II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая
Поможем в ✍️ написании учебной работы
Поможем с курсовой, контрольной, дипломной, рефератом, отчетом по практике, научно-исследовательской и любой другой работой

внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений,

выраженных именем  существительным.

 

1. The production engineer deals with production.

2. Glass fibres are probably the most common of all synthetic engineering fibres.

3. Water is one of the examples of an energy source.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы

сравнения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Next to the sun, the moon is the brightest object in the sky.

2. Petrol engines are usually lighter and smaller than diesel engines.

3. Metallurgists try to make composite materials as strong and light as possible.

4. The more complex the functions of joining techniques, the heavier the

demands are met by the operator.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

 

1. None of them knows about this technical know-how.

2. Anyone can multiply these numbers.

3. The engineers of the research laboratory developed some new methods of

work.

4. Every object of our industrialized world is the result of the machine-tool

work.

 

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видо-

временные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите

предложения на русский язык.

 

1. These machines free man from many complicated mechanical tasks.

2. With the invention of the internal combustion engine motor transport began to

spread in Europe very rapidly.

3. In the age of technology high-tech devices will occupy an extremely important place in our household.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Machines

 

Machine is a simple device that affects the force, or effort, which is necessary to do a certain amount of work. Machines make a tough job easier because a person applies less force or applies force in a direction that is easier to manipulate. Machines also increase the speed at which work makes an object travel.

There are four types of simple machines: the lever, the pulley (1), the inclined plane (2), and the wheel and axle. Most mechanical machines, such as automobiles or power tools, are complex machines composed of many parts. Various parts of machines consist of some combinations of the four simple machines. An everyday example of a complex machine is the can opener, which combines a lever (the handle), a wheel and axle (the turning knob), and a wedge (3) (the sharpened cutting disk).

The history of machines dates back thousands of years. The lever was the first simple machine that was utilized by humans. The first levers were branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. In ancient times people used metal or stone wedges when they split wood and rocks. Historians believe the people of ancient Mesopotamia (an early civilization near modern – day Iraq) used wheels as early as 3500 B.C. Chariots in Asia Minor used spoked wheels, which were lighter than solid wheels (4), as early as 2000 B.C.

The Greek inventor Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) developed a screw-type device known as Archimedes’ screw for raising water. Some modern water pumps still use this principle. According to the legend, Archimedes also used a block and tackle (5) to pull ships onto dry land. Machines transform natural energy, such as wind and falling water, into work. Waterwheels and windmills are good examples of simple machines that transform natural energy into reciprocating (6) motion and electricity.

Many everyday objects are combinations of simple machines. They are known as complex machines. An automobile is one of such machines. The engine contains many levers, wheels and axles, and pulleys. The whole engine is held together by bolts, which are a form of inclined plane. The transmission uses gears, which are a form of wheel and axle.

Even devices that do not seem to be mechanical use simple machines. A computer, an electronic device, has a cooling fan. This fan is a complex machine in which the motor shaft turns the fan, which is a form of wheel. The disk drive (7) uses a wheel and axle to turn the disk and a system of levers to position the heads that read and write the data on the disk.

Machines help people make life easier and more comfortable. The production of new generations of machines and equipment increases productivity and promotes (8) technical progress.         

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. pulley - блок, шкиф, ролик

2. inclined plane - наклонная плоскость

3. wedge - клин

4. spoked wheel - колесо со спицами

5. block and tackle - тали

6. reciprocating - поступательный

7. disk drive - дисковод

8. to promote - способствовать, продвигать, содействовать

B.C. (Before Christ) - до нашей эры

 

VII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What is a machine?

2. What are the principle types of simple machines?

3. When did people start using simple machines?

4. What are the examples of simple and complex machines?

 

Вариант III

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; определите по грамматическим

признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные

окончанием – s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е.

служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Indefinite ;

б) признаком мн. числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. A new system enables researchers to carry out complicated tests.

2. The Internet, a global web of computer connections, uses various networks to

deliver texts, sound and images.

3. Our lecturer’s book on strength of materials is well-known and popular.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая

внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений,

выраженных именем существительным.

 

1. Mass production refers to manufacturing process with an assembly line.

2. Most castings (отливки) serve as details or component parts of complex

machines and products.

