4. The rapid increase of scientific knowledge leads to the growth in the number

of engineering fields.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

    модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на

    русский  язык.

 

1. Every scientist must check the results of his research.

2. One object may be larger than another one, but it may weigh less.

3. The laboratory assistant should maintain the equipment in good repair

(состояние).

4. The engineer will be able to design the components of that complex machine.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода придаточных предложений.

 

1. Pour the oil into the tank until it covers the pipes.

2. When the pendulum is at rest, the string points to the centre of the earth.

3. It is difficult to imagine the world we live in without the radio, television

and telephone.

4. Everybody knows the mechanical and electrical inventions physics has given

us are applications of physical principles.

5. If the wire is thin, much heat will be generated when current flows through

  it. 

6. Experiments proved that electricity could travel over a long piece of wire.

 

IV . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на значение интернациональных слов.

 

1. The first major uses of electricity were in the field of communications – first

for the telegraph and the telephone.

2. There is a growing need for engineers who are familiar with the fundamental

problems in metal processing and manufacturing.

3. A good engineer combines the expertise of a scientist with that of a practical

technician.

V . Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Non-Metals

Non-metals are plastics and ceramics. Non-metals in the solid state are usually brittle (1) materials without metallic lustre (2) and are usually poor conductors (3) of electricity. Non-metals show greater variety of chemical properties than common metals do. Plastics are a large group of materials. They consist of combinations of carbon and oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and other organic and inorganic elements. Plastics is the result of synthesis of such natural materials as water, air, salt, coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The technology is simple and cheap. They are solid in finished state, but are liquid at some stage of manufacture. That is why it is easy to form plastics into various shapes.

There are over 40 different families of plastics in commercial use today, and each may have dozens of variations. Plastics are light, strong and corrosion-resistant (4). They have won many significant applications in industry and transportation. Engineers use plastics in electric and electronic equipment, agriculture, consumer products (5). There is no industry now where plastics are not used.

Fibre (6) technology, in its modern form, is of more recent origin than plastics. The fibre industry can be divided between natural fibres (from plant, animal, or mineral sources) and synthetic fibres. Many synthetic fibres replaced natural fibres, because they often behave more predictably (7) and are usually more uniform in size. For engineering purposes glass, metallic, and organically derived synthetic fibres are most significant.

Nowadays ceramics are gaining an increasing popularity in industry. Advanced (8) ceramic materials have such interesting properties that mechanical engineers are becoming more interested in their use as structural parts (9). Ceramic cutting tools (10) have been in use for some time. However, it is only during the last twenty years that there have been rapid development in this field because of the development of new composite (11) ceramics.

Recently engineers have developed various kinds of composite ceramics which must combine an increased toughness (12) with the same hardness (13) and strength (14) of usual ceramics. Thus, at room and high temperatures the composite ceramics for cutting tools should possess the following properties: high strength, toughness, hardness, high thermal shock resistance (15) and high chemical inertness.

Engineers must know the best and most economical materials to use, understand the properties of these materials and how they can be worked.

Пояснения к тексту:

1. brittle - хрупкий

2. lustre - блеск

3. poor conductor- плохой проводник

4. corrosion resistant - устойчивый к коррозии 

5. consumer products - потребительские товары 

6. fibre - фибра, волокно

7. predictably - предсказуемо

8. advanced - передовой

9. structural parts - конструкционные детали

10. cutting tools - режущие инструменты

11. composite - сложный, композиционный

12. toughness - пластичность

13. hardness - твердость

14. strength – прочность

15. shock resistance – ударостойкость

VI. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What are non-metals?

2. What are the properties of plastics?

3. Why are synthetic fibres widely used in industry?

4. What properties do composite ceramics possess?

Контрольная работа № 3

Изучите следующие разделы грамматики по учебнику:

1. Видо-временные формы глагола. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice)– формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future); Continuous (Present, Past); Perfect (Present, Past, Future). Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.

2. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.

3. Неопределенная форма глагола (The Infinitive): простые и сложные формы (Passive, Perfect). Функции в предложении: а) подлежащего, б) части сказуемого, в) дополнения, г) определения, д) обстоятельства.

4. Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям: объектный инфинитивный оборот, субъектный инфинитивный оборот.

5. Грамматические функции и значения слов that, one, it.

6. Различные значения слов: as, because, because of, due to, for, since, both … and, either … or, neither … nor.

 

                                                      Вариант I

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого, укажите инфинитив. Переведите предложения .

 

1. The sets of instructions that tell the computer what to do with the data are called programs.

2. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was published.

