Transitivity of verbs in English and the problems of translating them into Uzbek and Russian language

 

It is significant to note that there is an inner division both in action verbs and the verbs of existence, the division which is stipulated by, as it is called in grammar, the transitivity and intransitivity

Actually, this can be seen between the verbs to be and to have. The first one does not transfer the action to another object, but as if it encloses the action with the subject; the second one must be followed by the object. In all languages- both in analytical and synthetic languages- the meaning of transitivity and intransitivity of the verbs is established as a semantic connection and it goes back to the history of that language. But systematic peculiarities of the languages even to some extent are reflected in their formal possibilities of expressing this meaning. Thus, for example in Russian the fixing up of this or that semantic nuance, semantic direction of the verb is obtained with the help of prefixes and suffixes. Here we can note the formation of intransitive verbs from the transitive verbs with the help of ending -ся: начинать — начинаться, открывать — открываться and etc. In Uzbek language also verbs can be added the endings in order to change their voice and tense. In English (analytical) prefixes and suffixes do not carry out grammatical function on the modern stage; if they are available in the word then they are kept as historically formed parts of it. One can acknowledge the fixed prepositions of the verbs as the outer formal indication of intransitivity (to listen to, for example).

More interesting and significant differences in the matter of transitivity and intransitivity of the verbs between English and Uzbek and Russian in are in the plan of content. So, some transitive English verbs have intransitive verb correspondences in Uzbek and Russian, comp.:

to follow (smb.. smth.)- ergashmoq- следовать за (кем-л., чём-л.)

to approach (smb., smth.)- yaqinlashmoq- приближаться к (кому-л.,

чему-л.)

to watch (smb., smth.)- kuzatmoq- следить за (кем-л., чём-л.)

and vice versa :

to listen to (smb., smth.)   - tinglamoq-слушать (кого-л., что-л.)

to wait for (smb., smth.)    - kutmoq-ждать (кого-л., чего-л.)

It is obvious, that the possibility of two-fold “solution” of any action (either as transitive or as intransitive) is put in the fact of the connection of the verb with two poles: the bearer of the action and its object. Therefore there cannot be absolute border between transitive and intransitive verbs. Thus the verb to watch can be translated not only as ‘kuzatmoq’ следить, but also as ‘tomosha qilmoq’ наблюдать.

In comparing Uzbek, Russian and English one can note that in English the differentiation of transitive and intransitive verbs is much less tough than in Uzbek and Russian. Thus, in most cases two Uzbek and Russian verbs(transitive and intransitive) have one English correspondence:

Ochmoq (transitive) - to open She opened the door.- U eshikni ochdi

Ochilmoq (intransitive) – to open The door opens easily.- Eshik osonlik bilan ochiladi.

Boshlamoq (transitive) – to begin Will you begin reading?- Uqishni boshla.

Boshlanmoq (intransitive)- to begin Our journey began like this.- Bizning sayohatimz huddi shunday boshlangan.

Tushirib qo’ymoq (transitive) – to drop She dropped her handkerchief.- U ro’molchasini tushirib qo’ydi.

Tushib ketmoq (intransitive) – to drop Another leaf dropped on the ground.- Yana bitta barg yerga tushdi.

Yetishtirmoq (transitive)- to grow They grow rice there. –Ular u yerda sholi etishtirishadi.

Usmoq, ulg’aymoq (intransitive)- to grow Children grow fast.- Bolalar tez ulg’ayishmoqda.

In order to understand why English, usually striving for formal completeness and logical exactness of expressing, in this case it is going along contrary way , we must remember the aspiration of Englishmen to compensate syntactical constraint of their speech with more freedom in morphological and semantic relations. It is obvious, that the rubbing off the borders between transitive and intransitive verbs is one those compensating means, which expand and enrich the opportunities of the language. As a result the broadening of the meaning of many verbs occurs. Here we can also observe the influence of grammatical structure of the language on the character of its lexicon. For example:

She laughed unwillingly, and the laughing reflection under the green hat decided her instantly. U hohlamagan holda kulib yubordi, uning yashil shlyapasi ostidagi kulayotgan chehrasining oynadagi aksi uni qaror chiqarishiga majbur qildi.-Она невольно рассмеялась, и отражение в зеркале ее смеющегося лица под зеленой шляпой моментально заставило ее решиться.

You don't know what a life she led me. – Sizlar uni mening hayotimni do’zzahga aylantirganini bilmaysizlar. Вы не знаете, что за жизнь она мне устроила.

It is typical for English the constructions, in which intransitive verb becomes transitive in causative meaning “kimnidir biror ishni bajarishga majburlamoq”, for example: to fly a plane, to run a pencil and etc. The possibility of this kind of constructions has led to the wide use of laconic and expressive word combinations like: to laugh smb. out of the room (literally.: «ustidan kulib honadan chiqarib yuborish- заставить кого-л. выйти из комнаты, засмеяв его»), to wave the question away (literally.: «savolga javob berishda o’zini olib qochmoq- отмахнуться от вопроса») and etc.