3. Internal combustion engines (двигатели внутреннего сгорания) use

petroleum as fuel.

 

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы

сравнения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Automatic devices make labour safer and easier.

2. It is necessary to use the latest means of control in industry.

3. The stronger the magnet, the greater the distance through which it acts.

4. When Mars is at its greatest distance from the Earth it is nearly as bright as

the Polar Star.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

 

1. The experiment added nothing new to our knowledge of the properties of this

substance. 

2. Any scientist realizes the importance of this invention. 

3. Somebody told me that many specialists wanted to take part in this research.

4. The researcher measures everything with a great degree of accuracy.

 

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видо-

временные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите

предложения на русский язык.

 

1. There were not many changes in the properties of the substance.

2. We use metals for a variety of engineering purposes.

3. The life of the machine-tool will depend on the care of the operator.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Four Industrial Revolutions

Mechanical engineering (1) is the most general of the engineering (2) disciplines. It is connected with mechanisms, machines and energy conversions. The history of mechanical engineering goes back to the time when the man first tried to make machines. We call the earlier rollers, levers (3) and pulleys (4) the work of mechanical engineering. People used slave labour to construct and operate the great engineering works of ancient times. During the Middle Ages people began to seek devices and methods of work that were more efficient and humane. Wind, water and some animals were used to provide energy for some of these new devices.

Mechanical engineering, as we understand it today, starts from the first Industrial Revolution. The first Industrial Revolution took place in England between 1760 and 1840. Metal became the main material of the engineer instead of wood, and steam gave man great reserves of power. This power drove railway engines and ships. James Watt was the key figure (5) in the early development of steam engines. He devised (6) the concept of horsepower (7) to calculate the amount of work his machines performed.

In the second Industrial Revolution, from 1880 to 1920, electricity was the main technical force. It provided power for factories that was easier and cheaper to control than steam. At that period such new industries as chemical and electrical engineering, as well as production methods such as semi-automatic (8) assembly lines appeared. In the 19th century the engineers began to combine scientific research and practical application of its results on a vast scale (9).

The third Industrial Revolution coincided with the advent (10) of automation. The first stage of automation – mechanization, or the use of machines to do the work of animals or people, was introduced into all manufacturing processes (11). There are six basic kinds of mechanization. Classification depends on whether machines, or combination of animals and people, are responsible for the three main elements that occur in every type of activity – power, action and control.

Around the middle of the last century there occured a great scientific invention in the world. The electronic computer influenced all spheres of life. We can’t imagine our life without computers.

What is the fourth Industrial Revolution? It will be characterized by automated machines that are versatile and programmable. The machines will perform work according to different sets of computer instructions. It will be characterized by flexible, automated machinery, the most interesting example of which are robots. Now we are entering the fourth Industrial Revolution.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. mechanical engineering - машиностроение

2. engineering - техника, конструирование машин, машиностроение, 

                      инженерное дело, строительство

3. lever - рычаг

4. pulley - шкиф, блок, ролик

5. the key figure - ключевая фигура

6. to devise - изобретать

7. horsepower - лошадиная сила

8. semi-automatic - полуавтоматические сборочные линии

9. on a vast scale - в большом масштабе

10. advent - приход, появление

11. manufacturing process - производственный процесс

VII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What does mechanical engineering deal with?

2. What are the main features of the first Industrial Revolution?

3. What were the second and the third Industrial Revolutions marked by?

4. What will the fourth Industrial Revolution be characterized by?

Вариант IV

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; определите по грамматическим

признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные

окончанием – s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е.

служит ли оно:

а) показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Indefinite ;

б) признаком мн. числа имени существительного;

в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. This kind of treatment makes the metals heat-resistant.

2. Scientific and engineering progress opens up wide prospects before man.

3. Newton’s famous work “Principia” resulted from 40 years of experimental

work.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая

внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений,

выраженных именем существительным.

 

1. Most automobile engines have six or eight cylinders.

2. Research work develops scientific thinking. 

3. Tool life depends on a number of factors.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы

сравнения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The simplest materials are those which have only one kind of atoms.