3. Methods of treating metals are being developed to meet engineering requirements.

4. The report will be followed by a discussion.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be , to have , to do .

 

1. This material does not possess elastic properties.

2. The engineers are to study the problem of using cosmic rays.

3. Man had to learn to obtain electric power directly from the sun.

4. Students do a lot of research work when they are at the institute.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. Computer systems are nothing without trained people to plan and oversee their operation.

2. The heat to melt the metal cannot be supplied instantaneously by the flame.

3. To increase the productivity of this flexible manufacturing equipment scientists had to make numerous experiments.

4. The purpose of lubrication is to reduce friction and wear in the engine to the minimum. 

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1. The engineers supposed the parts of the machine to have been replaced.

2. They wanted this design to be completed as soon as possible.

3. Lasers are known to have found application in many branches of industry.

4. The computer is expected to save the scientists a lot of time.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные значения слов that, one, it.

1. One must realize that all jobs are essential to society.

2. It is water that is the most common thing in our life.

3. One should agree that that experiment was of great importance for our research.

4. It was in 1869 that Mendeleyev arranged the elements in the form of a table.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

1. We mounted the lathe as it was shown in the instruction book.

2. He explained to us what the alloy is used for.

3. Since these wheels are mounted on the common axle, they rotate at the same speed.

4. Neither plastics nor metals have all the desirable properties that the engineer looks for.

VII. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Machine Tools

Metal undergoes a number of processes before it is formed into the required shape: casting (1), rolling (2), welding (3), piercing (4), trimming (5), spinning (6), bending (7), drawing (8), etc. The machines which perform all these kinds of work are called machine-tools. Machine-tools are stationary power-driven machines used to shape or form solid materials, especially metals. Machine tools form the basis of modern industry.

Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional chip-making machine-tools, presses, and unconventional machine-tools. Conventional chip-making tools shape the workpiece by cutting away the unwanted portion in the form of chips. Presses employ a number of different shaping processes, including shearing (9), pressing, or drawing (elongating).

 

Unconventional machine-tools employ light, electrical, chemical, and sonic energy; superheated gases; and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology.

Cutting is one of the oldest arts practised in the stone age, but the cutting of metals was not found possible until the 18th century, and its detailed study started about a hundred years ago. Modern machine-tools date from about 1775, when the English inventor John Wilkinson constructed a horizontal boring machine for producing internal cylindrical surfaces. About 1794 Henry Maudslay developed the first engine lathe. Later, Joseph Whitworth developed measuring instruments accurate to a millionth of an inch. His work was of great value because precise methods of measurement were necessary for the subsequent mass production of articles having interchangeable (10) parts.

During the 19th century, such standard machine-tools as lathes, shapers (11), planers (12), grinders, and saws, as well as milling, drilling, and boring machines reached a high degree of precision, and their use became widespread in the industrializing nations.

Nowadays all machining operations are done more accurately and faster owing to the automation of all the production processes. Numerically controlled machine tools (13) (NC) and flexible manufacturing systems (14) (FMS) have made it possible to do the work automatically. The operator only watches them and corrects them whenever they go wrong.

Most machining operations generate large amounts of heat and use cooling fluids (usually a mixture of water and oils) for cooling and lubrication. Cooling increases tool life and helps to stabilize the size of the finished part. Lubrication reduces friction.

Most materials and their alloys can be machined – some with ease, others with difficulty. Machinability (15) involves three factors: 1. Ease of chip removal. 2. Ease of obtaining a good surface finish. 3. Ease of obtaining good tool life.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. casting – отливка

2. rolling – прокат

3. welding – сварка

4. piercing – прохождение отверстия

5. trimming – обрезка

6. spinning – выдавливание

7. bending – сгибание

8. drawing – вытягивание

9. shearing – срезание

10. interchangeable – взаимозаменяемый

11. a shaper – поперечно-строгальный станок

12. a planer – продольно-строгальный станок

13. NC machine-tools – станки с ЧПУ

14. Flexible manufacturing systems – гибкие автоматизированные производственные системы

15. machinability – способность подвергаться механической обработке

 

VIII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What are the main metal-processing operations?

2. What are the three main categories of machine-tools?

3. When was the first machine-tool constructed?

4. What are unconventional machine-tools?

 

Вариант II

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого, укажите инфинитив. Переведите предложения .

 

1. The new numerically controlled machine-tools are being installed in our shop.

2. The alloys of non-ferrous metals were experimented in our laboratory.

3. Each new launching of artificial satellites has been connected with the solution of fundamentally new technical and scientific problems.