Sometimes the verb- intransitive in its main meaning- becomes transitive in derivative meaning 'biror- bir narsani(fikrni) qaysidir yo’l bilan ifodalamoq-выразить что-л. каким-л. способом', for example:

Не nodded his assent. – U boshini egib uz roziligini berdi- Кивком головы он выразил согласие.

Valentin looked his query at the proprietor. – Valentin savol nazari bilan ho’jainga qaradi.- Валентин вопросительно взглянул на хозяина.

She cried herself to sleep.- U yig’lab –yig’lab uhlab qoldi.- Она так много плакала, что наконец уснула.

Speaking about the verbs of existence, we have already stated that they can be used not only independently but also as a link- verb, proper meaning of which is graded and has become the part of the composite predicate. The same thing can occur with some verbs of action. Such possibility is provided by the circumstance that syntactical tie of these verbs with the following members of the sentence (particularly, their meaning of transitivity and intransitivity) remains much less determined and regulated than that Uzbek and Russian have. The object in the above mentioned examples is the thing which cannot be in reality (literally: ‘savol qaramoq-взглянуть вопрос’, ‘rozilik egmoq -кивнуть согласие»), and this transmits the speech expressive and imagery character. Thus together with the loss of syntactical independence the verb of action undoubtedly expands the semantic opportunities and gains great specific gravity as the center of the entire semantic complex (composite predicate).

Especially flexible in the relation of the category of transitivity-intransitivity are the verbs to look, to sound, to feel and some others. Thus to look has the meaning not only 'qaramoq- смотреть', but also 'ko’rinmoq-выглядеть', and it is not only applied to the acting person and also irrelatively to any person, in impersonal sentences.

Не looks well. – Uning ko’rinishi yahshi-Он хорошо выглядит.

It looks like rain. –Yomg’r yog’sa kerak.Похоже, что будет дождь.

He sounded on edge. – Ovozidan achchiqlanish sezilardi.-Он говорил раздраженно.

It sounds like a good idea to me. Bu fikr menga yahshi tuyulyapti.-Это кажется мне хорошей мыслью.

Не feels well. U o’zini yahshi his qilmoqda.-Он чувствует себя хорошо.

His hands felt so warm and strong, so comfortable to cling to. Uning qo’llari shunchalik illiq va kuchli ediki, unlarga yopishib olish shunchali yoqimli edi.- Руки его были такими теплыми и сильными, к ним так приятно было прильнуть.

How does it feel, my dear, to have the woman you hate stand by you and cloak your sins for you?- Sen yoqtirmagan ayollni seni himoya qilishi va gunohlaringni yashirishga urinishiga , jonim sen qanday qaraysan? Ну, так как тебе нравится, моя милая, что женщина, которую ты ненавидишь, защищает тебя и прикрывает твои грехи?

The same can be applied to the verb to show, which is used not only as transitive in its main meaning 'ko’rsatmoq- показывать', but also as intransitive verb with the meaning 'ko’rinmoq-виднеться', comp.:

Show me the way. Menga yo’lni ko’rsating-Покажите мне дорогу.

Не had rank showing on his shoulders. Uning mansabini pogonlaridan ko’rish mumkin edi.-Его чин можнобыло увидеть на погонах.

Не is drunk. It shows. –U mast. Bun ko’rinib turibdi.- Он пьян. Это видно.

Some transitive verbs can be used in analogous way in the role of reflexive ones: to read, to sell and others.

The book reads well. – Bu kitobni yahshi uqishmoqda.- Эта книга хорошо читается.

Newspapers sell well in the evening.- Gazetalar kechqurunlari yahshi sotiladi.- Вечером газеты хорошо продаются.

It is not accidental that the pair of verbs in Uzbek and Russian: hidlamoq- hid taratmoq-нюхать—пахнут;, ta’m bilmoq- ta’mga ega bo’lmoq- пробовать на вкус—быть... на вкус; ushalb ko’rmoq- his qilmoq-ощущать — быть... на ощупь and etc. are transformed into English not by two appropriate verbs but by one:

Smell these flowers. Mana bu gullarni hidlab ko’r.-Понюхай эти цветы.

The coffee smells good. Qahva hushbo’y hid taratmoqda.-Кофе хорошо пахнет.

Taste the cake. – Pirogdan tatib ko’ring.-Попробуйте пирога.

How much better fresh food tastes than food that has come from tins! – Konserva bankalaridan chiqqan mahsulotlarga qaraganda yangi mahsulotlar qanchalik yahshi ta’mga ega.-Насколько же вкуснее свежие продукты, чем консервы!

These poodles must feel very cold. Bu pudellarga sovuq bo’sa kerak.-Этим пуделям, должно быть, очень холодно.

Her hands felt so soft. Uning qo’llari shunchalik yumshoq ediki.-Руки ее были такими мягкими.

 

Дата: 2019-05-29, просмотров: 129.