2. Steel contains a smaller proportion of carbon than cast iron (чугун).

3. The more you read, the more you enlarge your vocabulary.

4. Cast-iron is not so expensive as steel.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

 

1. This plant employs some highly efficient equipment.

2. Every tool, machine and material stems directly from (здесь: производится

непосредственно) machine-tools.

3. Reliability (надежность) is a basic requirement of any instrument, plant or

machine.

4. None of them knew these facts.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видо-ременные

формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на

русский язык .

 

1. Transport remains one of the largest branches in the general system of the

world economy.

2. In 1781 James Watt produced a steam engine.

3. The plant will produce new types of engines in a few years.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Mechanical Engineering

 

Engineering (1) is one of the most ancient occupations in history. Without the engineering skills our present-day civilization can’t evolve. The first toolmakers who chipped arrows and spears from rock were the forerunners (2) of modern mechanical engineers. Engineering refers to the profession in which the knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained (3) by study, experience, and practice finds its application in the efficient use of the materials and forces of nature. There are many branches of engineering – mechanical (4), civil (5), electrical (6), nuclear (7), power (8), military (9), communication (10), chemical (11) and space engineering.

At present mechanical engineering occupies a prominent position among modern production processes. Mechanical engineering deals with design, construction and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices used in industry and everyday life. Among these machines are engines and turbines using air, gas, steam and water; pumping machines and other hydraulic apparatus; heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigerating equipment; transportation structures for aviation, railroads and ships; machine-tools for industry and construction. A typical example of modern mechanical engineering is the design of a car or an agricultural machine.

In fact, mechanical engineering enters into the work of all engineers.

Advanced technologies are applied in most branches of engineering. There are two main trends in modern machine – building: automation and raising of the reliability of machines. Automation includes the creation of “unmanned” industries. The machine modules on a large scale will provide automation in industry. Robots are not mere manipulators which can take up a workpiece and pass it on. We need robots which can identify objects, their position in space, etc. Reliability is a basic requirement of any instrument, plant or machine. An important reserve in increasing reliability and the service life of machines is strengthening treatment (12).

Advanced technologies require high demand for qualified mechanical engineers. Mechanical engineers have a wide range of job opportunities. Mechanical engineers are vital to the running of plants (13). Without them production is impossible. In plant operation the engineer runs the manufacturing process (14) and stimulates the team to make better use of equipment to improve performance. Mechanical engineers are at the core of production (15).

Пояснения к тексту:

1. engineering - техника, инженерное дело, машиностроение, строительство

2. forerunners - предшественники

3. gained – приобретенный

4. mechanical engineering - машиностроение

5. civil engineering - гражданское строительство

6. electrical engineering - электротехника

7. nuclear engineering - ядерная техника

8. power engineering - энергетика

9. military engineering - военно-инженерное дело

10. communication engineering - техника средств связи

11. chemical engineering - химическая технология

12. strengthening treatment - обработка для увеличения прочности

13. to run the plant - управлять заводом, руководить

14. manufacturing process - производственный процесс

15. to be at the core of - занимать ключевое положение

 

VII. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. What are the main branches of engineering?

2. What does mechanical engineering deal with?

3. What are modern trends in machine-building?

4. What are the functions of a mechanical engineer?

 

Контрольная работа № 2

 

Изучите следующие разделы грамматики по учебнику:

1. Видо-временные формы глагола. Активный залог (the Active Voice) – формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future), формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future), формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future). Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) – формы Indefinite (Present , Past, Future).

2. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

3. Придаточные обстоятельственные предложения времени и условия; определительные и дополнительные придаточные предложения (союзное и бессоюзное подчинение).

4. Интернациональные слова.

Вариант I

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The methods we have just described are very effective.

2. This experiment resulted in the discovery of several new properties of the

composite material.

3. Tomorrow we shall be preparing for a test for the whole evening.

4. By the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant had brought all the

necessary diagrams.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

     модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на

     русский язык.

 

1. People study foreign languages to be able to read and speak them.

2. Energy can exist in many forms.

3. The country must have specialists capable of working with modern

technologies.

4. The laser’s most important potential may be its use in communications.

 

 

III . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

 обращая внимание на особенности перевода придаточных

предложений.