4. The old methods of research were replaced with new ones.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be , to have , to do .

1. An electron is a very small particle and it has a very small mass.

2. Specialists do not use solar cells in industry as they are too expensive.

3. We had to find new methods of investigation because the old ones were unsatisfactory.

4. The foreman is the one who teaches or instructs how the work is to be done.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. The main purpose of the computer is to solve complex problems quickly.

2. To answer the question of how much higher or lower the temperature is requires a unit of measurement and a special kind of instrument.

3. The device to be installed in our workshop must be checked beforehand.

4. To start the car the key should be turned clockwise.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. We considered this equation to have had different solutions.

2. Scientists are sure to find an appropriate answer to this question some day.

3. This discovery is considered to be the result of a long and thorough investigation.

4. Engineers know pure copper to be a very weak metal.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

 

1. One mustn't be ashamed of one’s work or scorn someone else’s.

2. Every machine wastes energy because of friction; consequently, the work put into the machine is always more than that obtained from it.

3. That computers and robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers.

4. The main difference between the horizontal and vertical boring machines is that one has a horizontal spindle and the other a vertical one. 

 

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

 

1. Today people can do all on the Internet, for it is the most efficient way to do business.

2. The uneducated person is either unable to do something new, or does it badly.

3.  As matter and weight are closely connected we usually measure the amount of matter in an object by weighing it.

4. Man has recognized that sunlight is a powerful source of energy since ancient times.

 

VII. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Automobile Production

 

Specialists in automobile industry deal with designing and manufacturing cars, so they should know that the production of the automobile comprises the following phases:

1) designing, 2) working out the technology of manufacturing processes, 3) laboratory tests, 4) road tests, 5) mass production.

It is important to know all these facts as before the automobile is put into mass production, it should be properly designed and the automobile must meet up-to-date requirements. What are these requirements?

The automobile must have high efficiency, long service life, driving safety, ease of maintenance and pleasant appearance.

In order to obtain all these qualities engineers should develop up-to-date (11) methods of designing cars, using new types of resistant to corrosion light materials.

Also it is important to know computer science because it is intended to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing. Computers offer quick and optimal solutions of problems.

Before the car is put into mass production all its units and mechanisms are subjected to tests (12), first in the plant’s laboratory, then the car undergoes a rigid quality control in road tests.

What qualities are required of the automobile? The modern automobile must be rapid in acceleration, must have smooth acting clutch (13), silent gearbox, dependable (14) brakes and steering system, as well as pleasant appearance. Also it must be comfortable and have all conveniences.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. trackless – бездорожный, безрельсовый

2. self-propelled – самоходный

3. power-plant – силовая установка

4. accessories – вспомогательные устройства

5. power train – силовая передача

6. a frame with axles – рама с осями

7. springs – рессоры

8. steering system – рулевая система

9. clutch – сцепление

10.  final drive – главная передача

11.  up-to-date – современный

12.  to be subjected to tests – подвергаться испытаниям

13.  smooth acting clutch – плавное сцепление

14.  dependable - надежный

 

VIII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What components does the automobile consist of?

2. Why are brakes needed?

3. What phases does the production of the automobile comprise?

4. What qualities are required of the automobile?

 

Вариант III

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого, укажите инфинитив. Переведите предложения .

 

1. Machine parts are subjected to x-ray examination.

2. We were shown a number of experiments illustrating the presence of high-energy particles in the cosmic radiation.

3. Many power plants are being built in our country.

4. The atomic power has been applied to all fields of man’s civilian activity.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be , to have , to do .

 

1. Some substances do not conduct heat.

2. These computers will have to perform millions of operations per second.

3. Mechanization is to be distinguished from more primitive tool using.

4. Metals conduct electricity better than semiconductors do.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. It is often possible to build a compound directly from its elements.

2. He spoke about the plan to increase the production of the plant.

3. To master this speciality is not an easy thing.

4. Our idea was to design a new device for automatic control.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. The development of science and technology is known to be the most important source of the steady growth of the people’s well-being.

2. I consider them to be good specialists.

3. These phenomena are believed to be interdependent.

4. We know many human activities to have played a part in scientific inventions.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. Reading in a foreign language one often comes across unfamiliar words and expressions.