 

1. As soon as he finishes his calculations, we shall begin the tests.

2. Before the lathe is set in motion, it should be thoroughly oiled.

3. The design will be ready by the end of the year, provided you supply us with

all the data necessary.

4. The experiment must show why the levels always remain constant.

5. The engine that you are speaking about is of the latest design.

6. The drawings the engineer gave us helped to understand the task better.

 

IV . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на значение интернациональных слов.

 

1. The principle of conservation of energy states that energy is uncreatable and

indestructible.

4. Turbines turn generators that produce electricity.

5. The engineer makes a vast contribution in design, engineering and promotion.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

 

A Man \Machine System

Any form of tool or complex machine which is used by a man forms a man\machine system. The purpose of the system may be to get a man or goods from one place to another; it may be to communicate, or it may be to manufacture some useful objects. Here we try to describe a man\machine system as the machine becomes more complex and relieve the man of many mechanical tasks.

Level 1 is the simple machine in which the man provides the power as well as the controlling skill. Some examples are the woodman’s axe, the carpenter’s saw, mallet (1) and chisel (2), and the hand-pulled or-pushed cart, trolley. The tool or machine is an extension (3) of the man’s body since he grasps it firmly (4) and guides its motion directly with his own muscular effort.

Level 2 is the powered machine or tool. The power may come, for example, from an animal as in the case of a horse-drawn cart, from wind as for the sailing ship and the windmill. Here the man is fully responsible for controlling the system but he requires devices such as switches, pedals and steering wheels to control the power system.

Level 3 is simple automation. The single-process machine or a tool with

built-in (5) auto-control can perform any process whenever it is fed with raw materials by the operator. It has its own source of power. An example is the automatic lathe in use early in the 20th century.

Level 4 is the man extender. These are the machines which carry out complex programmes for which they are instructed by the man. But they only do these when the man is telling them to do that particular job. One example in use at present is the digital computer which is capable of doing very quickly any operation of a very great complexity.

Level 5 is the robot. This is the system which is powered and programmed to produce a succession of identical products or carry out a series of similar operations. The human can instruct the robot to vary its actions in accordance with (6) variations which it observes in the surrounding situation. Robots are able to perform repetitive tasks more quickly, cheaply and accurately than humans.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. mallet – деревянный молоток

2. chisel – резец, долото

3. extension – здесь: продолжение

4. firmly – крепко, прочно

5. built –in – встроенный

6. in accordance with – в соответствии с…

 

VI . Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

 

1. What is the purpose of the man\machine system?

2. Where may the power come from?

3. What does the man require to control the power system?

4. What is the robot?

Вариант II

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Quantum mechanics has greatly influenced the nuclear theory.

2. The students were discussing an interesting problem when the teacher came.

3. In future automatic machinery will assemble and regulate the production of

devices.

4. The driver started the car after he had examined the engine.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

     модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на

     русский язык.

 

1. There are too few people who can do manual work nowadays.

2. The exams are to start in January.

3. Many scientists claim that we ought to think much more about solar energy.

4. They might have settled the problem already.

 

 

III . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на особенности перевода придаточных

предложений.

 

1. The lathe should be checked before it is started.

2. The valve will close when the piston reaches the bottom dead point ( нижняя

точка хода).

3. The design was sent to the engineer who dealt with power transmissions.

4. Every substance a man comes in contact with consists of molecules.

5. If parts rubbing on each other are not separated by a film of a lubricant, the

surface will rub and rapidly wear away.

6. We know he works at the problem of space communication.

 

IV . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на значение интернациональных слов.

 

1. The discovery of the radioactive emission was of the greatest importance for

research work in the field of the structure of the atom.

2. Transport still remains one of the largest branches in the general system of the

world economy.

3. Engineering is a science which deals with design, construction and operation

of structures, machines, engines and other devices.