2. The properties of a composite matter are always quite different from those of the elements it consists of.

3. One of the greatest problems thrown up by our era is that of outer space.

4. It is necessary to find new sources of cheap energy.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

 

1. The visible side of the moon has been studied ever since Galileo invented the telescope.

2. In the year 2020 we will most likely use televisions to interact with the world as we do now with the telephones.

3. Elements are transformed into other elements both by man and nature.

4. I can either come or ring you up.

 

VII . Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Bearings

 

A bearing is a mechanical device for decreasing friction in a machine in which a moving part bears-that is, slides or rolls on another part. Usually a bearing confines the motion of a part and prevents it from moving in any other way. The common bearings are found at the rigid supports of rotating shafts where friction is the greatest. That part of a shaft which rotates in a bearing is called a journal (1) and the outer portion is a sleeve (2).

Bearings were invented early in history; when the wheel was invented, it was mounted on an axle, and where the wheel and axle touched was a bearing. Such early bearings had surfaces of wood or leather lubricated with animal fat.

Modern bearings have been designated (3) as friction and antifriction bearings.

The first type comprises sleeve or journal bearings.; the second, ball and roller bearings (4). Neither type of bearings is completely frictionless, and both are highly efficient in reducing friction.

Bearing materials must have sufficient strength. They must be good conductors of heat, uniform in structure, resistant to abrasion, and have a low coefficient of friction when dry or slightly greasy. Steel, cast iron and various alloys are commonly used as bearing materials. Lubrication is necessary to reduce the frictional contact between the rolling members and the rotating cages (5), to help to dissipate the heat, otherwise the bearing may “seize”.

Gears

 

A gear is a toothed wheel or cylinder used to transmit rotary or reciprocating motion from one part of a machine to another. Two or more gears, transmitting motion from one shaft to another, constitute a gear train (6). Gearing (7) is a term used to describe systems of wheels or cylinders with meshing teeth (8).

The simplest gear is the spur gear (9), a wheel with teeth cut across its edge parallel to the axis. Spur gears transmit rotating motion between two shafts or other parts with parallel axes. In simple spur gearing, the driven shaft revolves in the opposite direction to the driving shaft. If rotation in the same direction is desired, an idler gear (10), is placed between the driving gear (11) and the driven gear. In any form of gearing the speed of the driven shaft depends on the number of teeth in each gear.

Bevel gears (12) are employed to transmit rotation between shafts that do not have parallel axes. These gears have cone-shaped bodies and straight teeth.

Helical gears (13) have teeth that are not parallel to the axis of the shaft, but are spiralled around the shaft in the form of a helix. Such gears are suitable for heavy loads because the gear teeth come together at an acute angle rather than (14) at 90˚ as in spur gearing.

Worm gearing is a variation of helical gearing. A worm gear (13) is a long, thin cylinder that has one or more continuous helical teeth that mesh with a helical, gear. Worm gears are used chiefly to transmit rotation, with a large reduction in speed, from one shaft to another at a 90˚ angle.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. a journal – цапфа, шейка вала, пята

2. a sleeve – втулка, полый вал, муфта, штуцер, ниппель

3. to designate [dezigneit]- определять, обозначать

4. ball bearings – шариковые подшипники

friction bearings– подшипники скольжения

roller bearings – роликовые подшипники

5. a cage – сепаратор (подшипника качения)

6. a gear train – зубчатая передача, блок шестерен

7. gearing – зубчатая передача, механизм привода

8. meshing teeth – постоянное зацепление

9. a spur gear – целиндрическое прямозубое колесо, зубчатая шестерня

10. an idler gear – паразитная (промежуточная) шестерня

11. a driving gear – ведущая шестерня

12. a bevel gear – коническое зубчатое колесо

13. a helical gear – геликондальное (косозубое) зубчатое колесо

14. rather than - а не…, скорее чем …

15. a worm gear – червячная передача

 

VIII . Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What is a bearing?

2. What types of bearings are used in engineering?

3. What is a gear?

4. What forms of gearing are distinguished in mechanics?

 

Вариант IV

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого, укажите инфинитив. Переведите предложения .

 

1. The road will be built in order to supply the works with fuel.

2. The engineer was asked about the new technology that had been introduced at the plant.

3. Today plastics are being applied for car bodies.

4. In mechanics the study of kinematics is followed by the study of dynamics.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be , to have , to do .

 

1. The smallest positive particle is the hydrogen atom after it has lost an electron.

2. Our students did brilliant work in the field of physics.

3. We are to prepare everything for the experiment.

4. The students were told at the lecture that dynamo had been invented at the end of the 19th century.

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. They promised to supply us with the necessary equipment.

2. The experiment to be carried out is of great importance for our research.

3. The aim of our research work is to find the necessary data to proceed with our experiments.

4. To know the principles of computer automated design and manufacturing* is of great importance for any modern engineer.