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Engineering Materials

Engineers have to know the best and most economical materials to use. Engineers must also understand the properties of these materials and how they can be worked. There are two kinds of materials used in engineering (1) – metals and non-metals. Metals are distinguished from non-metals by their high conductivity for heat and electricity, by metalic lustre (2) and by their resistance to electric current. Their properties, such as strength (3) and hardness (4), can be greatly improved by

alloying (5) them with other metals.                                                                                                                                    

We can divide metals into ferrous and non-ferrous (6). The former contain iron and the latter (7) do not contain iron. Cast iron (8) and steel, which are both alloys, or mixtures of iron and carbon, are the two most important ferrous metals. There are some other important groups of metals and alloys. The common metals such as iron, copper, zinc, etc. are produced in great quantities. Aluminium, copper, and the alloys (bronze and brass) are common non-ferrous metals. The so-called precious metals include silver, gold, platinum and palladium. The light metals are aluminium, berillium and titanium. They are important in aircraft and rocket construction.

Many elements are classified as semimetals (bismuth, for example) because they have much poorer conductivity than common metals. Non-metals (carbon, silicon, sulphur) in the solid state are usually brittle materials without metallic lustre and are usually poor conductors of electricity. Non-metals show greater variety of chemical properties than common metals do. Plastics and ceramics are non-metals; however plastics may be machined(9) like metals. Plastics are classified into types – thermoplastics (10) and thermosets (11). Thermoplastics can be shaped and reshaped by heat and pressure but thermosets cannot be reshaped because they undergo chemical changes as they harden (12). Engineers often employ ceramics when materials which can withstand high temperatures are needed.

Materials Science and Technology is the study of materials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs (13) of modern technology. Scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials. For this purpose they use the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry and metallurgy.

Пояснения к тексту:

1. engineering – техника, инженерное дело, машиностроение, строительство

2. lustre – блеск

3. strength – прочность

4. hardness – твердость, жесткость

5. alloying – легирование металлов

6. non-ferrous – цветной (металл)

7. the former...the latter – первый из упомянутых…, последний из

                                     упомянутых

8. cast iron - чугун

9. to be machined – подвергаться механической обработке

10. thermoplastics - термопластики

11. thermosets – термореактивные материалы

12. to harden - затвердевать

13. to meet the needs – отвечать потребностям

 

 

VI. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. By what properties are metals distinguished from non-metals?

2. What groups are metals divided into?

3. What properties do non-metals have?

  

4. What sciences study the properties of engineering materials?

 

 

Вариант III

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Work with computers and other electronic devices requires knowledge of

hardware* and software.**

2. Specialists in engineering materials have taken a new approach to the problem

of the permanent nature of materials properties.

3. The technicians of our plant will increase the productivity of this

experimental machine-tool.

4. We shall be watching the operation of the new machine at the laboratory

tomorrow morning.

*hardware – аппаратное оборудование

**software – программное обеспечение

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

    модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на

    русский язык.

 

1. Hand-held calculators should provide convenient computing capacity for

many households, businesses and students. 

2. Although no one can predict the full effect of the current information

revolution, we can see changes in our daily lives.

3. We had to change the design of this machine.

4. There are a lot of unsolved problems and our scientists must solve them.

 

III . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на особенности перевода придаточных

предложений.

 

1. I shall finish my work before he comes.

2. The piston moves upwards until it reaches the top dead point (верхняя

точка хода).

3. Those valves move like doors that open only one way.

4. As soon as you determine the structure of this substance, you will have to

study the properties of its elements.

5. The kind of energy we are most familiar with is mechanical energy.

6. It became clear television had a great influence on people’s life.

 

IV . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на значение интернациональных слов.

 

1. There are numerous ways in which industry and education can cooperate on

problems of common interest.

2. The technician often works out good empirical solutions to the problems.

3. Industry usually has specialized operation.

 

V . Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Metals

Since the earliest days the preparation (1) of metals for mechanical use was vital for civilization. Mankind has used metals for centuries in really great quantities. Gold, silver and copper were the first metals used by a primitive man. People could find those metals free in nature. Today we know more than seventy metals. Of all metals iron is the most important one. There is no absolutely pure iron except for (2) laboratory purposes. The iron and steel in use today are really alloys (3) of iron, carbon and other substances. They can be made elastic, tough (4), hard (5), or comparatively soft.

The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy. Mechanical properties of metals are the result of their atomic structure. They include hardness, ductility (6) and malleability (7) which are of special importance in engineering (8).