* computer automated design and manufacturing (CAD and CAM) – система автоматизированного проектирования и производства  

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1. We expect the scientific and technological progress to speed up the intensification of production.

2. The Sun and stars are proved to be able to produce great quantities of energy by means of certain nuclear reactions.

3. Copper and gold are known to be the first metals discovered by man.

4. We believe this property of a new metal to be of vital importance.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

 

1. One must apply the material that can be machined easily.

2. Our planet is an incredibly beautiful one, from the heights of space it looks wonderful.

3. It is hydrogen that will be the main source of energy in the car of the future.

4. The efficiency of the diesel engine is higher than that of the other engines.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

 

1. Documentation in the manual can cover such things as operation, maintenance, servicing, and repair.

2. When weight is lifted to a given level, it possesses potential energy due to its position.

3. He both teaches and caries out research work at the University.

4. The scholar has been working on the problem since 1993.

VII. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1.                  consumer – потребительские товары

goods   industrial – промышленные товары

                 manufactured – промышленные товары

2. sophisticated – сложная (о технике)

3. a binary code – двоичный код

 

VIII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

 

1. When was the elementary factory system uncovered?

2. What are the main stages of the factory system development?

3. What are the three basic operations in the engineering process?

4. What will the plant of the future be characterized by?

Контрольная работа № 4

 

Изучите следующие разделы грамматики по учебнику:

1. Неличные формы глагола : Participle I (Present Participle), Participle II (Past Participle) в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Причастные обороты: зависимый, независимый (самостоятельный), объектный.

2. Герундий (Gerund), простые и сложные формы. Основные способы перевода герундия на русский язык. Герундиальный оборот.

3. Сослагательное наклонение.

4. Три типа условных предложений.

 

Вариант I

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно а) определением, б) обстоятельством, в) частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

2. When asked, he answered in the affirmative.

3. The device designed by his brigade was very valuable.

3. Any vibrating object produces a sound.

4. A stroke is the distance which is traveled by the piston in its cylinder.

 

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

 

1. The pressure in the boiler lowering, the engineer stopped the engine.

2. The new equipment has just been installed, tests conducted under operating conditions having shown its good qualities.

3. Working with machines, sharp tools, motors one must always be careful.

4. We saw the engines being carefully packed in cases.

 

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, содержащие герундий.

 

1. Reading requires us to think, feel and use our imagination.

2. It's impossible to solve economic problems without using the achievements of the scientific and technological progress.

3. After pouring, the molten metal is allowed to solidify in a mold.

4. We know of Newton’s having developed principles of mechanics.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода глаголов в форме сослагательного наклонения.

 

1. The engineer is the guiding force behind the machine-tool; without the engineer the machine-tool couldn’t function.

2. We suggested that the boiler should be tested.

3. John wishes he had been a mechanical engineer.

4. Students must work hard lest they should fail at the examination.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных предложений.

 

1. If the oil is overheated, stop the engine.

2. If the air were entirely composed of nitrogen, burning would be impossible.

3. It would have saved you a lot of time if you had prepared for your experiment more carefully.

4. Had he used new materials, the device would have been more reliable.

VI . Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

The Lathe

The lathe is one of the most useful and versatile (1) machines in industry, and is capable of carrying out many machining operations. The main components of the lathe are the headstock (2) and tailstock (3) at opposite ends of a bed, and a tool-holder (4) between them which holds the cutting tool (5). The toolholder stands on a cross slide (6) which enables it to move across the saddle or carriage as well as along it, depending on the kind of job it is doing. The ordinary centre lathe can accomodate only tool at a time on the toolholder, but a turret lathe is capable of holding five or more tools on the revolving turret. The lathe bed must be very solid to avoid vibrations.

The head-stock incorporates the driving gear (7) and a spindle which holds the workpiece and causes it to rotate. The cutting speed of the tool is an important factor. Tapered centres in the hollow nose of the spindle and of the tailstock hold the work firmly between them. A feed shaft from the headstock drives the toolholder along the saddle, either forwards or backwards, at a fixed and uniform speed. This enables the operator to make accurate cuts and to give the work a good finish (8). Gears between the spindle and the feed shaft control the speed of rotation of the shaft, and the forward or backward movement of the toolholder.

The gear which the operator will select depends on the type of metal which he is cutting and the amount of metal he has to cut off. For a deep or roughing cut (9) the forward movement of the tool should be less than for a finishing cut. Centres are not suitable for every job on the lathe. The operator can replace them by various types of chucks (10), which hold the work between jaws (11), depending on the shape of the work and the particular cutting operation. He will use a chuck, for example, to hold a short piece of work for drilling, boring or screw-cutting (12).