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense(9). The arrangement of atoms is regular. Atoms can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (10) (can be deformed and bent without fracture (11)) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft, while iron is very hard. Most metals increase these properties at higher temperatures.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of metals depend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse (12) grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching (13), tempering (14), or annealing (15) controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (16) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

Metals can undergo corrosion which changes their chemical and electromechanical properties. In order to protect metals from corrosion the products made of metals and steel are coated by some coatings (17). Organic coatings protect metals from corrosion.

Ferrous (18) metals consist of iron combined with carbon, silicon and other elements. But carbon is the most important element in ferrous alloys. Ferrous metals are used in industry in two forms: steel and cast iron, which differ in the quantity of carbon content. Among non-ferrous (19) metals copper is the most important. Aluminium is another non-ferrous metal. It is one of the lightest metals used for machine construction.

Engineers must know mechanical properties of metals. These mechanical properties are of great importance in industrial purposes because all parts and units must meet up-to-date demands (20).   

Пояснения к тексту:

1. preparation - подготовка; техн.: предварительная обработка

2. except for - за исключением

3. alloy - сплав

4. tough - прочный, жесткий, выносливый

5. hard - твердый

6. ductility - ковкость, эластичность, пластичность

7. malleability - ковкость, вязкость, тягучесть, способность 

                      деформироваться

8. engineering - техника, инженерное дело, машиностроение, строительство

9. dense - плотный

10. malleable - ковкий, податливый, тягучий, способный деформироваться

11. fracture - излом, перелом

12. coarse - грубый, крупный

13. quenching - закалка

14. tempering - отпуск после закалки, нормализация

15. annealing - обжиг, отпуск

16. alloying - легирование

17. coating - покрытие

18. ferrous - черный (о металле)

19. non-ferrous - цветной

20. to meet demands - отвечать требованиям

 

VI. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. How many metals do we know today?

2. What mechanical properties of metals do you know?

3. What do the properties of metals depend on?

4. What should be done to protect metals from corrosion?

 

Вариант IV

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Our country has made great achievements in all fields of industry, technology and science.

2. Science is becoming a leading factor in the progress of mankind.

3. When we visited their institute they were designing the new equipment.

4. The rapid increase of scientific knowledge leads to the growth in the number

of engineering fields.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них

    модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на

    русский  язык.

 

1. Every scientist must check the results of his research.

2. One object may be larger than another one, but it may weigh less.

3. The laboratory assistant should maintain the equipment in good repair

(состояние).

4. The engineer will be able to design the components of that complex machine.

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на особенности перевода придаточных предложений.

 

1. Pour the oil into the tank until it covers the pipes.

2. When the pendulum is at rest, the string points to the centre of the earth.

3. It is difficult to imagine the world we live in without the radio, television

and telephone.

4. Everybody knows the mechanical and electrical inventions physics has given

us are applications of physical principles.

5. If the wire is thin, much heat will be generated when current flows through

  it. 

6. Experiments proved that electricity could travel over a long piece of wire.

 

IV . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,

обращая внимание на значение интернациональных слов.

 

1. The first major uses of electricity were in the field of communications – first

for the telegraph and the telephone.

2. There is a growing need for engineers who are familiar with the fundamental

problems in metal processing and manufacturing.

3. A good engineer combines the expertise of a scientist with that of a practical

technician.

V . Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Non-Metals

Non-metals are plastics and ceramics. Non-metals in the solid state are usually brittle (1) materials without metallic lustre (2) and are usually poor conductors (3) of electricity. Non-metals show greater variety of chemical properties than common metals do. Plastics are a large group of materials. They consist of combinations of carbon and oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and other organic and inorganic elements. Plastics is the result of synthesis of such natural materials as water, air, salt, coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The technology is simple and cheap. They are solid in finished state, but are liquid at some stage of manufacture. That is why it is easy to form plastics into various shapes.

There are over 40 different families of plastics in commercial use today, and each may have dozens of variations. Plastics are light, strong and corrosion-resistant (4). They have won many significant applications in industry and transportation. Engineers use plastics in electric and electronic equipment, agriculture, consumer products (5). There is no industry now where plastics are not used.

Fibre (6) technology, in its modern form, is of more recent origin than plastics. The fibre industry can be divided between natural fibres (from plant, animal, or mineral sources) and synthetic fibres. Many synthetic fibres replaced natural fibres, because they often behave more predictably (7) and are usually more uniform in size. For engineering purposes glass, metallic, and organically derived synthetic fibres are most significant.