A transverse (13) movement of the tool post across the saddle enables the tool to cut across the face (14) of the workpiece and gives it a flat surface. For screw-cutting, the operator engages the lead screw, a long screwed shaft which runs along in front of the bed and which rotates with the spindle. The lead screw drives the toolholder forwards along the correct speed, and this ensures that the threads on the screw are of exactly the right pitch. The operator can select different gear speeds, or reverse the movement of the carriage and so bring the tool back to its original position.

Lathes are now made with numerical control (for short NC) and with computer. They work automatically according to programs. The unit is called a machining centre.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. versatile – универсальный

2. headstock – шпиндельная бабка, передняя бабка

3. tailstock – задняя бабка

4. toolholder – резцедержатель

5. cutting tool – режущий инструмент, резец

6. cross slide – поперечный суппорт, поперечные салазки

7. gear – зд.: передача

8. finish – отделка

9. roughing cut – обдирка

10.  chuck – зажимной патрон

11.  jaw – кулачок

12.  screw-cutting – нарезка винтов

13.  transverse – поперечный

14.  face – торец

VII . Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What are the main components of the lathe?

2. What are the functions of a head-stock and a tail-stock?

3. What does the gear selected depend on?

4. What unit is called a machining centre?

 

Вариант II

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно а) определением, б) обстоятельством, в) частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. When united with water, most metals form oxides.

2. The lines shown clearly in the drawing prove this idea.

3. Having put the lathe on its foundation, we fastened it with bolts and nuts.

4. The industrial apparatus was installed at our plant last year. 

 

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие

      предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и

     независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

 

1. The engine running at low revolutions, the temperature of oil remained constant.

2. Having finished the experiment the engineer carefully put down the results and compared them with his latest tests.

3. The scientist has made a number of experiments, some of them being very important for our work.

4. We watched the car being repaired.

 

III . Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения,

  содержащие герундий .

 

1. Studying a foreign language involves regular work.

2. Cryogenic fuels will vaporize before being injected into combustion chamber.

3. The engineer is the guiding force behind the machine-tool.

4. Mankind is interested in atomic energy being used only for peaceful purposes.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода глаголов в форме сослагательного наклонения.

 

1. Large and complicated projects of new technologies could well be handled by institute researchers working on practical applications.

2. The engineer demanded that the test be repeated.

3. All kinds of safety devices for motor cars are being developed lest accidents should occur.

4. A special system is being developed so that drivers could see after dark.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие

  сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных

  предложений .

 

1. If atomic energy replaces the present sources of energy, we shall get more energy than we produce at present.

2. If we placed this material in vacuum, its mechanical properties would be changed.

3. If the service life of the instrument had been prolonged, the economic effect would have been increased many times.

4. Had they applied the new method, the result would have been much better.

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

The Engine

The engine is the source of power that makes the car move. It is usually called an internal combustion engine because gasoline is burned within its cylinders or combustion chambers (1). Most automobile engines have six or eight cylinders.

The engine produces power by burning air and fuel. The fuel is stored in a fuel tank. The fuel tank is connected to a fuel pipe. The fuel pipe carries the fuel to a fuel pump. The fuel pump is connected to the carburettor. The fuel pump pumps the fuel into the carburettor. In the carburettor the fuel is mixed with air. The fuel and air are drawn into the engine cylinder by the piston. Then the fuel and air are compressed by the piston and ignited by the spark plug. They burn and expand very quickly and push the piston down. Thus the power is produced. The burned fuel and air are expelled from the cylinder by the piston.

The flow of gases into and out of the cylinder is controlled by two valves. There is an inlet valve allowing fresh fuel mixture into the cylinder and an exhaust valve which allows the burnt gases to escape.

There are two basic engine operating cycles:

a) the four-stroke cycle (2);

b) the two-stroke cycle.

The greatest number of cars use piston engines. The four-cycle piston engine requires four strokes of the piston per cycle.

The complete four-stroke cycle comprises:

1. the induction intake stroke (3) (the piston moves downwards);

2. the compression stroke (the piston moves upwards);

3. the power stroke (4) (the piston moves downwards);

4. the exhaust (5) stroke (the piston moves upwards).

The upper limit of the piston movement is called the top dead centre (6) (t.d.c.). The lower limit of piston movement is called the bottom dead centre (b.d.c.). A stroke is the piston movement from the top dead centre to the bottom dead centre or from the bottom dead centre to the top dead centre. In other words, the piston completes a stroke each time it changes the direction of its motion.