Nowadays ceramics are gaining an increasing popularity in industry. Advanced (8) ceramic materials have such interesting properties that mechanical engineers are becoming more interested in their use as structural parts (9). Ceramic cutting tools (10) have been in use for some time. However, it is only during the last twenty years that there have been rapid development in this field because of the development of new composite (11) ceramics.

Recently engineers have developed various kinds of composite ceramics which must combine an increased toughness (12) with the same hardness (13) and strength (14) of usual ceramics. Thus, at room and high temperatures the composite ceramics for cutting tools should possess the following properties: high strength, toughness, hardness, high thermal shock resistance (15) and high chemical inertness.

Engineers must know the best and most economical materials to use, understand the properties of these materials and how they can be worked.

Пояснения к тексту:

1. brittle - хрупкий

2. lustre - блеск

3. poor conductor- плохой проводник

4. corrosion resistant - устойчивый к коррозии 

5. consumer products - потребительские товары 

6. fibre - фибра, волокно

7. predictably - предсказуемо

8. advanced - передовой

9. structural parts - конструкционные детали

10. cutting tools - режущие инструменты

11. composite - сложный, композиционный

12. toughness - пластичность

13. hardness - твердость

14. strength – прочность

15. shock resistance – ударостойкость

VI. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What are non-metals?

2. What are the properties of plastics?

3. Why are synthetic fibres widely used in industry?

4. What properties do composite ceramics possess?

Контрольная работа № 3

Изучите следующие разделы грамматики по учебнику:

1. Видо-временные формы глагола. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice)– формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future); Continuous (Present, Past); Perfect (Present, Past, Future). Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.

2. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.

3. Неопределенная форма глагола (The Infinitive): простые и сложные формы (Passive, Perfect). Функции в предложении: а) подлежащего, б) части сказуемого, в) дополнения, г) определения, д) обстоятельства.

4. Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям: объектный инфинитивный оборот, субъектный инфинитивный оборот.

5. Грамматические функции и значения слов that, one, it.

6. Различные значения слов: as, because, because of, due to, for, since, both … and, either … or, neither … nor.

 

                                                      Вариант I

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого, укажите инфинитив. Переведите предложения .

 

1. The sets of instructions that tell the computer what to do with the data are called programs.

2. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was published.

3. Methods of treating metals are being developed to meet engineering requirements.

4. The report will be followed by a discussion.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be , to have , to do .

 

1. This material does not possess elastic properties.

2. The engineers are to study the problem of using cosmic rays.

3. Man had to learn to obtain electric power directly from the sun.

4. Students do a lot of research work when they are at the institute.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. Computer systems are nothing without trained people to plan and oversee their operation.

2. The heat to melt the metal cannot be supplied instantaneously by the flame.

3. To increase the productivity of this flexible manufacturing equipment scientists had to make numerous experiments.

4. The purpose of lubrication is to reduce friction and wear in the engine to the minimum. 

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1. The engineers supposed the parts of the machine to have been replaced.

2. They wanted this design to be completed as soon as possible.

3. Lasers are known to have found application in many branches of industry.

4. The computer is expected to save the scientists a lot of time.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные значения слов that, one, it.

1. One must realize that all jobs are essential to society.

2. It is water that is the most common thing in our life.

3. One should agree that that experiment was of great importance for our research.

4. It was in 1869 that Mendeleyev arranged the elements in the form of a table.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

1. We mounted the lathe as it was shown in the instruction book.

2. He explained to us what the alloy is used for.

3. Since these wheels are mounted on the common axle, they rotate at the same speed.

4. Neither plastics nor metals have all the desirable properties that the engineer looks for.

VII. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Machine Tools

Metal undergoes a number of processes before it is formed into the required shape: casting (1), rolling (2), welding (3), piercing (4), trimming (5), spinning (6), bending (7), drawing (8), etc. The machines which perform all these kinds of work are called machine-tools. Machine-tools are stationary power-driven machines used to shape or form solid materials, especially metals. Machine tools form the basis of modern industry.

Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional chip-making machine-tools, presses, and unconventional machine-tools. Conventional chip-making tools shape the workpiece by cutting away the unwanted portion in the form of chips. Presses employ a number of different shaping processes, including shearing (9), pressing, or drawing (elongating).

 

Unconventional machine-tools employ light, electrical, chemical, and sonic energy; superheated gases; and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology.

Cutting is one of the oldest arts practised in the stone age, but the cutting of metals was not found possible until the 18th century, and its detailed study started about a hundred years ago. Modern machine-tools date from about 1775, when the English inventor John Wilkinson constructed a horizontal boring machine for producing internal cylindrical surfaces. About 1794 Henry Maudslay developed the first engine lathe. Later, Joseph Whitworth developed measuring instruments accurate to a millionth of an inch. His work was of great value because precise methods of measurement were necessary for the subsequent mass production of articles having interchangeable (10) parts.

During the 19th century, such standard machine-tools as lathes, shapers (11), planers (12), grinders, and saws, as well as milling, drilling, and boring machines reached a high degree of precision, and their use became widespread in the industrializing nations.

Nowadays all machining operations are done more accurately and faster owing to the automation of all the production processes. Numerically controlled machine tools (13) (NC) and flexible manufacturing systems (14) (FMS) have made it possible to do the work automatically. The operator only watches them and corrects them whenever they go wrong.

Most machining operations generate large amounts of heat and use cooling fluids (usually a mixture of water and oils) for cooling and lubrication. Cooling increases tool life and helps to stabilize the size of the finished part. Lubrication reduces friction.

Most materials and their alloys can be machined – some with ease, others with difficulty. Machinability (15) involves three factors: 1. Ease of chip removal. 2. Ease of obtaining a good surface finish. 3. Ease of obtaining good tool life.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

1. casting – отливка

2. rolling – прокат

3. welding – сварка

4. piercing – прохождение отверстия

5. trimming – обрезка

6. spinning – выдавливание

7. bending – сгибание

8. drawing – вытягивание

9. shearing – срезание

10. interchangeable – взаимозаменяемый

11. a shaper – поперечно-строгальный станок

12. a planer – продольно-строгальный станок

13. NC machine-tools – станки с ЧПУ

14. Flexible manufacturing systems – гибкие автоматизированные производственные системы

15. machinability – способность подвергаться механической обработке

 

VIII. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What are the main metal-processing operations?

2. What are the three main categories of machine-tools?

3. When was the first machine-tool constructed?

4. What are unconventional machine-tools?

 

Вариант II

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого, укажите инфинитив. Переведите предложения .

 

1. The new numerically controlled machine-tools are being installed in our shop.

2. The alloys of non-ferrous metals were experimented in our laboratory.

3. Each new launching of artificial satellites has been connected with the solution of fundamentally new technical and scientific problems.

4. The old methods of research were replaced with new ones.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be , to have , to do .

1. An electron is a very small particle and it has a very small mass.

2. Specialists do not use solar cells in industry as they are too expensive.

3. We had to find new methods of investigation because the old ones were unsatisfactory.

4. The foreman is the one who teaches or instructs how the work is to be done.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. The main purpose of the computer is to solve complex problems quickly.

2. To answer the question of how much higher or lower the temperature is requires a unit of measurement and a special kind of instrument.

3. The device to be installed in our workshop must be checked beforehand.

4. To start the car the key should be turned clockwise.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. We considered this equation to have had different solutions.

2. Scientists are sure to find an appropriate answer to this question some day.

3. This discovery is considered to be the result of a long and thorough investigation.

4. Engineers know pure copper to be a very weak metal.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

 

1. One mustn't be ashamed of one’s work or scorn someone else’s.

2. Every machine wastes energy because of friction; consequently, the work put into the machine is always more than that obtained from it.

3. That computers and robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers.

4. The main difference between the horizontal and vertical boring machines is that one has a horizontal spindle and the other a vertical one. 

 

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

 

1. Today people can do all on the Internet, for it is the most efficient way to do business.

2. The uneducated person is either unable to do something new, or does it badly.

3.  As matter and weight are closely connected we usually measure the amount of matter in an object by weighing it.

4. Man has recognized that sunlight is a powerful source of energy since ancient times.

 

VII. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Дата: 2018-11-18, просмотров: 413.