On the intake (induction) stroke the intake valve is opened. The mixture of air and vaporized gasoline is delivered into the cylinder through the inlet valve.

On the compression stroke the inlet valve is closed so that the mixture can be compressed. On the power stroke both valves (inlet and exhaust) are closed in order to rise pressure during the mixture combustion.

On the exhaust stroke the exhaust valve is opened to exhaust the residual gas. In the two-cycle engines the entire cycle of events is completed in two strokes or one revolution of the crankshaft.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. combustion chamber – камера сгорания

2. four-stroke cycle – четырехтактный цикл

3. intake stroke – такт впрыска (топлива)

4. power stroke – рабочий ход поршня

5. exhaust – выхлоп

6. top dead centre – верхняя мертвая точка

 

VII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What is the engine?

2. What types of engines are used in a car?

3. What are the basic engine operating cycles?

4. What are the main strokes in the engine?

Вариант III

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно а) определением, б) обстоятельством, в) частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. When burnt, coal produces heat.

2. Being covered with a thick layer of grease, the lathe arrived in good condition.

3. Removing the lathe from its case, we carefully hoisted it with chains and winches.

4. Automation was first applied to assembly line manufacturing.

 

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

 

1. New technological processes having been developed, new types of equipment have been installed in the shop.

2. While increasing the output, we must not forget the task of improving the production quality.

3. Any element is characterized by a certain number of protons in the nucleus, this number being the same as the number of electrons in the atom.

4. They had new equipment installed in the workshop.

 

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения,

     содержащие герундий .

 

1. After arriving we began to overahaul the engines.

2. A new carburettor offers easier starting in cold weather.

3. Casting is a process of forming metal objects.

4. Great attention is paid to the metal being heated to the proper temperature.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

      обращая внимание на особенности перевода глаголов в форме

     сослагательного наклонения.

 

1. It would be impossible to raise the output without installing the new equipment.

2. You must put down this formula lest you should forget it.

3. We suggested that his project be discussed in details.

4. I wish you could use these data.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие

    сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных

   предложений .

 

1. If you observe all the rules of operating this machine you will be able to increase its productivity.

2. We should have no radio, telephone, television or computers unless there were electricity.

3. The new operator would not have broken this device if you had instructed him how to operate it.

4. Were the design of cars improved, the fuel consumption would be greatly reduced.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Automation

Automation is a word coined in the 1940s to describe processes by which machines do tasks previously performed by people. The word was new but the idea was not. Automation is the third phase in the development of technology that began with the industrialization of the 18th century. First came mechanization which created the factory system and separated labour and management in production.

Mass production came next. It was a technology based on principles of production and organization.

Mass production refers to manufacturing processes in which an assembly line (1), usually a conveyer belt, moves the product to stations where each worker performs a limited number of operations until the product is assembled.

In the automobile assembly plant such systems have reached a highly-developed form. A complex system of conveyer belts and chain drives (2) moves car parts to workers who perform the thousands of necessary assembling tasks.

Automation is a technology based on communication, computation and control.

Automation was first applied to industry in continuous – process manufacturing such as refining petroleum, making petrochemicals, and refining steel. A later development was computer-controlled automation of assembly line manufacturing, especially those in which quality control was an important factor.

The truly automated devices must possess one or more of the following elements: system approach, programmability, feedback (3).

With a system approach, an automated production line consists of a series of workstations connected by a transfer system to move parts between the stations. People are not required.

Thus, transfer lines (4) are different from assembly lines where people are very much in evidence.

With programmability, modern automated lines are controlled by programmable logic controllers, which are special computers that can perform timing and sequencing functions required to operate such equipment.

Finally, feedback makes an automatic device vary its routine (5) according to changes that take place around it. Using feedback devices (sensors), machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.

Computers have greatly facilitated (6) the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines.

More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers have made possible the development of computer – aided design and computer – aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies (7).

When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.

Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) (8). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.

The automation technology has a great influence on all areas of the economy. Nevertheless each industry has its own concept of automation that answers its particular production needs.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. assembly line – сборочная линия

2. chain drives – цепная передача

3. feedback – обратная связь

4. transfer line – автоматическая (станочная) линия

5. routine – режим работы

6. to facilitate – способствовать

7. computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) – системы автоматизированного проектирования и производства

8. flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) – гибкие производственные системы

 

VII . Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What is automation?

2. Where was automation first applied?

3. What are the main elements of automated devices?

4. What are the manufacturing systems using automation?

 

Вариант IV

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно а) определением, б) обстоятельством, в) частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. When testing new engines, the engineer sets them for low revolutions.

2. Having been cleaned and oiled, the bearings were packed in the boxes.

3. Nickel is a hard metal resembling silver in colour.

4. The valve closed by the spring opens only downwards.

 

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1. Knowledge being the most valuable wealth of your times, the information theory became of great importance for the national economy.

2. Having applied the latest achievements of science and technology, we could improve the production quality.

3. Metals are good conductors of electricity, silver being the best of them.

4. We heard our colleagues discussing the agenda of the scientific conference.

 

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения,

  содержащие герундий .

 

1. A fax machine is used for sending and receiving copies of original documents via a phone line.

2. By using supercomputers it is possible to avoid making mistakes in extremely complicated thermodynamic computations.

3. Melting is very important in the production of high-quality castings.

4. The failure was due to the operator’s having been careless in using the instrument.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

   внимание на особенности перевода глаголов в форме

  сослагательного наклонения .

 

1. It would be impossible to determine the properties of these materials without intensive studies in our research laboratory.

2. Metal parts are tested for defects lest they should fail in operation.

3. It is desirable that they should carry out this test.

4. They wish this method were used in his work.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие

   сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных

   предложений .

 

1. If this new device is applied, the process of production will be simplified.

2. If the quality of the equipment were higher, the results of the experiment would be more accurate.

3. If these scientists had made the experiment in time, they would have got more information about this process.

4. Should the temperature drop, the metal would set.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Robot Technology

The term “robot” is derived from the Czech word “robota”, meaning “compulsory labour”. It was first used by Czech playwright Karel Čapek, who in 1920 wrote a drama about machines that could move like human beings – and do their work. Robot is a computer – controlled machine that is programmed to move, manipulate objects, and accomplish work while interacting with its environment. Robots are able to perform repetitive tasks more quickly, cheaply, and accurately than humans.

An industrial robot is a unit which has movement functions with a high degree of freedom similar to human arms and hands and is able to move autonomously on the basis of sense and perception.

Today practically all sectors of the economy and industry are looking forward to introducing industrial robots. But robot building is not simple and certainly not cheap. If every sector begins to build its own robots, it will be impossible to avoid unnecessary duplication of research and development, and large sums will be wasted. Therefore the need is to concentrate all efforts in robot technology in one pair of hands, in a powerful inter-sectoral scientific and technical organization. Only in this way it is possible to ensure the maximum standardization of production of industrial robots and multipurpose automatic manipulators.

There are two rational ways in the field of robotics. The first one is to build standardized modules – unified elements on the basis of which it will be easy to assemble, in different combinations, robots for the most varied of purposes. The second way is to create an inter-sectoral exchange fund of robots so that research and development of designers in different technical fields should be within the reach of all interested organizations and enterprises.

The robots are divided into three generations: programmed, adaptive and intellectual. Characteristic of the first generation – the programmed robots – is that their control system acts according to a rigid oft-repeated programme all the time. But the programmed robots are easily returned to various action programmes.

The adaptive robots, robots of the second generation, have been already worked out and will be widely applied in production at the close of this and the beginning of the next decade. Their fundamental difference from the first robot generation is the appearance of artificial sensors, which give the adaptive robots the ability to see, to hear and feel. The possibilities of them are immeasurably (1) greater than the robots of the first generation.

The third generation – intellectual robots – will be able to perform intricate (2) selective operations, and carry out practically autonomous work, not depending on the operator. Robots with artificial intelligence will be able to identify objects in a pile, select the objects in the appropriate sequence and assemble them into a unit. And then we shall be able to speak about a robot revolution in the economy, about a many-fold (3) increase of labour productivity, and the advent of a new age of industrial production – the age of fully automated enterprises and maybe, whole branches of industry. Robot technology as seen from the text above refers to the art and science of creation and use of robots.   

Today robots play a major role in welding, press-forming, coating and other operations, particularly in the automotive industry. Robots are used in a lot of manufacturing operations. The applications of robots can be divided into three categories:

1. material handling; 2. processing operations; 3. assembly and inspection.

The commercial use of robots is spreading, with the increasing automation of factories, and they have become essential to many laboratory procedures. Japan is the most advanced nation exploring robot technology. Nowadays robots continue to expand their applications.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. immeasurably – неизмеримо

2. intricate – запутанный

3. many-fold – многократный

 

VII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. When was the term “robot” first used?

2. What is a robot?

3. What generations are robots divided into?

4. Where are industrial robots used?

 

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

 

ПСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

 

 

Т.Е. Клец

Английский язык

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 230.